appendix g :: weights and measures
Note: At this time, only three countries - Burma, Liberia, and the US - have not adopted the International System of Units (SI, or metric system) as their official system of weights and measures. Although use of the metric system has been sanctioned by law in the US since 1866, it has been slow in displacing the American adaptation of the British Imperial System known as the US Customary System. The US is the only industrialized nation that does not mainly use the metric system in its commercial and standards activities, but there is increasing acceptance in science, medicine, government, and many sectors of industry.

Mathematical Notation
Mathematical Power Name
1018 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 one quintillion
1015 or 1,000,000,000,000,000 one quadrillion
1012 or 1,000,000,000,000 one trillion
109 or 1,000,000,000 one billion
106 or 1,000,000 one million
103 or 1,000 one thousand
102 or 100 one hundred
101 or 10 ten
100 or 1 one
10-1 or 0.1 one-tenth
10-2 or 0.01 one-hundredth
10-3 or 0.001 one-thousandth
10-6 or 0.000 001 one-millionth
10-9 or 0.000 000 001 one-billionth
10-12 or 0.000 000 000 001 one-trillionth
10-15 or 0.000 000 000 000 001 one-quadrillionth
10-18 or 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 one-quintillionth
Metric Interrelationships
Prefix Symbol Length, weight, or capacity
yotta Y 1024
zetta Z 1021
exa E 1018
peta P 1015
tera T 1012
giga G 109
mega M 106
kilo k 103
hecto h 102
deka da 101
basic unit - 1 meter, 1 gram, 1 liter
deci d 10-1
centi c 10-2
milli m 10 -3
micro u 10-6
nano n 10-9
pico p 10-12
femto f 10-15
atto a 10-18
zepto z 10-21
yocto y 10-24
Conversion Factors
To Convert From To Multiply By
acres ares 40.468 564 224
acres hectares 0.404 685 642 24
acres square feet 43,560
acres square kilometers 0.004 046 856 422 4
acres square meters 4,046.856 422 4
acres square miles (statute) 0.001 562 50
acres square yards 4,840
ares square meters 100
ares square yards 119.599
barrels, US beer gallons 31
barrels, US beer liters 117.347 77
barrels, US petroleum gallons (British) 34.97
barrels, US petroleum gallons (US) 42
barrels, US petroleum liters 158.987 29
barrels, US proof spirits gallons 40
barrels, US proof spirits liters 151.416 47
bushels (US) bushels (British) 0.968 9
bushels (US) cubic feet 1.244 456
bushels (US) cubic inches 2,150.42
bushels (US) cubic meters 0.035 239 07
bushels (US) cubic yards 0.046 090 96
bushels (US) dekaliters 3.523 907
bushels (US) dry pints 64
bushels (US) dry quarts 32
bushels (US) liters 35.239 070 17
bushels (US) pecks 4
cables fathoms 120
cables meters 219.456
cables yards 240
carat milligrams 200
centimeters feet 0.032 808 40
centimeters inches 0.393 700 8
centimeters meters 0.01
centimeters yards 0.010 936 13
centimeters, cubic cubic inches 0.061 023 744
centimeters, square square feet 0.001 076 39
centimeters, square square inches 0.155 000 31
centimeters, square square meters 0.000 1
centimeters, square square yards 0.000 119 599
chains, square surveyor's ares 4.046 86
chains, square surveyor's square feet 4,356
chains, surveyor's feet 66
chains, surveyor's meters 20.116 8
chains, surveyor's rods 4
cords of wood cubic feet 128
cords of wood cubic meters 3.624 556
cords of wood cubic yards 4.740 7
cups liquid ounces (US) 8
cups liters 0.236 588 2
degrees Celsius degrees Fahrenheit multiply by 1.8 and add 32
degrees Fahrenheit degrees Celsius subtract 32 and divide by 1.8
dekaliters bushels 0.283 775 9
dekaliters cubic feet 0.353 146 7
dekaliters cubic inches 610.237 4
dekaliters dry pints 18.161 66
dekaliters dry quarts 9.080 829 8
dekaliters liters 10
dekaliters pecks 1.135 104
drams, avoirdupois avoirdupois ounces 0.062 55
drams, avoirdupois grains 27.344
drams, avoirdupois grams 1.771 845 2
drams, troy grains 60
drams, troy grams 3.887 934 6
drams, troy scruples 3
drams, troy troy ounces 0.125
drams, liquid (US) cubic inches 0.226
drams, liquid (US) liquid drams (British) 1.041
drams, liquid (US) liquid ounces 0.125
drams, liquid (US) milliliters 3.696 69
drams, liquid (US) minims 60
fathoms feet 6
fathoms meters 1.828 8
feet centimeters 30.48
feet inches 12
feet kilometers 0.000 304 8
feet meters 0.304 8
feet statute miles 0.000 189 39
feet yards 0.333 333 3
feet, cubic bushels 0.803 563 95
feet, cubic cubic decimeters 28.316 847
feet, cubic cubic inches 1,728
feet, cubic cubic meters 0.028 316 846 592
feet, cubic cubic yards 0.037 037 04
feet, cubic dry pints 51.428 09
feet, cubic dry quarts 25.714 05
feet, cubic gallons 7.480 519
feet, cubic gills 239.376 6
feet, cubic liquid ounces 957.506 5
feet, cubic liquid pints 59.844 16
feet, cubic liquid quarts 29.922 08
feet, cubic liters 28.316 846 592
feet, cubic pecks 3.214 256
feet, square acres 0.000 022 956 8
feet, square square centimeters 929.030 4
feet, square square decimeters 9.290 304
feet, square square inches 144
feet, square square meters 0.092 903 04
feet, square square yards 0.111 111 1
furlongs feet 660
furlongs inches 7,920
furlongs meters 201.168
furlongs statute miles 0.125
furlongs yards 220
gallons, liquid (US) cubic feet 0.133 680 6
gallons, liquid (US) cubic inches 231
gallons, liquid (US) cubic meters 0.003 785 411 784
gallons, liquid (US) cubic yards 0.004 951 13
gallons, liquid (US) gills (US) 32
gallons, liquid (US) liquid gallons (British) 0.832 67
gallons, liquid (US) liquid ounces 128
gallons, liquid (US) liquid pints 8
gallons, liquid (US) liquid quarts 4
gallons, liquid (US) liters 3.785 411 784
gallons, liquid (US) milliliters 3,785.411 784
gallons, liquid (US) minims 61,440
gills (US) centiliters 11.829 4
gills (US) cubic feet 0.004 177 517
gills (US) cubic inches 7.218 75
gills (US) gallons 0.031 25
gills (US) gills (British) 0.832 67
gills (US) liquid ounces 4
gills (US) liquid pints 0.25
gills (US) liquid quarts 0.125
gills (US) liters 0.118 294 118 25
gills (US) milliliters 118.294 118 25
gills (US) minims 1,920
grains avoirdupois drams 0.036 571 43
grains avoirdupois ounces 0.002 285 71
grains avoirdupois pounds 0.000 142 86
grains grams 0.064 798 91
grains kilograms 0.000 064 798 91
grains milligrams 64.798 910
grains pennyweights 0.042
grains scruples 0.05
grains troy drams 0.016 6
grains troy ounces 0.002 083 33
grains troy pounds 0.000 173 61
grams avoirdupois drams 0.564 383 39
grams avoirdupois ounces 0.035 273 961
grams avoirdupois pounds 0.002 204 622 6
grams grains 15.432 361
grams kilograms 0.001
grams milligrams 1,000
grams troy ounces 0.032 150 746 6
grams troy pounds 0.002 679 23
hands (height of horse) centimeters 10.16
hands (height of horse) inches 4
hectares acres 2.471 053 8
hectares square feet 107,639.1
hectares square kilometers 0.01
hectares square meters 10,000
hectares square miles 0.003 861 02
hectares square yards 11,959.90
hundredweights, long avoirdupois pounds 112
hundredweights, long kilograms 50.802 345
hundredweights, long long tons 0.05
hundredweights, long metric tons 0.050 802 345
hundredweights, long short tons 0.056
hundredweights, short avoirdupois pounds 100
hundredweights, short kilograms 45.359 237
hundredweights, short long tons 0.044 642 86
hundredweights, short metric tons 0.045 359 237
hundredweights, short short tons 0.05
inches centimeters 2.54
inches feet 0.083 333 33
inches meters 0.025 4
inches millimeters 25.4
inches yards 0.027 777 78
inches, cubic bushels 0.000 465 025
inches, cubic cubic centimeters 16.387 064
inches, cubic cubic feet 0.000 578 703 7
inches, cubic cubic meters 0.000 016 387 064
inches, cubic cubic yards 0.000 021 433 47
inches, cubic dry pints 0.029 761 6
inches, cubic dry quarts 0.014 880 8
inches, cubic gallons 0.004 329 0
inches, cubic gills 0.138 528 1
inches, cubic liquid ounces 0.554 112 6
inches, cubic liquid pints 0.034 632 03
inches, cubic liquid quarts 0.017 316 02
inches, cubic liters 0.016 387 064
inches, cubic milliliters 16.387 064
inches, cubic minims (US) 265.974 0
inches, cubic pecks 0.001 860 10
inches, square square centimeters 6.451 600
inches, square square feet 0.006 944 44
inches, square square meters 0.000 645 16
inches, square square yards 0.000 771 605
kilograms avoirdupois drams 564.383 4
kilograms avoirdupois ounces 35.273 962
kilograms avoirdupois pounds 2.204 622 622
kilograms grains 15,432.36
kilograms grams 1,000
kilograms long tons 0.000 984 2
kilograms metric tons 0.001
kilograms short hundredweights 0.022 046 23
kilograms short tons 0.001 102 31
kilograms troy ounces 32.150 75
kilograms troy pounds 2.679 229
kilometers meters 1,000
kilometers statute miles 0.621 371 192
kilometers, square acres 247.105 38
kilometers, square hectares 100
kilometers, square square meters 1,000,000
kilometers, square statute miles 0.386 102 16
knots (nautical mi/hr) kilometers/hour 1.852
knots (nautical mi/hr) statute miles/hour 1.151
leagues, nautical kilometers 5.556
leagues, nautical nautical miles 3
leagues, statute kilometers 4.828 032
leagues, statute statute miles 3
links, square surveyor's square centimeters 404.686
links, square surveyor's square inches 62.726 4
links, surveyor's centimeters 20.116 8
links, surveyor's chains 0.01
links, surveyor's inches 7.92
liters bushels 0.028 377 59
liters cubic feet 0.035 314 67
liters cubic inches 61.023 74
liters cubic meters 0.001
liters cubic yards 0.001 307 95
liters dekaliters 0.1
liters dry pints 1.816 166
liters dry quarts 0.908 082 98
liters gallons 0.264 172 052
liters gills (US) 8.453 506
liters liquid ounces 33.814 02
liters liquid pints 2.113 376
liters liquid quarts 1.056 688 2
liters milliliters 1,000
liters pecks 0.113 510 4
meters centimeters 100
meters feet 3.280 839 895
meters inches 39.370 079
meters kilometers 0.001
meters millimeters 1,000
meters statute miles 0.000 621 371
meters yards 1.093 613 298
meters, cubic bushels 28.377 59
meters, cubic cubic feet 35.314 666 7
meters, cubic cubic inches 61,023.744
meters, cubic cubic yards 1.307 950 619
meters, cubic gallons 264.172 05
meters, cubic liters 1,000
meters, cubic pecks 113.510 4
meters, square acres 0.000 247 105 38
meters, square hectares 0.000 1
meters, square square centimeters 10,000
meters, square square feet 10.763 910 4
meters, square square inches 1,550.003 1
meters, square square yards 1.195 990 046
microns meters 0.000 001
microns inches 0.000 039 4
mils inches 0.001
mils millimeters 0.025 4
miles, nautical kilometers 1.852 0
miles, nautical statute miles 1.150 779 4
miles, statute centimeters 160,934.4
miles, statute feet 5,280
miles, statute furlongs 8
miles, statute inches 63,360
miles, statute kilometers 1.609 344
miles, statute meters 1,609.344
miles, statute rods 320
miles, statute yards 1,760
miles, square nautical square kilometers 3.429 904
miles, square nautical square statute miles 1.325
miles, square statute acres 640
miles, square statute hectares 258.998 811 033 6
miles, square statute sections 1
miles, square statute square kilometers 2.589 988 110 336
miles, square statute square nautical miles 0.755 miles
miles, square statute square rods 102,400
milligrams grains 0.015 432 358 35
milliliters cubic inches 0.061 023 744
milliliters gallons 0.000 264 17
milliliters gills (US) 0.008 453 5
milliliters liquid ounces 0.033 814 02
milliliters liquid pints 0.002 113 4
milliliters liquid quarts 0.001 056 7
milliliters liters 0.001
milliliters minims 16.230 73
millimeters inches 0.039 370 078 7
minims (US) cubic inches 0.003 759 77
minims (US) gills (US) 0.000 520 83
minims (US) liquid ounces 0.002 083 33
minims (US) milliliters 0.061 611 52
minims (US) minims (British) 1.041
ounces, avoirdupois avoirdupois drams 16
ounces, avoirdupois avoirdupois pounds 0.062 5
ounces, avoirdupois grains 437.5
ounces, avoirdupois grams 28.349 523 125
ounces, avoirdupois kilograms 0.028 349 523 125
ounces, avoirdupois troy ounces 0.911 458 3
ounces, avoirdupois troy pounds 0.075 954 86
ounces, liquid (US) cubic feet 0.001 044 38
ounces, liquid (US) centiliters 2.957 35
ounces, liquid (US) cubic inches 1.804 687 5
ounces, liquid (US) gallons 0.007 812 5
ounces, liquid (US) gills (US) 0.25
ounces, liquid (US) liquid drams 8
ounces, liquid (US) liquid ounces (British) 1.041
ounces, liquid (US) liquid pints 0.062 5
ounces, liquid (US) liquid quarts 0.031 25
ounces, liquid (US) liters 0.029 573 53
ounces, liquid (US) milliliters 29.573 529 6
ounces, liquid (US) minims 480
ounces, troy avoirdupois drams 17.554 29
ounces, troy avoirdupois ounces 1.097 143
ounces, troy avoirdupois pounds 0.068 571 43
ounces, troy grains 480
ounces, troy grams 31.103 476 8
ounces, troy pennyweights 20
ounces, troy troy drams 8
ounces, troy troy pounds 0.083 333 3
paces (US) centimeters 76.2
paces (US) inches 30
pecks (US) bushels 0.25
pecks (US) cubic feet 0.311 114
pecks (US) cubic inches 537.605
pecks (US) cubic meters 0.008 809 77
pecks (US) cubic yards 0.011 522 74
pecks (US) dekaliters 0.880 976 75
pecks (US) dry pints 16
pecks (US) dry quarts 8
pecks (US) liters 8.809 767 5
pecks (US) pecks (British) 0.968 9
pennyweights grains 24
pennyweights grams 1.555 173 84
pennyweights troy ounces 0.05
pints, dry (US) bushels 0.015 625
pints, dry (US) cubic feet 0.019 444 63
pints, dry (US) cubic inches 33.600 312 5
pints, dry (US) dekaliters 0.055 061 05
pints, dry (US) dry pints (British) 0.968 9
pints, dry (US) dry quarts 0.5
pints, dry (US) liters 0.550 610 47
pints, liquid (US) cubic feet 0.016 710 07
pints, liquid (US) cubic inches 28.875
pints, liquid (US) deciliters 4.731 76
pints, liquid (US) gallons 0.125
pints, liquid (US) gills (US) 4
pints, liquid (US) liquid ounces 16
pints, liquid (US) liquid pints (British) 0.832 67
pints, liquid (US) liquid quarts 0.5
pints, liquid (US) liters 0.473 176 473
pints, liquid (US) milliliters 473.176 473
pints, liquid (US) minims 7,680
points (typographical) inches 0.013 837
points (typographical) millimeters 0.351 459 8
pounds, avoirdupois avoirdupois drams 256
pounds, avoirdupois avoirdupois ounces 16
pounds, avoirdupois grains 7,000
pounds, avoirdupois grams 453.592 37
pounds, avoirdupois kilograms 0.453 592 37
pounds, avoirdupois long tons 0.000 446 428 6
pounds, avoirdupois metric tons 0.000 453 592 37
pounds, avoirdupois quintals 0.004 535 92
pounds, avoirdupois short tons 0.000 5
pounds, avoirdupois troy ounces 14.583 33
pounds, avoirdupois troy pounds 1.215 278
pounds, troy avoirdupois drams 210.651 4
pounds, troy avoirdupois ounces 13.165 71
pounds, troy avoirdupois pounds 0.822 857 1
pounds, troy grains 5,760
pounds, troy grams 373.241 721 6
pounds, troy kilograms 0.373 241 721 6
pounds, troy pennyweights 240
pounds, troy troy ounces 12
quarts, dry (US) bushels 0.031 25
quarts, dry (US) cubic feet 0.038 889 25
quarts, dry (US) cubic inches 67.200 625
quarts, dry (US) dekaliters 0.110 122 1
quarts, dry (US) dry pints 2
quarts, dry (US) dry quarts (British) 0.968 9
quarts, dry (US) liters 1.101 221
quarts, dry (US) pecks 0.125
quarts, dry (US) pints, dry (US) 2
quarts, liquid (US) cubic feet 0.033 420 14
quarts, liquid (US) cubic inches 57.75
quarts, liquid (US) deciliters 9.463 53
quarts, liquid (US) gallons 0.25
quarts, liquid (US) gills (US) 8
quarts, liquid (US) liquid ounces 32
quarts, liquid (US) liquid pints (US) 2
quarts, liquid (US) liquid quarts (British) 0.832 67
quarts, liquid (US) liters 0.946 352 946
quarts, liquid (US) milliliters 946.352 946
quarts, liquid (US) minims 15,360
quintals avoirdupois pounds 220.462 26
quintals kilograms 100
quintals metric tons 0.1
rods feet 16.5
rods meters 5.029 2
rods yards 5.5
rods, square acres 0.006 25
rods, square square meters 25.292 85
rods, square square yards 30.25
scruples grains 20
scruples grams 1.295 978 2
scruples troy drams 0.333
sections (US) square kilometers 2.589 988 1
sections (US) square statute miles 1
spans centimeters 22.86
spans inches 9
steres cubic meters 1
steres cubic yards 1.307 95
tablespoons milliliters 14.786 76
tablespoons teaspoons 3
teaspoons milliliters 4.928 922
teaspoons tablespoons 0.333 333
ton-miles, long metric ton-kilometers 1.635 169
ton-miles, short metric ton-kilometers 1.459 972
tons, gross register cubic feet of permanently enclosed space 100
tons, gross register cubic meters of permanently enclosed space 2.831 684 7
tons, long (deadweight) avoirdupois ounces 35,840
tons, long (deadweight) avoirdupois pounds 2,240
tons, long (deadweight) kilograms 1,016.046 909 8
tons, long (deadweight) long hundredweights 20
tons, long (deadweight) metric tons 1.016 046 908 8
tons, long (deadweight) short hundredweights 22.4
tons, long (deadweight) short tons 1.12
tons, metric avoirdupois pounds 2,204.623
tons, metric kilograms 1,000
tons, metric long hundredweights 19.684 130 3
tons, metric long tons 0.984 206 5
tons, metric quintals 10
tons, metric short hundredweights 22.046 23
tons, metric short tons 1.102 311 3
tons, metric troy ounces 32,150.75
tons, net register cubic feet of permanently enclosed space
for cargo and passengers
100
tons, net register cubic meters of permanently enclosed space
for cargo and passengers
2.831 684 7
tons, shipping cubic feet of permanently enclosed cargo space 42
tons, shipping cubic meters of permanently enclosed cargo space 1.189 307 574
tons, short avoirdupois pounds 2,000
tons, short kilograms 907.184 74
tons, short long hundredweights 17.857 14
tons, short long tons 0.892 857 1
tons, short metric tons 0.907 184 74
tons, short short hundredweights 20
townships (US) sections 36
townships (US) square kilometers 93.239 572
townships (US) square statute miles 36
miles, square statute acres 640
miles, square statute hectares 258.998 811 033 6
miles, square statute square feet 27,878,400
miles, square statute square meters 2,589,988.110 336
miles, square statute square yards 3,097,600
yards centimeters 91.44
yards feet 3
yards inches 36
yards meters 0.914 4
yards miles 0.000 568 18
yards, cubic bushels 21.696 227
yards, cubic cubic feet 27
yards, cubic cubic inches 46,656
yards, cubic cubic meters 0.764 554 857 984
yards, cubic gallons 201.974 0
yards, cubic liters 764.554 857 984
yards, cubic pecks 86.784 91
yards, square acres 0.000 206 611 6
yards, square hectares 0.000 083 612 736
yards, square square centimeters 8,361.273 6
yards, square square feet 9
yards, square square inches 1,296
yards, square square meters 0.836 127 36
yards, square square miles 0.000 000 322 830 6