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SPAIN
  • Introduction :: Spain
  • Background field listing

    Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World War I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently Spain has emerged from a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008, posting three straight years of GDP growth above the EU average. Unemployment has fallen, but remains high especially among youth. Spain is the Eurozone's fourth largest economy. In October 2017, the Catalan regional government conducted an illegal independence referendum and declared independence from Madrid. In response, the Spanish Government partially suspended Catalonia's autonomy and the international community has not recognized Catalonia's unilateral declaration of independence.

    SPAIN SUMMARY: PDF
  • Geography :: Spain
  • Location field listing
    Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    40 00 N, 4 00 W
    Map references field listing
    Europe
    Area field listing
    total: 505,370 sq km
    land: 498,980 sq km
    water: 6,390 sq km

    note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

    country comparison to the world: 53
    Area - comparative field listing
    almost five times the size of Kentucky; slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 1,952.7 km
    border countries (6): Andorra 63 km, France 646 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1224 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 8 km, Morocco (Melilla) 10.5 km

    note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera

    Coastline field listing
    4,964 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    Climate field listing
    temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
    Terrain field listing
    large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 660 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    3718 highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands
    Natural resources field listing
    coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 54.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 24.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 9.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 20.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 36.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 9.1% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    38,000 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    with the notable exception of Madrid, Sevilla, and Zaragoza, the largest urban agglomerations are found along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts; numerous smaller cities are spread throughout the interior reflecting Spain's agrarian heritage; dense settlement is found around the capital of Madrid, as well as the port city of Barcelona
    Natural hazards field listing

    periodic droughts, occasional flooding

    volcanism: volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (3,715 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano

    Environment - current issues field listing
    pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
    Geography - note field listing
    strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas
  • People and Society :: Spain
  • Population field listing
    49,331,076 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Spaniard(s)
    adjective: Spanish
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Spanish 86.4%, Morocco 1.8%, Romania 1.3%, other 10.5% (2018 est.)
    note: data represent population by country of birth
    Languages field listing
    Castilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian)) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran) along with Catalan, <5,000 speakers)

    note: Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

    Religions field listing
    Roman Catholic 70.2%, atheist 9.9%, other 2.6%, non-believer 15.1%, unspecified 2.1% (2016 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 15.29% (male 3,879,229 /female 3,664,016)
    15-24 years: 9.65% (male 2,458,486 /female 2,299,523)
    25-54 years: 44.54% (male 11,208,598 /female 10,762,651)
    55-64 years: 12.38% (male 2,980,206 /female 3,125,949)
    65 years and over: 18.15% (male 3,833,601 /female 5,118,817) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 51 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 22.5 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 28.5 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 3.5 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 43.1 years
    male: 41.9 years
    female: 44.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.73% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Birth rate field listing
    9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Death rate field listing
    9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Net migration rate field listing
    7.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Population distribution field listing
    with the notable exception of Madrid, Sevilla, and Zaragoza, the largest urban agglomerations are found along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts; numerous smaller cities are spread throughout the interior reflecting Spain's agrarian heritage; dense settlement is found around the capital of Madrid, as well as the port city of Barcelona
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 80.3% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.33% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

    note: data include Canary Islands, Ceuta, and Melilla

    Major urban areas - population field listing
    6.497 million MADRID (capital), 5.494 million Barcelona, 830,000 Valencia (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    30.7 years (2015 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 81.8 years (2018 est.)
    male: 78.8 years (2018 est.)
    female: 85 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.5 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    70.9% (2016)
    Health expenditures field listing
    9% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Physicians density field listing
    3.87 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    3 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 99.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    150,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    NA
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    23.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Education expenditures field listing
    4.3% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
    total population: 98.3% (2016 est.)
    male: 98.8% (2016 est.)
    female: 97.7% (2016 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 18 years (2015)
    male: 18 years (2015)
    female: 18 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 38.6% (2017 est.)
    male: 39.5% (2017 est.)
    female: 37.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
  • Government :: Spain
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
    conventional short form: Spain
    local long form: Reino de Espana
    local short form: Espana
    etymology: derivation of the name "Espana" is uncertain, but may come from the Phoenician term "span," related to the word "spy," meaning "to forge metals," so, "i-spn-ya" would mean "place where metals are forged"; the ancient Phoenicians long exploited the Iberian Peninsula for its mineral wealth
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    Capital field listing
    name: Madrid
    geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

    note: Spain has two time zones, including the Canary Islands (UTC 0)

    Administrative divisions field listing
    17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]

    note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)

    Independence field listing
    1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
    National holiday field listing
    National Day (Hispanic Day), 12 October (1492); note - commemorates COLUMBUS' arrival in the Americas
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1812; latest approved by the General Courts 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978 (2016)
    amendments: proposed by the government, by the General Courts (the Congress or the Senate), or by the self-governing communities submitted through the government; passage requires three-fifths majority vote by both houses and passage by referendum if requested by one-tenth of members of either house; proposals disapproved by both houses are submitted to a joint committee, which submits an agreed upon text for another vote; passage requires two-thirds vote in Congress and simple majority vote in the Senate; amended 1992, 2007, 2011 (2016)
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Spain
    dual citizenship recognized: only with select Latin American countries
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years for persons with no ties to Spain
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias (daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005)
    head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister-equivalent) Pedro SANCHEZ Perez-Castejon (since 2 June 2018); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Maria del Carmen CALVO Poyato (since 7 June 2018); note - Prime Minister RAJOY was ousted in a non-confidence vote on 1 June 2018
    cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes as president the leader of the party or coalition with the largest majority of seats, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 26 June 2016 (next to be held in June 2020); vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    election results: percent of National Assembly vote - NA

    note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding

    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of:
    Senate or Senado (266 seats; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 58 members indirectly elected by the legislatures of the autonomouse communities; members serve 4-year terms)
    Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)
    elections:
    Senate - last held on 26 June 2016 (next to be held no later than June 2020)
    Congress of Deputies - last held on 26 June 2016 (next to be held no later than June 2020)
    election results:
    Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 149, PSOE 62, Unidos Podemos 20, ERC 12, EAJ/PNV 6, other 17; composition - men 165, women 101, percent of women 38%
    Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 33%, PSOE 22.7%, Podemos 21.1%, C's 13%, ERC-CatSi 2.6%, EAJ/PNV 1.2%, other 6.4%; seats by party - PP 134, PSOE 84, Podemos 67, C's 32, ERC-CatSi 9, EAJ/PNV 5, other 19; composition - men 213, women 137, percent of women 38.6%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room with a president and 9 judges, the Penal Room with a president and 14 judges, the Administrative Room with a president and 32 judges, the Social Room with a president and 12 judges, and the Military Room with a president and 7 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judiciary Power, a 20-member governing board chaired by the monarch that includes presidential appointees, and lawyers and jurists confirmed by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Assembly, executive branch, and the General Council of the Judiciary, and appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: National High Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Asturias Forum or FAC [Cristina COTO]
    Basque Country Unite (Euskal Herria Bildu) or EH Bildu [Arnaldo OTEGI Mondragon] (coalition of 4 Basque pro-independence parties)
    Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Andoni ORTUZAR]
    Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriguez] (coalition of 5 parties)
    Canarian Nationalist Party or PNC [Juan Manuel GARCIA Ramos]
    Catalan European Democratic Party or PDeCat [Artur MAS] (formerly Democratic Convergence of Catalonia)
    Ciudadanos Party or C's [Albert RIVERA]
    Compromis [Eric MORERA i Catala]
    Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Ana PONTON Mondelo]
    Gomera Socialist Group or ASG [Casimiro CURBELO]
    Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres and Dolors CAMATS]
    Unidos Podemos [Pablo IGLESIAS Turrion] (formerly Podemos IU; electoral coalition formed for May 2016 election)
    Popular Party or PP [Pablo CASADO]
    Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies]
    Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Pedro SANCHEZ]
    Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Javier ESPARZA]
    Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Cristiano BROWN]
    United Left or IU [Alberto GARZON] (coalition includes Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties; ran as Popular Unity or UP in 2016 election)
    Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [Uxue BARKOS] (coalition include 4 Navarran parties)
    International organization participation field listing
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Santiago CABANAS Ansorena (since 17 September 2018)
    chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
    telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
    FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
    consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
    consulate(s): Kansas City (MO)
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Richard BUCHAN (since December 2017) note - also accredited to Andorra
    embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
    mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642
    telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
    FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
    consulate(s) general: Barcelona
    Flag description field listing
    three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of "Plus Ultra" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century

    note: the red and yellow colors are related to those of the oldest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre

    National symbol(s) field listing
    Pillars of Hercules; national colors: red, yellow
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Himno Nacional Espanol" (National Anthem of Spain)
    lyrics/music: no lyrics/unknown

    note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as "Marcha Real" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by "Himno de Riego" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events

  • Economy :: Spain
  • Economy - overview field listing

    After a prolonged recession that began in 2008 in the wake of the global financial crisis, Spain marked the fourth full year of positive economic growth in 2017, with economic activity surpassing its pre-crisis peak, largely because of increased private consumption. The financial crisis of 2008 broke 16 consecutive years of economic growth for Spain, leading to an economic contraction that lasted until late 2013. In that year, the government successfully shored up its struggling banking sector - heavily exposed to the collapse of Spain’s real estate boom - with the help of an EU-funded restructuring and recapitalization program.

    Until 2014, contraction in bank lending, fiscal austerity, and high unemployment constrained domestic consumption and investment. The unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to more than 26% in 2013, but labor reforms prompted a modest reduction to 16.4% in 2017. High unemployment strained Spain's public finances, as spending on social benefits increased while tax revenues fell. Spain’s budget deficit peaked at 11.4% of GDP in 2010, but Spain gradually reduced the deficit to about 3.3% of GDP in 2017. Public debt has increased substantially – from 60.1% of GDP in 2010 to nearly 96.7% in 2017.

    Strong export growth helped bring Spain's current account into surplus in 2013 for the first time since 1986 and sustain Spain’s economic growth. Increasing labor productivity and an internal devaluation resulting from moderating labor costs and lower inflation have improved Spain’s export competitiveness and generated foreign investor interest in the economy, restoring FDI flows.

    In 2017, the Spanish Government’s minority status constrained its ability to implement controversial labor, pension, health care, tax, and education reforms. The European Commission expects the government to meet its 2017 budget deficit target and anticipates that expected economic growth in 2018 will help the government meet its deficit target. Spain’s borrowing costs are dramatically lower since their peak in mid-2012, and increased economic activity has generated a modest level of inflation, at 2% in 2017.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $1.778 trillion (2017 est.)
    $1.727 trillion (2016 est.)
    $1.674 trillion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 15
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $1.314 trillion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    3% (2017 est.)
    3.2% (2016 est.)
    3.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $38,400 (2017 est.)
    $37,200 (2016 est.)
    $36,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 49
    Gross national saving field listing
    23% of GDP (2017 est.)
    22.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    21.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 57.7% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 20.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.6% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 34.1% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -31.4% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 2.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 23.2% (2017 est.)
    services: 74.2% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
    Industries field listing
    textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Labor force field listing
    22.75 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 4.2%
    industry: 24%
    services: 71.7% (2009)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    17.2% (2017 est.)
    19.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Population below poverty line field listing
    21.1% (2012 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 24% (2011)
    highest 10%: 24% (2011)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    35.9 (2012)
    32 (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 498.1 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 539 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    37.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -3.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Public debt field listing
    98.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    99% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    2% (2017 est.)
    -0.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    0.05% (10 September 2014)
    0.25% (13 November 2013)

    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

    country comparison to the world: 146
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    2.03% (31 December 2017 est.)
    2.19% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $1.088 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $841.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

    country comparison to the world: 7
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $1.088 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $841.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $2.491 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.21 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $787.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $992.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.117 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Current account balance field listing
    $24.74 billion (2017 est.)
    $23.77 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Exports field listing
    $313.7 billion (2017 est.)
    $280.5 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Exports - partners field listing
    France 15.1%, Germany 11.3%, Italy 7.8%, Portugal 7.1%, UK 6.9%, US 4.4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
    Imports field listing
    $338.6 billion (2017 est.)
    $300.2 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi-finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
    Imports - partners field listing
    Germany 14.2%, France 11.9%, China 6.9%, Italy 6.8%, Netherlands 5.1%, UK 4% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $69.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $63.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Debt - external field listing
    $2.094 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.963 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $824.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $739.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $776.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $696.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Exchange rates field listing
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.7525 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Spain
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    258.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    239.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Electricity - exports field listing
    14.18 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Electricity - imports field listing
    21.85 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    105.9 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    47% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    32% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Crude oil - production field listing
    2,252 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    1.325 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    150 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    1.361 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    1.296 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    562,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    464,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Natural gas - production field listing
    36.81 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    31.27 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    2.888 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    34.63 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    286.7 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
  • Communications :: Spain
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 19,680,973 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 40 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 52,484,655 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: well-developed, modern facilities (2016)
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 145 telephones per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2016)
    Broadcast media field listing
    a mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations; overall, hundreds of radio stations (2008)
    Internet country code field listing
    .es
    Internet users field listing
    total: 39,123,384 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 80.6% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 14,473,888 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
  • Transportation :: Spain
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 20 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 414 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 60,809,228 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,040,913,279 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    EC (2016)
    Airports field listing
    150 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 99 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 18 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 14 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 19 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 24 (2013)
    under 914 m: 24 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 51 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 13 (2013)
    under 914 m: 36 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    10 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    10481 km gas, 616 km oil, 3461 km refined products (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 16,102 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 2,312 km 1.435-m gauge (2,312 km electrified) (2014)
    narrow gauge: 1,884.9 km 1.000-m gauge (807 km electrified) (2014)
    broad gauge: 11,873 km 1.668-m gauge (6,488 km electrified) (2014)
    28 0.914-m gauge (28 km electrified) 3.6 0.600-m gauge
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Roadways field listing
    total: 683,175 km (2011)
    paved: 683,175 km (includes 16,205 km of expressways) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Waterways field listing
    1,000 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 472 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 44, oil tanker 28, other 399 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (all in Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in the Canary Islands)
    container port(s) (TEUs): Algeciras (4,761,428), Barcelona (2,236,960), Valencia (4,722,000) (2016)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Mugardos, Sagunto
  • Military and Security :: Spain
  • Military expenditures field listing
    0.91% of GDP (2017)
    1.21% of GDP (2016)
    1.18% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Military branches field listing
    Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE, includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-26 years of age for voluntary military service by a Spanish citizen or legal immigrant, 2-3 year obligation; women allowed to serve in all SAF branches, including combat units; no conscription, but Spanish Government retains right to mobilize citizens 19-25 years of age in a national emergency; mandatory retirement of non-NCO enlisted personnel at age 45 or 58, depending on service length (2013)
  • Terrorism :: Spain
  • Terrorist groups - home based field listing
    Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA):
    aim(s): establish an independent Basque homeland in northern Spain and southwestern France based on Marxist principles
    area(s) of operation: headquartered in northern Spain, reportedly disarmed in 2017 (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Spain
  • Disputes - international field listing
    in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomyafter voters in the UK chose to leave the EU in a June 2016 referendum, Spain again proposed shared sovereignty of Gibraltar; UK officials rejected Spain’s joint sovereignty proposalMorocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island)Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North AfricaPortugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 8,205 (Afghanistan) (2016), 29,603 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay), 9,260 (Ukraine) (2018) note - estimate represents asylum applicants since the beginning of the Ukraine crisis in 2014 to September 2017
    stateless persons: 1,596 (2017)

    note: 119,207 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-November 2018); 28,707 migrant arrivals in 2017

    Illicit drugs field listing
    despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime