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East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Vietnam Print
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  • Introduction :: Vietnam
  • Background field listing
    The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the communist North and anti-communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies, the persecution and mass exodus of individuals - many of them successful South Vietnamese merchants - and growing international isolation. However, since the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986, Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The communist leaders maintain tight control on political expression but have demonstrated some modest steps toward better protection of human rights. The country continues to experience small-scale protests, the vast majority connected to either land-use issues, calls for increased political space, or the lack of equitable mechanisms for resolving disputes. The small-scale protests in the urban areas are often organized by human rights activists, but many occur in rural areas and involve various ethnic minorities such as the Montagnards of the Central Highlands, Hmong in the Northwest Highlands, and the Khmer Krom in the southern delta region.
  • Geography :: Vietnam
  • Location field listing
    Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, as well as China, Laos, and Cambodia
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    16 10 N, 107 50 E
    Map references field listing
    Southeast Asia
    Area field listing
    total: 331,210 sq km
    land: 310,070 sq km
    water: 21,140 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Area - comparative field listing
    about three times the size of Tennessee; slightly larger than New Mexico
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 4,616 km
    border countries (3): Cambodia 1158 km, China 1297 km, Laos 2161 km
    Coastline field listing
    3,444 km (excludes islands)
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    Climate field listing
    tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
    Terrain field listing
    low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 398 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: South China Sea
    3144 highest point: Fan Si Pan
    Natural resources field listing
    antimony, phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower, arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 34.8% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 20.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 12.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 2.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 45% (2011 est.)
    other: 20.2% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    46,000 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    though it has one of the highest population densities in the world, the population is not evenly dispersed; clustering is heaviest along the South China Sea and Gulf of Tonkin, with the Mekong Delta (in the south) and the Red River Valley (in the north) having the largest concentrations of people
    Natural hazards field listing
    occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
    Environment - current issues field listing
    logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; air pollution; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
  • People and Society :: Vietnam
  • Population field listing
    97,040,334 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Vietnamese
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, Hoa 1%, other 4.3% (2009 est.)

    note: 54 ethnic groups are recognized by the Vietnamese Government

    Languages field listing
    Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
    Religions field listing
    Buddhist 7.9%, Catholic 6.6%, Hoa Hao 1.7%, Cao Dai 0.9%, Protestant 0.9%, Muslim 0.1%, none 81.8% (2009 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 23.27% (male 11,876,141 /female 10,704,895)
    15-24 years: 15.81% (male 7,967,981 /female 7,371,016)
    25-54 years: 45.67% (male 22,378,768 /female 21,939,925)
    55-64 years: 8.9% (male 4,014,622 /female 4,620,177)
    65 years and over: 6.35% (male 2,404,304 /female 3,762,505) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 42.5 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 32.9 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 10.4 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 30.9 years
    male: 29.9 years
    female: 32.1 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.9% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Birth rate field listing
    15.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Death rate field listing
    5.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Net migration rate field listing
    -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Population distribution field listing
    though it has one of the highest population densities in the world, the population is not evenly dispersed; clustering is heaviest along the South China Sea and Gulf of Tonkin, with the Mekong Delta (in the south) and the Red River Valley (in the north) having the largest concentrations of people
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 35.9% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 2.98% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    8.145 million Ho Chi Minh City, 1.444 million Da Nang, 1.219 million Hai Phong, 1.175 million Can Tho, 1.075 million Haiphong, 1.064 million HANOI (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    54 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 17.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 73.9 years (2018 est.)
    male: 71.4 years (2018 est.)
    female: 76.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.79 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    75.7% (2015)
    Health expenditures field listing
    7.1% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Physicians density field listing
    0.82 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    2.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 99.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 96.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 97.6% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 94.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 69.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 78% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 5.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 30.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 22% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    250,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    8,600 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    2.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    14.1% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Education expenditures field listing
    5.7% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 94.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 96.3% (2015 est.)
    female: 92.8% (2015 est.)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 7.2% (2016 est.)
    male: 7.1% (2016 est.)
    female: 7.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
  • Government :: Vietnam
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
    conventional short form: Vietnam
    local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam
    local short form: Viet Nam
    abbreviation: SRV
    etymology: "Viet nam" translates as "Viet south," where "Viet" is an ethnic self identification dating to a second century B.C. kingdom and "nam" refers to its location in relation to other Viet kingdoms
    Government type field listing
    communist state
    Capital field listing
    name: Hanoi (Ha Noi)
    geographic coordinates: 21 02 N, 105 51 E
    time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions field listing

    58 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thanh pho, singular and plural)

    provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Tinh, Hai Duong, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai;

    municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Ha Noi (Hanoi), Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

    Independence field listing
    2 September 1945 (from France)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day (National Day), 2 September (1945)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest adopted 15 April 1992, effective 1 January 1995 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the president, by the National Assembly’s Standing Committee, or supported by at least two-thirds of the National Assembly membership; a decision to draft an amendment requires approval by at least a two-thirds majority of the Assembly membership, followed by the formation of a constitutional drafting committee to write a draft and collect citizens’ opinions; passage requires at least two-thirds majority of the Assembly membership; the Assembly can opt to conduct a referendum; amended 2001, 2013 (2018)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Vietnam
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Nguyen Phu TRONG (since 23 October 2018); note - President Tran Dai QUANG (since 2 April 2016) died on 21 September 2018
    head of government: Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan PHUC (since 7 April 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Truong Hoa BINH (since 9 April 2016), Vuong Dinh HUE (since 9 April 2016), Vu Duc DAM (since 13 November 2013), Trinh Dinh DUNG (since 9 April 2016), Pham Binh MINH (since 13 November 2013)
    cabinet: Cabinet proposed by prime minister, appointed by the president, and confirmed by the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National Assembly from among its members for a single 5-year term; election last held on 2 April 2016 (next to be held in spring 2021); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly, confirmed by National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister, confirmed by National Assembly
    election results: Nguyen Phu TRONG (CPV) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 99.8%; Nguyen Xuan PHUC elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 91%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Quoc Hoi (500 seats; members directly elected by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 22 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2021)
    election results: percent of vote by party - CPV 95.8%, non-party members 4.2%; seats by party - CPV 473, non-party CPV-approved 19, self-nominated 2; note - 496 candidates elected, 2 CPV candidates-elect were disqualified
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme People's Court (consists of the chief justice and 13 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president for a 5-year, renewable term; other judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and labor courts; Central Military Court; People's Special Courts; note - the National Assembly can establish special tribunals
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nguyen Phu TRONG]

    note: other parties proscribed

    International organization participation field listing
    ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ha Kim NGOC (since 17 September 2018)
    chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737
    FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917
    consulate(s) general: Houston, San Francisco
    consulate(s): New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel KRITENBRINK (since 6 November 2017)
    embassy: 7 Lang Ha Street, Hanoi
    mailing address: 7 Lang Ha Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi; 4550 Hanoi Place, Washington, DC 20521-4550
    telephone: [84] (24) 3850-5000
    FAX: [84] (24) 3850-5010
    consulate(s) general: Ho Chi Minh City
    Flag description field listing
    red field with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center; red symbolizes revolution and blood, the five-pointed star represents the five elements of the populace - peasants, workers, intellectuals, traders, and soldiers - that unite to build socialism
    National symbol(s) field listing
    yellow, five-pointed star on red field; lotus blossom; national colors: red, yellow
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Tien quan ca" (The Song of the Marching Troops)
    lyrics/music: Nguyen Van CAO

    note: adopted as the national anthem of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945; it became the national anthem of the unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976; although it consists of two verses, only the first is used as the official anthem

  • Economy :: Vietnam
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Vietnam is a densely populated developing country that has been transitioning since 1986 from the rigidities of a centrally planned, highly agrarian economy to a more industrial and market based economy, and it has raised incomes substantially. Vietnam exceeded its 2017 GDP growth target of 6.7% with growth of 6.8%, primarily due to unexpected increases in domestic demand, and strong manufacturing exports.

    Vietnam has a young population, stable political system, commitment to sustainable growth, relatively low inflation, stable currency, strong FDI inflows, and strong manufacturing sector. In addition, the country is committed to continuing its global economic integration. Vietnam joined the WTO in January 2007 and concluded several free trade agreements in 2015-16, including the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (which the EU has not yet ratified), the Korean Free Trade Agreement, and the Eurasian Economic Union Free Trade Agreement. In 2017, Vietnam successfully chaired the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Conference with its key priorities including inclusive growth, innovation, strengthening small and medium enterprises, food security, and climate change. Seeking to diversify its opportunities, Vietnam also signed the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for the Transpacific Partnership in 2018 and continued to pursue the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership.

    To continue its trajectory of strong economic growth, the government acknowledges the need to spark a ‘second wave’ of reforms, including reforming state-owned-enterprises, reducing red tape, increasing business sector transparency, reducing the level of non-performing loans in the banking sector, and increasing financial sector transparency. Vietnam’s public debt to GDP ratio is nearing the government mandated ceiling of 65%.

    In 2016, Vietnam cancelled its civilian nuclear energy development program, citing public concerns about safety and the high cost of the program; it faces growing pressure on energy infrastructure. Overall, the country’s infrastructure fails to meet the needs of an expanding middle class. Vietnam has demonstrated a commitment to sustainable growth over the last several years, but despite the recent speed-up in economic growth the government remains cautious about the risk of external shocks.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $648.7 billion (2017 est.)
    $607.4 billion (2016 est.)
    $571.9 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 35
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $220.4 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    6.8% (2017 est.)
    6.2% (2016 est.)
    6.7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $6,900 (2017 est.)
    $6,600 (2016 est.)
    $6,200 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 159
    Gross national saving field listing
    29% of GDP (2017 est.)
    29.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    27.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 66.9% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 6.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 24.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 2.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 100% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -101% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 15.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 33.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 51.3% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; pork; poultry; seafood
    Industries field listing
    food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Labor force field listing
    54.8 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 40.3%
    industry: 25.7%
    services: 34% (2017)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    2.2% (2017 est.)
    2.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Population below poverty line field listing
    8% (2017 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 26.8% (2014)
    highest 10%: 26.8% (2014)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    34.8 (2014)
    37.6 (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 54.59 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 69.37 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    24.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -6.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Public debt field listing
    58.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    59.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: official data; data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 76
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    3.5% (2017 est.)
    2.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    4.25% (7 October 2017)
    15% (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    7.07% (31 December 2017 est.)
    6.96% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $85.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $73.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $85.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $73.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $313 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $277.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $156.7 billion (29 December 2017 est.)
    $87.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $52.39 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Current account balance field listing
    $5.401 billion (2017 est.)
    $5.924 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Exports field listing
    $214.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $176.6 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Exports - partners field listing
    US 20.1%, China 14.5%, Japan 8%, South Korea 6.8% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    clothes, shoes, electronics, seafood, crude oil, rice, coffee, wooden products, machinery
    Imports field listing
    $202.6 billion (2017 est.)
    $162.6 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and shoe industries, electronics, plastics, automobiles
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 25.8%, South Korea 20.5%, Japan 7.8%, Thailand 4.9% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $49.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $36.91 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Debt - external field listing
    $96.58 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $84.34 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $129.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $293.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $19.75 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $18.97 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Exchange rates field listing
    dong (VND) per US dollar -
    22,425 (2017 est.)
    22,159 (2016 est.)
    22,355 (2015 est.)
    21,909 (2014 est.)
    21,189 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Vietnam
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 2.6 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 99% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 100% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 98% (2013)
    Electricity - production field listing
    158.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    143.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Electricity - exports field listing
    713 million kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Electricity - imports field listing
    2.733 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    40.77 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    56% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    43% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Crude oil - production field listing
    271,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    324,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    153,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    438,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    25,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    282,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Natural gas - production field listing
    8.098 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    8.098 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    699.4 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    235.3 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
  • Communications :: Vietnam
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 4,526,077 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 120,016,181 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system (2016)
    domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly (2016)
    international: country code - 84; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3, the C2C, and Thailand-Vietnam-Hong Kong submarine cable systems; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable system, completed in 2009, provided new access links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2016)
    Broadcast media field listing
    government controls all broadcast media exercising oversight through the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC); government-controlled national TV provider, Vietnam Television (VTV), operates a network of several channels with regional broadcasting centers; programming is relayed nationwide via a network of provincial and municipal TV stations; law limits access to satellite TV but many households are able to access foreign programming via home satellite equipment; government-controlled Voice of Vietnam, the national radio broadcaster, broadcasts on several channels and is repeated on AM, FM, and shortwave stations throughout Vietnam (2018)
    Internet country code field listing
    .vn
    Internet users field listing
    total: 49.741 million (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 52.7% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 11,269,936 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
  • Transportation :: Vietnam
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 140 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 29,944,771 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 384,470,240 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    VN (2016)
    Airports field listing
    45 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 38 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 10 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 7 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    72 km condensate, 398 km condensate/gas, 955 km gas, 128 km oil, 33 km oil/gas/water, 206 km refined products, 13 km water (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 2,600 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 178 km 1.435-m gauge; 253 km mixed gauge (2014)
    narrow gauge: 2,169 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Roadways field listing
    total: 195,468 km (2013)
    paved: 148,338 km (2013)
    unpaved: 47,130 km (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Waterways field listing
    47,130 km (30,831 km weight under 50 tons) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 1,818 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 81, container ship 34, general cargo 1259, oil tanker 109, other 335 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Cam Pha Port, Da Nang, Haiphong, Phu My, Quy Nhon
    container port(s) (TEUs): Saigon (5,986,747) (2016)
    river port(s): Ho Chi Minh (Mekong)
  • Military and Security :: Vietnam
  • Military expenditures field listing
    2.44% of GDP (2016)
    2.36% of GDP (2015)
    2.29% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Military branches field listing
    People's Armed Forces: People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN, includes Vietnam People's Navy (with Naval Infantry), Vietnam People's Air and Air Defense Force, Border Defense Command, Coast Guard) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-25 years of age for male compulsory and voluntary military service; females may volunteer for active duty military service; conscription typically takes place twice annually and service obligation is 18 months (Army, Air Defense), 2 years (Navy and Air Force); 18-45 years of age (male) or 18-40 years of age (female) for Militia Force or Self Defense Force service; males may enroll in military schools at age 17 (2013)
    Maritime threats field listing
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift; the number of reported incidents declined from nine in 2016 to two in 2017, primarily near the port of Vung Tau
  • Transnational Issues :: Vietnam
  • Disputes - international field listing
    southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian fluCambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along borderCambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activitiesprogress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islandsan estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in Chinaestablishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islandsthe decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and TaiwanBrunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reefthe 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputantsVietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islandsin March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly IslandsEconomic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    stateless persons: 29,522 (2017); note - Vietnam's stateless ethnic Chinese Cambodian population dates to the 1970s when thousands of Cambodians fled to Vietnam to escape the Khmer Rouge and were no longer recognized as Cambodian citizens; Vietnamese women who gave up their citizenship to marry foreign men have found themselves stateless after divorcing and returning home to Vietnam; the government addressed this problem in 2009, and Vietnamese women are beginning to reclaim their citizenship
    Illicit drugs field listing
    minor producer of opium poppy; probable minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin; government continues to face domestic opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems despite longstanding crackdowns; enforces the death penalty for drug trafficking