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RUSSIA
  • Introduction :: Russia
  • Background field listing

    Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power. The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991). The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin’s rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics.

    Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under the leadership of President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present) in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals, a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence, and commodity-based economic growth. Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

    RUSSIA SUMMARY: PDF
  • Geography :: Russia
  • Location field listing
    North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    60 00 N, 100 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Asia
    Area field listing
    total: 17,098,242 sq km
    land: 16,377,742 sq km
    water: 720,500 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Area - comparative field listing
    approximately 1.8 times the size of the US
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 22,408 km
    border countries (15): Azerbaijan 338 km, Belarus 1312 km, China (southeast) 4133 km, China (south) 46 km, Estonia 324 km, Finland 1309 km, Georgia 894 km, Kazakhstan 7644 km, North Korea 18 km, Latvia 332 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 261 km, Mongolia 3452 km, Norway 191 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Ukraine 1944 km
    Coastline field listing
    37,653 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate field listing
    ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
    Terrain field listing
    broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 600 m
    elevation extremes: -28 m lowest point: Caspian Sea
    5642 highest point: Gora El'brus (highest point in Europe)
    Natural resources field listing
    wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber, note, formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 13.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 7.3% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 5.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 49.4% (2011 est.)
    other: 37.5% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    43,000 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    population is heavily concentrated in the westernmost fifth of the country extending from the Baltic Sea, south to the Caspian Sea, and eastward parallel to the Kazakh border; elsewhere, sizeable pockets are isolated and generally found in the south
    Natural hazards field listing

    permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

    Environment - current issues field listing
    air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; nuclear waste; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
    Geography - note field listing

    note 1: largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture

    note 2: Russia's far east, particularly the Kamchatka Peninsula, lies along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

    note 3: Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak; Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is estimated to hold one fifth of the world's fresh surface water

    note 4: Kaliningrad oblast is an exclave annexed from Germany following World War II (it was formerly part of East Prussia); its capital city of Kaliningrad - formerly Koenigsberg - is the only Baltic port in Russia that remains ice free in the winter

  • People and Society :: Russia
  • Population field listing
    142,122,776 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Russian(s)
    adjective: Russian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9% (2010 est.)

    note: nearly 200 national and/or ethnic groups are represented in Russia's 2010 census

    Languages field listing
    Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1% (2010 est.)

    note: data represent native language spoken

    Religions field listing
    Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)

    note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule; Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as traditional religions

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 17.21% (male 12,566,314 /female 11,896,416)
    15-24 years: 9.41% (male 6,840,759 /female 6,530,991)
    25-54 years: 44.21% (male 30,868,831 /female 31,960,407)
    55-64 years: 14.51% (male 8,907,031 /female 11,709,921)
    65 years and over: 14.66% (male 6,565,308 /female 14,276,798) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 43.5 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 24.2 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 19.4 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 5.2 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 39.8 years
    male: 36.9 years
    female: 42.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Population growth rate field listing
    -0.11% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Birth rate field listing
    10.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Death rate field listing
    13.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Net migration rate field listing
    1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Population distribution field listing
    population is heavily concentrated in the westernmost fifth of the country extending from the Baltic Sea, south to the Caspian Sea, and eastward parallel to the Kazakh border; elsewhere, sizeable pockets are isolated and generally found in the south
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 74.4% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.18% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    12.41 million MOSCOW (capital), 5.383 million Saint Petersburg, 1.636 million Novosibirsk, 1.482 million Yekaterinburg, 1.264 million Nizhniy Novgorod, 1.164 million Samara (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.45 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    24.6 years (2009 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 6.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 7.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 71.3 years (2018 est.)
    male: 65.6 years (2018 est.)
    female: 77.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.61 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    68% (2011)

    note: percent of women aged 15-44

    Health expenditures field listing
    7.1% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Physicians density field listing
    3.98 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    8.2 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 98.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 91.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 96.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 1.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 8.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 77% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 58.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 72.2% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 23% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 41.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 27.8% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    1.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    1 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    NA
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: intermediate (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    23.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Education expenditures field listing
    3.8% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 99.7% (2015 est.)
    male: 99.7% (2015 est.)
    female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 15 years (2014)
    male: 15 years (2014)
    female: 15 years (2014)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 16.1% (2015 est.)
    male: 15.4% (2015 est.)
    female: 17% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
  • Government :: Russia
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Russian Federation
    conventional short form: Russia
    local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
    local short form: Rossiya
    former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
    etymology: Russian lands were generally referred to as Muscovy until PETER I officially declared the Russian Empire in 1721; the new name sought to invoke the patrimony of the medieval eastern European Rus state centered on Kyiv in present-day Ukraine; the Rus were a Varangian (eastern Viking) elite that imposed their rule and eventually their name on their Slavic subjects
    Government type field listing
    semi-presidential federation
    Capital field listing
    name: Moscow
    geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 36 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

    note: Russia has 11 time zones, the largest number of contiguous time zones of any country in the world; in 2014, two time zones were added and DST dropped

    Administrative divisions field listing

    46 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respubliki, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnyye okrugi, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (kraya, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')

    oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl';

    republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk);

    autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi-Yugra (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard);

    krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'sk [Transbaikal] (Chita);

    federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg];

    autonomous oblast: Yevreyskaya [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)

    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

    note: the United States does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the "Republic of Crimea" and the "Federal City of Sevastopol"

    Independence field listing
    25 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union; Russian SFSR renamed Russian Federation); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)
    National holiday field listing
    Russia Day, 12 June (1990); note - commemorates the adoption of the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous (during Russian Empire and Soviet era); latest drafted 12 July 1993, adopted by referendum 12 December 1993, effective 25 December 1993 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the president of the Russian Federation, by either house of the Federal Assembly, by the government of the Russian Federation, or by legislative (representative) bodies of the Federation's constituent entities; proposals to amend the government’s constitutional system, human and civil rights and freedoms, and procedures for amending or drafting a new constitution require formation of a Constitutional Assembly; passage of such amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of its total membership; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of valid votes; approval of proposed amendments to the government structure, authorities, and procedures requires approval by the legislative bodies of at least two-thirds of the Russian Federation's constituent entities; amended 2008, 2014 (2017)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Russia
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)
    head of government: Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Arkadiy Vladimirovich DVORKOVICH (since 21 May 2012), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Vitaliy Leontyevich MUTKO (since 19 October 2016), Dmitriy Olegovich ROGOZIN (since 23 December 2011), Sergey Eduardovich PRIKHODKO (since 22 May 2013); Yuriy Petrovich TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013)
    cabinet: the "Government" is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers, all appointed by the president; the premier is also confirmed by the Duma
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2024); note - term length extended to 6 years from 4 years in late 2008, effective after the 2012 election; there is no vice president; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
    election results: Vladimir PUTIN reelected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN (independent) 77.5%, Pavel GRUDININ (CPRF) 11.9%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY (LDPR) 5.7%, other 5.8%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV (United Russia) reapproved as premier by Duma on 8 May 2018; vote - 374 to 56

    note: there is also a Presidential Administration that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president

    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of:
    Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (170 seats; 2 members in each of the 83 federal administrative units (see note below) - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg - appointed by the top executive and legislative officials; members serve 4-year terms)
    State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats (see note below); as of February 2014, the electoral system reverted to a mixed electoral system for the 2016 election, in which one-half of the members are directly elected by simple majority vote and one-half directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    State Duma - last held on 18 September 2016 (next to be held in fall 2021)
    election results:
    State Duma - United Russia 54.2%, CPRF 13.3%, LDPR 13.1%, A Just Russia 6.2%, Rodina 1.5%, CP 0.2%, other minor parties 11.5%; seats by party - United Russia 343, CPRF 42, LDPR 39, A Just Russia 23, Rodina 1, CP 1, independent 1
    note: the State Duma now includes 3 representatives from the "Republic of Crimea," while the Federation Council includes 2 each from the "Republic of Crimea" and the "Federal City of Sevastopol," both regions that Russia occupied and attempted to annex from Ukraine and that the US does not recognize as part of Russia
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (consists of 170 members organized into the Judicial Panel for Civil Affairs, the Judicial Panel for Criminal Affairs, and the Military Panel); Constitutional Court (consists of 19 members); note - in February 2014, Russia’s Superior Court of Arbitration was abolished and its former authorities transferred to the Supreme Court, which in addition to being the country’s highest judicial authority for appeals, civil, criminal, administrative, and military cases, and the disciplinary judicial board now has jurisdiction over economic disputes
    judge selection and term of office: all members of Russia's 3 highest courts nominated by the president and appointed by the Federation Council (the upper house of the legislature); members of all 3 courts appointed for life
    subordinate courts: Higher Arbitration Court; regional (kray) and provincial (oblast) courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city courts; autonomous province and district courts; note - the 21 Russian Republics have court systems specified by their own constitutions
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]
    Civic Platform or CP [Rifat SHAYKHUTDINOV]
    Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]
    Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]
    Rodina [Aleksei ZHURAVLYOV]
    United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]

    note: 72 political parties are registered with Russia's Ministry of Justice (as of August 2017), but only six parties maintain representation in Russia's national legislature, and two of these only have one deputy apiece

    International organization participation field listing
    APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UN Security Council (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Anatoliy Ivanovich ANTONOV (since 8 September 2017)
    chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708
    FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
    consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, Seattle
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jon HUNTSMAN (since 3 October 2017)
    embassy: Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow
    mailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721
    telephone: [7] (495) 728-5000
    FAX: [7] (495) 728-5090
    consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red

    note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired several other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolors of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors

    National symbol(s) field listing
    bear, double-headed eagle; national colors: white, blue, red
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)
    lyrics/music: Sergey Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Aleksandr Vasilyevich ALEKSANDROV

    note: in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943

  • Economy :: Russia
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a centrally planned economy towards a more market-based system. Both economic growth and reform have stalled in recent years, however, and Russia remains a predominantly statist economy with a high concentration of wealth in officials' hands. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy, transportation, banking, and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak, and the state continues to interfere in the free operation of the private sector.

    Russia is one of the world's leading producers of oil and natural gas, and is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia is heavily dependent on the movement of world commodity prices as reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices. The economy, which had averaged 7% growth during the 1998-2008 period as oil prices rose rapidly, has seen diminishing growth rates since then due to the exhaustion of Russia’s commodity-based growth model.

    A combination of falling oil prices, international sanctions, and structural limitations pushed Russia into a deep recession in 2015, with GDP falling by close to 2.8%. The downturn continued through 2016, with GDP contracting another 0.2%, but was reversed in 2017 as world demand picked up. Government support for import substitution has increased recently in an effort to diversify the economy away from extractive industries.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $4.016 trillion (2017 est.)
    $3.955 trillion (2016 est.)
    $3.963 trillion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 6
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $1.578 trillion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    1.5% (2017 est.)
    -0.2% (2016 est.)
    -2.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $27,900 (2017 est.)
    $27,500 (2016 est.)
    $27,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 74
    Gross national saving field listing
    26.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    25.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    26.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 52.4% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 21.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 2.3% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 26.2% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -20.6% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 4.7% (2017 est.)
    industry: 32.4% (2017 est.)
    services: 62.3% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
    Industries field listing
    complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries (including radar, missile production, advanced electronic components), shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    -1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Labor force field listing
    76.53 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 63% (2016 est.)
    industry: 27.6% (2016 est.)
    services: 63% (2016 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    5.2% (2017 est.)
    5.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Population below poverty line field listing
    13.3% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 32.2% (2012 est.)
    highest 10%: 32.2% (2012 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    41.2 (2015)
    41.9 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 258.6 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 281.4 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    16.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -1.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Public debt field listing
    15.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 194
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    3.7% (2017 est.)
    7.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    10% (31 December 2016 est.)
    11% (3 August 2015)

    note: this is the so-called refinancing rate, but in Russia banks do not get refinancing at this rate; this is a reference rate used primarily for fiscal purposes

    country comparison to the world: 23
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    10.55% (31 December 2017 est.)
    12.59% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $255.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $195.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $255.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $195.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $940.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $827.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $635.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $393.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $385.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Current account balance field listing
    $35.44 billion (2017 est.)
    $24.4 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Exports field listing
    $353 billion (2017 est.)
    $281.9 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Exports - commodities field listing
    petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
    Exports - partners field listing
    China 10.9%, Netherlands 10%, Germany 7.1%, Belarus 5.1%, Turkey 4.9% (2017)
    Imports field listing
    $49.01 billion (2017 est.)
    $191.6 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $432.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $377.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 21.2%, Germany 10.7%, US 5.6%, Belarus 5%, Italy 4.5%, France 4.2% (2017)
    Debt - external field listing
    $539.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $434.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $535.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $461.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $470.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $418 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Exchange rates field listing
    Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar -
    58.39 (2017 est.)
    67.056 (2016 est.)
    67.056 (2015 est.)
    60.938 (2014 est.)
    38.378 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Russia
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    1.008 trillion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    890.1 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Electricity - exports field listing
    13.13 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Electricity - imports field listing
    3.194 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    263.5 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    70.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    9.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    19% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Crude oil - production field listing
    10.55 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    5.116 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    15,110 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    80 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    6.174 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    3.594 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    3.133 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    47,770 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Natural gas - production field listing
    598.6 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    418.9 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    197.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    18 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    47.8 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    1.756 billion Mt (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
  • Communications :: Russia
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 31,190,855 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 227,341,873 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 160 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: telecom sector impacted by sanctions related to the annexations in Ukraine; mobile market dominaed by four major operators; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to 255 million in 2016; fixed-line service has improved but a large demand remains (2016)
    domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low-density (2016)
    international: country code - 7; connected internationally by undersea fiber -optic cables; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2016)
    Broadcast media field listing
    13 national TV stations with the federal government owning 1 and holding a controlling interest in a second; state-owned Gazprom maintains a controlling interest in 2 of the national channels; government-affiliated Bank Rossiya owns controlling interest in a fourth and fifth, while a sixth national channel is owned by the Moscow city administration; the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian military, respectively, own 2 additional national channels; roughly 3,300 national, regional, and local TV stations with over two-thirds completely or partially controlled by the federal or local governments; satellite TV services are available; 2 state-run national radio networks with a third majority-owned by Gazprom; roughly 2,400 public and commercial radio stations (2016)
    Internet country code field listing
    .ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain ".su" that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out
    Internet users field listing
    total: 108,772,470 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 76.4% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 30,872,788 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
  • Transportation :: Russia
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 32 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 661 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 76,846,126 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,761,047,070 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    RA (2016)
    Airports field listing
    1,218 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 594 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 54 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 197 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 123 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 95 (2017)
    under 914 m: 125 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 624 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 4 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 13 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 69 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 81 (2013)
    under 914 m: 457 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    49 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    177700 km gas, 54800 km oil, 19300 km refined products (2016)
    Railways field listing
    total: 87,157 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island) (2014)
    broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified) (2014)

    note: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries

    country comparison to the world: 3
    Roadways field listing
    total: 1,283,387 km (2012)
    paved: 927,721 km (includes 39,143 km of expressways) (2012)
    unpaved: 355,666 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Waterways field listing
    102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000-km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea) (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 2,572 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 16, container ship 13, general cargo 874, oil tanker 411, other 1258 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Kaliningrad, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Primorsk, Vostochnyy
    oil terminal(s): Kavkaz oil terminal
    container port(s) (TEUs): Saint Petersburg (1,457,800) (2016)
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Sakhalin Island
    river port(s): Saint Petersburg (Neva River)
  • Military and Security :: Russia
  • Military expenditures field listing
    5.4% of GDP (2016)
    4.86% of GDP (2015)
    4.1% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Military branches field listing
    Ground Troops (Sukhoputnyye Voyskia, SV), Navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, VMF), Aerospace Forces (Vozdushno-Kosmicheskiye Sily, VKS); Airborne Troops (Vozdushno-Desantnyye Voyska, VDV) and Missile Troops of Strategic Purpose (Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniya, RVSN) referred to commonly as Strategic Rocket Forces, are independent "combat arms," not subordinate to any of the three branches (2017)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; 1-year service obligation (conscripts can only be sent to combat zones after 6 months of training); reserve obligation for non-officers to age 50; enrollment in military schools from the age of 16, cadets classified as members of the armed forces (2015)

    note: the chief of the General Staff Mobilization Directorate announced in March 2015 that for health reasons, only 76% of draftees called up during the spring 2015 draft campaign were fit for military service

  • Terrorism :: Russia
  • Terrorist groups - home based field listing
    The Caucasus Emirate (Imarat Kavkaz, IK):
    aim(s): establish an Islamic caliphate and end Moscow’s rule in the majority-Muslim North Caucasus region
    area(s) of operation:
    the North Caucasus, primarily Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetiya, Kabardino-Balkaria, and Karachay-Cherkessia
    note: most IK members switched allegiance to ISIS in 2015 (April 2018)
    Terrorist groups - foreign based field listing
    Aum Shinrikyo (AUM):
    aim(s): attract new members seeking religious guidance and exhibiting a willingness to financially support the organization
    area(s) of operation: between 1,500 and 30,000 AUM members live across Russia; recruitment efforts have intensified in recent years (April 2018)
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham-Caucasus (ISIS-Caucasus):
    aim(s): implement its strict interpretation of sharia in Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, and Kabardino-Balkariya; retaliate for Russian involvement in the Syria conflict
    area(s) of operation: operational in the Russian North Caucasus, where the branch is known as Wilayat Kavkaz; recruits mainly from Central Asian migrant populations across Russia for domestic operations (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Russia
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countriesChina and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputesthe sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilitiesRussia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with GeorgiaAzerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the seaNorway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demandsRussia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of TartuRussia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty textRussia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Russia remains involved in the conflict in eastern Ukraine while also occupying Ukraine’s territory of Crimea

    Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules applypreparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commencedthe dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by RussiaKazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the USDenmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 427,240 (Ukraine) (2017) note - estimate represents asylum applicants since the beginning of the Ukraine crisis in 2014 to September 2017
    IDPs: 19,000 (armed conflict, human rights violations, generalized violence in North Caucasus, particularly Chechnya and North Ossetia) (2017)
    stateless persons: 82,148 (2017); note - Russia's stateless population consists of Roma, Meskhetian Turks, and ex-Soviet citizens from the former republics; between 2003 and 2010 more than 600,000 stateless people were naturalized; most Meskhetian Turks, followers of Islam with origins in Georgia, fled or were evacuated from Uzbekistan after a 1989 pogrom and have lived in Russia for more than the required five-year residency period; they continue to be denied registration for citizenship and basic rights by local Krasnodar Krai authorities on the grounds that they are temporary illegal migrants
    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; with millions of foreign workers, forced labor is Russia’s predominant human trafficking problem and sometimes involves organized crime syndicates; workers from Russia, other European countries, Central Asia, and East and Southeast Asia, including North Korea and Vietnam, are subjected to forced labor in the construction, manufacturing, agricultural, textile, grocery store, maritime, and domestic service industries, as well as in forced begging, waste sorting, and street sweeping; women and children from Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Central Asia are subject to sex trafficking in Russia; Russian women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in Northeast Asia, Europe, Central Asia, Africa, the US, and the Middle East
    tier rating: Tier 3 - Russia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making a significant effort to do so; prosecutions of trafficking offenders remained low in comparison to the scope of Russia’s trafficking problem; the government did not develop or employ a formal system for identifying trafficking victims or referring them to protective services, although authorities reportedly assisted a limited number of victims on an ad hoc basis; foreign victims, the largest group in Russia, were not entitled to state-provided rehabilitative services and were routinely detained and deported; the government has not reported investigating reports of slave-like conditions among North Korean workers in Russia; authorities have made no effort to reduce the demand for forced labor or to develop public awareness of forced labor or sex trafficking (2015)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates