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Field Listing :: Telecommunication systems
This entry includes a brief general assessment of the telecommunications system with details on the domestic and international components. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia).
Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).
CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications.
Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone exchange.
Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each other.
Coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier frequencies.
Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US).
DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense).
Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris).
Fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.
GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) in 1982.
HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz range.
Inmarsat - International Maritime Satellite Organization (London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land.
Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Washington, DC).
Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications (Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia.
Landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on poles or buried in the ground.
Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.
Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the Inmarsat system.
Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications Network.
Microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical path.
NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).
Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet-switched digital telephone network.
Radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets.
PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).
SAFE - South African Far East Cable
Satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.
Satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites.
Satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only transmission) or two-way (telephone channels).
SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range.
Shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long distances.
Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.
Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite telecommunications.
Submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water.
TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America.
Telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public switched telephone network or the international Datel network.
Telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated electric impulse transmission.
Telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by wire through automatic exchanges.
Tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this system for very long distances.
Trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by multichannel trunk lines.
UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-MHz range.
VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz range.
By Country Listing of the values for the Telecommunication systems field
Country Telecommunication systems
Afghanistan
general assessment: progress has been made on Afghanistan's first limited fixed-line telephone service and nationwide optical fiber backbone; aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service continues to improve swiftly; the Afghan Ministry of Communications and Information claims that more than 90% of the population live in areas with access to mobile cellular service; moderate growth through 2024, assuming stable governance and improving economic environment (2020)
domestic: less than 1 per 100 for fixed-line teledensity; 63 per 100 for mobile-cellular; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks (2018)
international: country code - 93; multiple VSAT's provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Albania
general assessment: mobile-cellular phone service has been available since 1996 and dominates over fixed-line capacity; Internet broadband services initiated in 2005 and the government continues to supports the improvement of broadband availability and access conditions; Albania has received financial aid to build its infrastructure and works towards the EU accession process, an adherence to careful scrutiny of its regulatory regime helps the telecom sector advance; Internet cafes are popular in major urban areas; 1.3 million use mobile broadband services (3G/4G) (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 8 per 100, teledensity continues to decline due to heavy use of mobile-cellular telephone services; mobile-cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective, 89 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2019)
international: country code - 355; submarine cables for the Adria 1 and Italy-Albania provide connectivity to Italy, Croatia, and Greece; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system, provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Algeria
general assessment: improved international connectivity and privatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile-cellular licenses have been issued; LTE service growth in additional provinces and rural areas; upgrade to LTE infrastructure and migration to 5G; LTE subscriber rate up 82% in 2018; Huawei opens smart phone assembly plant in Algeria; ending of monopolies have made broadband services more affordable; Algeria and Tunisia end roaming charges for travelers (2020)
domestic: a limited network of fixed-lines with a teledensity of less than 10 telephones per 100 persons has been offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; mobile-cellular teledensity was roughly 113 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 213; ALPAL-2 is a submarine telecommunications cable system in the Mediterranean Sea linking Algeria and the Spanish Balearic island of Majorca; ORVAL is a submarine cable to Spain; landing points for the TE North/TGN-Eurasia/SEACOM/SeaMeWe-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; MED cable connecting Algeria with France; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; Algeria part of the 4,500 Km terrestrial Trans Sahara Backbone network which connects to other fiber networks in the region; Alcomstat-1 satellite offering  telemedicine network (2020)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
American Samoa
general assessment: good telex, telegraph, facsimile, and cellular telephone services; one of the most complete and modern telecommunications systems in the South Pacific Islands; all inhabited islands have telephone connectivity
domestic: 18 per 100 fixed-line teledensity, domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
international: country code - 1-684; landing points for the ASH, Southern Cross NEXT and Hawaiki  providing connectivity to New Zealand, Australia, American Samoa, Hawaii, California, and SAS connecting American Samoa with Samoa; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat-Pacific Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Andorra
general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; broadband Internet and LTE mobile lines for both consumer and enterprise customers available (2019)
domestic: 46 per 100 fixed-line, 96 per 100 mobile-cellular (2019)
international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain; modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Angola
general assessment: progress on opening up the telecom sector to new competitors, while still retaining a 45% govt. portion of the share; slow progress in LTE network development, with only about 12% of the country covered by network infrastructure; regulator offers 4th service license to be issued for competition, cracks down on informal SIM card sales, and auctions 800MHz spectrum; M-commerce services launch pending (2020)
domestic: only about one fixed-line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 44 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 244; landing points for the SAT-3/WASC, WACS, ACE and SACS fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to other countries in west Africa, Brazil, Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29, Angosat-2 satellite expected by 2021 (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Anguilla
general assessment: modern internal telephone system with fiber-optic trunk lines; telecom sector provides a relatively high contribution to overall GDP; numerous competitors licensed, but small and localized; major growth sectors include the mobile telephony and data segments (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 37 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 158 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-264; landing points for the SSCS, ECFS, GCN and Southern Caribbean Fiber with submarine cable links to Caribbean islands and to the US; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Antarctica
general assessment: local systems at some research stations (2019)
domestic: commercial cellular networks operating in a small number of locations (2019)
international: country code - none allocated; via satellite (including mobile Inmarsat and Iridium systems) to and from all research stations, ships, aircraft, and most field parties
Antigua and Barbuda
general assessment: good automatic telephone system with fiber-optic lines; telecom sector contributes heavily to GDP; numerous mobile network competitors licensed, but small and local; govt. to spend EC80 million in 2019 to improve state-owned telecom market competitiveness; legislative amendments extend jurisdiction of its telecom regulator in Barbuda to include mobile services (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 24 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 190 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the ECFS and Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Argentina
general assessment: one of the highest broadband penetrations in Latin America, supported by operator investment and govt. programs aimed at expansion; govt. provides 20 million euros for two 5G trials, Huawei conducts 5G trials; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service continues to improve to rural areas; Argentinians' own multiple SIM cards for work and personal use; even with numerous providers there is a lack of competition for broadband and mobile services; still Argentina is the 3rd largest in the region after Brazil and Mexico (2020)
domestic: 22 per 100 fixed-line, 131 per 100 mobile-cellular; microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network (2018)
international: country code - 54; landing points for the UNISUR, Bicentenario, Atlantis-2, SAm-1, and SAC, Tannat, Malbec and ARBR submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112 (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Armenia
general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing continued modernization and expansion; strong growth in mobile broadband sector and mobile services dominate over fixed-line; rollout of 4G networks and falling prices due to growing competition (2020)
domestic: 16 per 100 fixed-line, 118 per 100 mobile-cellular; reliable fixed-line and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan and in major cities and towns; mobile-cellular coverage available in most rural areas (2019)
international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Caucasus Cable System fiber-optic cable through Georgia and Iran to Europe; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Aruba
general assessment: modern fully automatic telecommunications system; increased competition through privatization has increased mobile-cellular teledensity; three mobile-cellular service providers are now licensed; MNO (mobile network operator) launched island-wide LTE services; MNP (mobile number portability) introduced (2018)
domestic: ongoing changes in regulations and competition improving teledensity; 31 per 100 fixed-line, 126 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 297; landing points for the PAN-AM, PCCS, Deep Blue Cable, and Alonso de Ojeda submarine telecommunications cable system that extends from Trinidad and Tobago, Florida, Puerto Ricco, Jamaica, Guyana, Sint Eustatius & Saba, Suriname, Dominican Republic, BVI, USVI, Haiti, Cayman Islands, the Netherlands Antilles,  through Aruba to Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile; extensive interisland microwave radio relay links (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Australia
general assessment: excellent domestic and international service; domestic satellite system; significant use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile telephones; continue to enhance 4G networks while migrating to 5G technologies; 5G connections are predicted to account for around 50 - 60% of total connections by 2025 (2020)
domestic: 33 per 100 fixed-line, 114 per 100 mobile-cellular; more subscribers to mobile services than there are people; 90% of all mobile device sales are now smartphones, growth in mobile traffic brisk (2018)
international: country code - 61; landing points for more than 20 submarine cables including: the SeaMeWe-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable with links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the INDIGO-Central, INDIGO West and ASC, North West Cable System, Australia-Papua New Guinea cable, CSCS, PPC-1, Gondwana-1, SCCN, Hawaiki, TGA, Basslink, Bass Strait-1, Bass Strait-2, JGA-S, with links to other Australian cities, New Zealand and many countries in southeast Asia, US and Europe; the H2 Cable, AJC, Telstra Endeavor, Southern Cross NEXT with links to Japan, Hong Kong, and other Pacific Ocean countries as well as the US; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat, 2 Globalstar, 5 other (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Austria
general assessment: mobile-cellular subscribership is everywhere; cable networks are very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are accessible; broadband is available in all large municipalities; one company is in the process of extending fiber infrastructure to an additional 300,000 premises, affecting some 500 towns, as a consequence the number of DSL lines is likely to fall as customers move to fiber; the govt. vows to spend 1 billion euros to upgrade the national broadband availability; the roll-out of 5G has begun in a test phase in 2019 and is planned to be available nation-wide in 2025 (2020)
domestic: developed and efficient; 43 per 100 fixed-line for households, 174 per 100 for companies; 125 per 100 mobile-cellular; broadband: 138 per 100 on smartphones; 62 per 100 fixed broadband, 54 per 100 mobile broadband (2019)
international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Astra, Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Azerbaijan
general assessment: after the oil sector, the telecommunications sector contributes the most to the GDP; more competition will allow for falling prices and the strengthening of the 4G TD-LTE standard and the migration to 5G; Azerbaijan has moderate mobile, mobile broadband and fixed broadband penetration compared to other Asian nations (2020)
domestic: teledensity of some 17 fixed-lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to 103 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhchivan) (2018)
international: country code - 994; the TAE fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Bahamas, The
general assessment: the telecom sector across the Caribbean continues to be a growth area, contributing to the country's overall GDP; totally automatic system; highly developed; operators focus investment on mobile networks; the activation of Mobile Number Portability (MNP) in April 2017, allowing mobile subscribers to port their numbers between competing MNO (mobile network operators) has contributed to the competition and liberalization of the market (2020)
domestic: 34 per 100 fixed-line, 115 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 1-242; landing points for the ARCOS-1, BICS, Bahamas 2-US, and BDSN fiber-optic submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2; the Bahamas Domestic Submarine Network links all of the major islands; (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Bahrain
general assessment: well-developed LTE networks, 5G trials tested and deployment in the near future; mobile penetration is high compared to the region; development of its own National Broadband Network (NBN); competition is good and telecoms are regulated; telecom contributes 4% to the GDP (2020)
domestic: 19 per 100 fixed-line, 145 per 100 mobile-cellular; modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly expanding mobile-cellular telephones (2018)
international: country code - 973; landing points for the FALCON, Tata TGN-Gulf, GBICS/MENA, and FOG submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Africa; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth station - 1 (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Bangladesh
general assessment: slow to moderate growth in mobile subscriber rate; regulator's recent budget allowance and telecoms investment in LTE infrastructure is leading the way to the migration of 5G; fixed broadband penetration in Bangladesh remains very low mainly due to the dominance of the mobile platform (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 101 telephones per 100 persons; mobile subscriber growth is anticipated over the next five years to 2023; strong local competition (2018)
international: country code - 880; landing points for the SeaMeWe-4 and SeaMeWe-5 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Barbados
general assessment: island-wide automatic telephone system; telecom sector across the Caribbean region remains one of the key growth areas and contributors to the GDP; numerous competitors licensed, but small and localized (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity of roughly 44 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density about 112 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-246; landing points for the ECFS and Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cable with links to 15 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad and Puerto Ricco; satellite earth stations - 1 (Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Belarus
general assessment: govt. and telecom regulator have plans to develop the telecom sector for the migration to 5G; Chinese company Huawei have started 5G trials to deliver data at 2Gb/s; fiber network reaches two million establishments; 10,000km of fiber cabling laid; August 2018 almost two million GPON connections (Gigabit Passive Optical Network, point-to-multi point access mechanism); Belarus launched its first telecoms satellite in 2016; LTE use reaches 75% of mobile subscribers (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved, 47 per 100 fixed-line; mobile-cellular teledensity now approaches 122 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 375; Belarus is landlocked and therefore a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); 3 fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations; almost 31,000 base stations in service in 2019 (2020)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Belgium
general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities; LTE availability is nearly universal in mobile sector; ongoing investments in developing applications and services for migration to 5G, operators are looking into repurposing 3G infrastructure and spectrum as they gear up for 5G; Europe-wide approach to simultaneous movement to 5G on going; 5G will be main motivation for growth and revenue in years to come; consumer are interested in quad-play/bundled services (broadband +television +telephone +wireless services) which will mean MNOs (mobile network operators) are enhancing their fixed-line offerings (2020)
domestic: 35 per 100 fixed-line, 99 per 100 mobile-cellular; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network (2018)
international: country code - 32; landing points for Concerto, UK-Belgium, Tangerine, and SeaMeWe-3, submarine cables that provide links to Europe, the Middle East, Australia and Asia; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat - 3) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Belize
general assessment: govt. telecom company, Belize Telemedia Ltd. (BTL), continues to hold a monopoly in fixed-line services, mobile and broadband fixed-line teledensity; it is a small market; fixed-line teledensity and mobile penetration below regional average; lack of competition and underinvestment in telecom system, make it pricey for consumer (2020)
domestic: 5 per 100 fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 85 per 100 persons; mobile sector accounting for over 90% of all phone subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 501; landing points for the ARCOS and SEUL fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 8 (Intelsat - 2, unknown - 6) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Benin
general assessment: fixed-line network characterized by aging, deteriorating equipment; mobile networks account for almost all Internet connections; govt. to provide telecom services to 80% of the country, mostly via mobile infrastructure by restructuring state-owned telecom companies; Mobile Number Portability (MNP) is available; Benin joins free roaming scheme (2019)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity only about 1 per 100 persons; spurred by the presence of multiple mobile-cellular providers, cellular telephone subscribership has increased rapidly, exceeding 79 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 229; landing points for the SAT-3/WASC and ACE fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe, and most West African countries; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat-Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Bermuda
general assessment: a good, fully automatic digital telephone system with fiber-optic trunk lines; telecom sector provides a relatively high contribution to overall GDP; numerous competitors licensed, but small and localized; telecom sector a growth area across the Caribbean (2020)
domestic: the system has a high fixed-line teledensity 31 per 100, coupled with a mobile-cellular teledensity of roughly 92 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-441; landing points for the GlobeNet, Gemini Bermuda, CBUS, and the CB-1 submarine cables to the Caribbean, South America and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Bhutan
general assessment: 4G platforms now gaining traction; 4G/WiMAX networks now cover well over half of the country; fixed broadband penetration remains very low, due to the preeminence of the mobile platform; low to moderate growth is expected from this small base with a maturing mobile subscriber market (2020)
domestic: 3 to 100 fixed-line, 92 to 100 mobile cellular; domestic service inadequate, notably in rural areas (2018)
international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Bolivia
general assessment: lowest GDP in the area; much of the population live in remote valleys and telecommunications is poor; consumers pick from multiple long-distance carriers for each call; reliability, and coverage have steadily improved, but some remote areas are still underserved; operators plan to extend fiber to all 339 municipal capital cities by 2022; move from 3G to LTE available by all 3 mobile companies; 92% of all Internet is through smartphone; broadband services remain expensive by the lack of competition and that fact that Bolivia is landlocked and does not have access through submarine cables; MNP (mobile number portability) launched in October 2018; Bolivian Space Agency planning to launch a second telecom satellite after 2020 (2020)
domestic: 6 per 100 fixed-line, mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and teledensity stands at 101 per 100 persons; most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities (2018)
international: country code - 591; Bolivia has no direct access to submarine cable networks and must therefore connect to the rest of the world either via satellite or through terrestrial links across neighboring countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Bosnia and Herzegovina
general assessment: mobile services dominate fixed-line; integration with the EU has given stability to the present economy, as an EU candidate country, the regulatory framework and telecom market has been liberalized and the regulator has given LTE license to 3 MNOs; DSL and cable are the chief platforms for fixed-line connectivity, there is a small market presence of fiber broadband; new mobile roaming fees come into effect similar to other EU countries; rural areas still suffer from insufficient connectivity (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 21 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and stands at roughly 90 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Botswana
general assessment: the Botswana Telecommunications Corp is rolling out 4G service to over 95 sites in the country that will improve network connectivity; an effective regulatory reform has turned the Botswana's telecom market into one of the most liberalized in the region; Botswana has one of the highest mobile penetration rates in Africa; 3 MNOs have entered the underdeveloped broadband sector with the adoption of 3G, LTE and WiMAX technologies; mobile Internet remains the preferred choice; the expansion of a fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, still the use of multiple SIM cards has delayed the introduction of mobile number portability (MNP)  (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 6 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has advanced to 150 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Brazil
general assessment: Brazil is one of the largest mobile and broadband markets in Latin America; 5G auction delayed due to interference issues; four major mobile operators offering a range of voice and data services; broadband penetration only behind Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay; country is a pioneer in the region for m-commerce (electronic commerce conducted on mobile phones) (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 18 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major impetus broadening telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 99 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 55; landing points for a number of submarine cables, including Malbec, ARBR, Tamnat, SAC, SAm-1, Atlantis -2, Seabras-1, Monet, EllaLink, BRUSA, GlobeNet, AMX-1, Brazilian Festoon, Bicentenario, Unisur, Junior, Americas -II, SAE x1, SAIL, SACS and SABR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station; satellites is a major communication platform, as it is almost impossible to lay fiber optic cable in the thick vegetation (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
British Indian Ocean Territory
general assessment: separate facilities for military and public needs are available (2018)
domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including connection to the Internet (2018)
international: country code (Diego Garcia) - 246; landing point for the SAFE submarine cable that provides direct connectivity to Africa, Asia and near-by Indian Ocean island countries; international telephone service is carried by satellite (2019)
British Virgin Islands
general assessment: good overall telephone service; major expansion sectors include the mobile telephony and data segments, which continue to appeal to operator investment; several operators licensed to provide services within individual markets, most of them are small and localized; telecommunication contributes to overall GDP (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections exceed 17 per 100 persons and mobile cellular subscribership is roughly 112 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-284; landing points for PCCS, ECFS, CBUS, Deep Blue Cable, East-West, PAN-AM, Americas-1, Southern Caribbean Fiber, Columbus- IIb, St Thomas - St Croix System, Taino-Carib, and Americas I- North via submarine cable to Caribbean, Central and South America, and US (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Brunei
general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US; lots of investment given the high GDP per capita; launch of 5G in 2021 anticipated; while fixed-line is slowing down, mobile broadband has taken over in the advancement in the telecoms access market; broadband penetration slow to moderate growth predicted over the next five years to 2023 (2020)
domestic: every service available; 18 per 100 fixed-line, 126 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 673; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3, SJC, AAG, Lubuan-Brunei Submarine Cable via optical telecommunications submarine cables that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Africa, Australia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Bulgaria
general assessment: telecom sector has benefited from Bulgaria's adaptation of EU regulatory measures, more privatization and less govt. monopoly; population is moving to fiber networks for broadband; govt. investment in programs for broadband in rural areas; 5G trials by 2 operators; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relay; Bulgaria has a mature mobile market with active competition (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 16 per 100 persons, mobile-cellular teledensity, fostered by multiple service providers, is over 119 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 359; Caucasus Cable System via submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraine, Georgia and Russia; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Italy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intersputnik in the Atlantic Ocean region, 2 Intelsat in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Burkina Faso
general assessment: system includes microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations; insufficient mobile spectrum, and poor condition of fixed-line networks hinders the development of fixed-line Internet services and leaves Burkina Faso with some of the most expensive telecommunications globally; mobile telephony has experienced growth, but below the African average; govt. proposes technology-neutral licenses to boost mobile broadband connectivity and amend legislation to improve regulators and legalize the framework governing the telecom sector (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage 98 per 100, with multiple providers there is competition and the hope for growth from a low base; Internet penetration is 11% countrywide, but higher in urban areas (2018)
international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Burma
general assessment: use to claim to be one of the last underdeveloped telecom markets in Asia; the mobile market has recently experienced rapid growth, in 2014 foreign competition was allowed to compete in the market and now they have moved from 1 operator to 3; low compared to other nations in the region, but expanding nationally; moving past fixed broadband to mobile device access for Internet services; rollout of 4G to eventually 5 G networks (2020)
domestic: fixed-line is 1 per 100, while mobile-cellular is 110 per 100 and shows great potential for the future (2018)
international: country code - 95; landing points for the SeaMeWe-3, SeaMeWe-5, AAE-1 and Singapore-Myanmar optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2, Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and ShinSat (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Burundi
general assessment: with the great population density Burundi remains one of the most alluring telecom markets in Africa for investors; the government in early 2018 began the Burundi Broadband project, which plans to deliver nationwide connectivity by 2025; mobile operators have launched 3G and LTE mobile services to capitalize on the expanding demand for Internet access; mobile penetration is at 52%, and remains low by regional standards; future plans to privatize the national telecoms (2020)
domestic: telephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is 56 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); the government, supported by the Word Bank, has backed a joint venture with a number of prominent telecoms to build a national fiber backbone network, offering onward connectivity to submarine cable infrastructure landings in Kenya and Tanzania (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Cabo Verde
general assessment: LTE reaches almost 40% of the population; regulator awards commercial 4G licenses and starts 5G pilot; govt. extends USD 25 million for submarine fiber-optic cable project linking Africa to Portugal and Brazil; major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT) (2020)
domestic: 11 per 100 fixed-line and 107 per 100 mobile-cellular; fiber-optic ring, completed in 2001, links all islands providing Internet access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced in 1998; broadband services launched early in the decade (2018)
international: country code - 238; landing points for the Atlantis-2, EllaLink, Cabo Verde Telecom Domestic Submarine Cable Phase 1, 2, 3 and WACS fiber-optic transatlantic telephone cable that provides links to South America, Africa, and Europe; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Cambodia
general assessment: well on its way to rollout 5G services, Chinese company Huawei dealing with the infrastructure for the 5G rollout; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly spreading in rural areas; competition among mobile operators strong; about 50% of Cambodians own at least one smart phone; in 2018, the MPTC began a free Wi-Fi service for visitors and residents of Phnom Penh, in selected parks around the city customers can access free Wi-Fi services; fixed broadband penetration is predicted to reach over 2% by 2023; in 2021, Cambodia hopes to launch it first communications satellite into orbit (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 1 per 100 persons and declining; mobile-cellular usage, aided by competition among service providers, has increased to about 118 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 855; landing points for MCT and AAE-1 via submarine cables providing communication to Asia, the Middle East, Europe and Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Cameroon
general assessment: 3G service and LTE service both developing given growing competition, along with a fast-developing mobile broadband sector; govt. supportive of launching programs who's aim is to improve connections nationally; about 95% of electronic transactions carried out through M-commerce services (2020)
domestic: only about 3 per 100 persons for fixed-line subscriptions; mobile-cellular usage has increased sharply, reaching a subscribership base of over 70 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 237; landing points for the SAT-3/WASC, SAIL, ACE, NCSCS, Ceiba-2, and WACS fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe, South America, and West Africa; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Canada
general assessment: excellent service provided by first-rate technology; offers 99% coverage with LTE; consumer demand for mobile data services have prompted telecom companies to invest and advance LTE infrastructure, and further investment in 5G; govt. policy has aided the extension of broadband to rural and regional areas, with the result that services are almost universally accessible; govt. sets up $400 million public-private partnership to exploit benefits of 5G (2020)
domestic: 37 per 100 fixed-line; 90 per 100 mobile-cellular; comparatively low mobile penetration provides further room for growth; domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations (2018)
international: country code - 1; landing points for the Nunavut Undersea Fiber Optic Network System, Greenland Connect, Persona, GTT Atlantic, and Express, KetchCan 1 Submarine Fiber Cable system, St Pierre and Miquelon Cable submarine cables providing links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Cayman Islands
general assessment: reasonably good overall telephone system with a high fixed-line teledensity; given the high dependence of tourism and activities such as fisheries and offshore financial services, the telecom sector provides a relatively high contribution to overall GDP; good competition in all sectors promotes advancement in mobile telephony and data segments (2018)
domestic: introduction of competition in the mobile-cellular market in 2004 boosted subscriptions dramatically; 60 per 100 fixed-line, 164 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 1-345; landing points for the Maya-1, Deep Blue Cable, and the Cayman-Jamaica Fiber System submarine cables that provide links to the US and parts of Central and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Central African Republic
general assessment: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and at low-capacity; ongoing conflict has obstructed telecommunication and media development, although there are ISP (Internet service providers) and mobile phone carriers, radio is the most-popular communications medium (2018)
domestic: very limited telephone service with less than 1 fixed-line connection per 100 persons; with the presence of multiple providers mobile-cellular service has reached 22 per 100 mobile-cellular subscribers; cellular usage is increasing from a low base; most fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone services are concentrated in Bangui (2018)
international: country code - 236; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Chad
general assessment: inadequate system of radio telephone communication stations with high maintenance costs and low telephone density; Chad remains one of the least developed on the African continent, telecom infrastructure is particularly low, with penetration rates in all sectors - fixed, mobile and Internet -well below African averages; low usage also due to 18% excise duty tax on telecom services and a negative impact on operator revenue (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections less than 1 per 100 persons, with mobile-cellular subscribership base of about 44 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Chile
general assessment: most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America; although Chile has one of the highest mobile penetration rates in the region, the number of subscribers has fallen due to subscribers ending multiple SIM card use; the country ranks second highest in South and Central America in terms of available broadband speeds; effective competition in the broadband and mobile sectors; LTE infrastructure is extensive but National Plan for 5G services awaits spectrum auctions; during the COVID-19 pandemic Chile provided free access to educational content for about 3 million school pupils (2020)
domestic: number of fixed-line connections have stagnated to 17 per 100 in recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching 140 telephones per 100 persons; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations (2018)
international: country code - 56; landing points for the Pan-Am, Prat, SAm-1, American Movil-Telxius West Coast Cable, FOS Quellon-Chacabuco, Fibra Optical Austral, SAC and Curie submarine cables providing links to the US, Caribbean and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
China
general assessment: the largest Internet market in the world, with the majority, 98.6% of users accessing the Internet through mobile devices; moderate growth is predicted over the next five years in the fixed broadband segment; one of the biggest drivers of commercial growth is its increasing urbanization rate as rural residents move to cities; China will be the world's largest 5G market; Chinese mobile market to reach penetration of 134% by 2024; maintains the largest M2M market in the world (2020)
domestic: 14 per 100 fixed line and 119 per 100 mobile-cellular; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations has been in place since 2018 (2018)
international: country code - 86; landing points for the RJCN, EAC-C2C, TPE, APCN-2, APG, NCP, TEA, SeaMeWe-3, SJC2, Taiwan Strait Express-1, AAE-1, APCN-2, AAG, FEA, FLAG and TSE submarine cables providing connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Christmas Island
general assessment: service provided by the Australian network
domestic: local area code - 08; GSM mobile-cellular telephone service is provided by Telstra as part of the Australian network
international: international code - 61 8; ASC submarine cable to Singapore and Australia; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat provides telephone and telex service) (2019)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
general assessment: telephone service is part of the Australian network; an operational local mobile-cellular network available; wireless Internet connectivity available
domestic: local area code - 08
international: international code - 61 8; telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat)
Colombia
general assessment: fastest growing sector is mobile broadband with LTE infrastructure and investment in 5G; strong demand in rural areas for mobile broadband, so potential is high while penetration is low; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; the cable sector commands about half of the market by subscribers, with DSL having a declining share while fiber-based broadband is developing strongly; competition among the MVNO (mobile virtual network operator) sector has promoted 2.9 million subscribers as of mid-2018; most infrastructure is primarily in high-density urban areas; growing popularity of bundled services (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 14 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 134 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to the steep decline in the market share of fixed-line services; domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations (2018)
international: country code - 57; landing points for the SAC, Maya-1, SAIT, ACROS, AMX-1, CFX-1, PCCS, Deep Blue Cable, Globe Net, PAN-AM, SAm-1 submarine cable systems providing links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Comoros
general assessment: Qatar launched a special program for the construction of a wireless network to inter connect the 3 islands of the archipelago; telephone service limited to the islands' few towns (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage over 61 per 100 persons; two companies provide domestic and international mobile service and wireless data (2018)
international: country code - 269; landing point for the EASSy, Comoros Domestic Cable System, Avassa, and FLY-LION3 fiber-optic submarine cable system connecting East Africa with Europe; HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and Reunion (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
general assessment: poorly developed national and international infrastructure; bandwidth is limited; Internet pricing is expensive; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; wars and social upheaval have not promoted advancement; a revised Telecommunications Act adopted in May 2018; govt. only loosely regulates the telecom sector, much of the investment is from donor countries (specifically China) (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections less than 1 per 100 persons; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, the use of mobile-cellular services is over 38 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 243; ACE and WACS submarine cables to West and South Africa and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Congo, Republic of the
general assessment: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable with services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order; youth are seeking the Internet more than their parents and often gaining access in cyber cafes, only the most affluent have Internet access in their homes (2020)
domestic: fixed-line infrastructure inadequate, providing less than 1 fixed-line connection per 100 persons; in the absence of an adequate fixed-line infrastructure, mobile-cellular subscribership has surged to 99 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 242; WACS submarine cables to Europe and Western and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Cook Islands
general assessment: demand for mobile broadband is increasing due to mobile services being the primary and most wide-spread source for Internet access across the region; Telecom Cook Islands offers international direct dialing, Internet, email, and fax; individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone (2020)
domestic: service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open-wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable; 75 per 100 fixed-line, 105 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 682; the Manatua submarine cable to surrounding islands of Niue, Samoa, French Polynesia and other Cook Islands, the topography of the South Pacific region has made Internet connectivity a serious issue for many of the remote islands; submarine fiber-optic networks are expensive to build and maintain; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Costa Rica
general assessment: good domestic telephone service in terms of breadth of coverage; in recent years growth has been achieved from liberalization of the telecom sector and has seen substantial expansion in all sectors; Costa Rica's broadband market is the most advanced in Central America, with the highest broadband penetration for this sub-region; broadband penetration does lag behind many South American countries; with the implementation of number portability there is greater opportunity for increased competition in the future (2018)
domestic: 16 per 100 fixed-line, 170 per 100 mobile-cellular; point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave, fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is available (2018)
international: country code - 506; landing points for the ARCOS-1, MAYA-1, and the PAC submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Cote d'Ivoire
general assessment: strongest sector in the overall market is the mobile sector; fixed internet and broadband sectors have remained underdeveloped; country 90% digitalized; Côte d'Ivoire continues to benefit from strong economic growth; progress has been made in building out the national backbone network and connecting in 2019 to the MainOne submarine cable; this development puts the country in a better position to develop its broadband market and work on its digital economy; government further tightens SIM card registration rules (2020)
domestic: less than 1 per 100 fixed-line, with multiple mobile-cellular service providers competing in the market, usage has increased to about 129 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, ACE, MainOne, and WACS fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and South and West Africa; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Croatia
general assessment: the mobile market has one of the highest penetration rates in the Balkans region; covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital; telecoms market in Croatia has been shaped by Croatia becoming part of the European Union in 2013, a process which opened up the market and the creation of a regulatory environment leading to competition in mobile and broadband; investment among operators has led to a relatively high broadband penetration in the region; trials for 5G technologies underway (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has dropped somewhat to about 32 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions 103 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 385;  the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Cuba
general assessment: lowest mobile phone and Internet penetration rates in the region, while fixed-line teledensity is also low; fixed-line and mobile services run by the state-run ETESCA; mobile-cellular telephone service is expensive and must be paid in convertible pesos; the Cuban Government has opened several hundred Wi-Fi hotspots around the island, which are expensive, and launched a new residential Internet pilot in Havana and other provinces; as of 2018, 3G mobile service is available, if limited (2020)
domestic: fixed-line density remains low at about 13 per 100 inhabitants; mobile-cellular service is expanding to about 48 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 53; the ALBA-1, GTMO-1, and GTMO-PR fiber-optic submarine cables link Cuba, Jamaica, and Venezuela; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Curacao
general assessment: fully automatic modern telecommunications system; telecom sector across the Caribbean region continues to be one of the growth areas; given the lack of economic diversity in the region, with a high dependence on tourism and activities such as fisheries and offshore financial services the telecom sector contributes greatly to the GDP (2020)
domestic: 39 per 100 users for fixed-line and 124 per 100 users for cellular-mobile, majority of the islanders have internet; market revenue has been affected in recent quarters as a result of competition and regulatory measures on termination rates and roaming tariffs (2020)
international: country code - +599, PCCS submarine cable system to US, Caribbean and Central and South America (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Cyprus
general assessment: broadband market steadily developing with one of the highest penetrations rates in the region; despite the growth of Cyprus's telecom sector, the market overall continues to be dominated by the incumbent, Cyprus Telecommunications Authority (CyTA), which is still fully-owned by the state, but it is losing ground to its competition annually; improved regulatory circumstances, especially in relation to network interconnection and access, has given competing operators the certainty to invest in network infrastructure, and to launch competing services; fiber infrastructure in the early days and DSL remains the dominate access platform (2020)
domestic: fixed-line is 25 per 100, and  97 per 100 for mobile-cellular; open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay (2018)
international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, CADMOS, MedNautilus Submarine System, POSEIDON, TE North/TGN-Eurasia/SEACOM/Alexandros/Medes, UGARIT, Aphrodite2, Hawk, Lev Submarine System, and Tamares combine to provide connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Southeast Asia; Turcyos-1 and Turcyos-2 submarine cable in Turkish North Cyprus link to Turkey; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 8 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Czechia
general assessment: good telephone and Internet service; the Czech Republic has a sophisticated telecom market; mobile sector showing steady growth, but perhaps without enough competition, regulator makes progress for 5G services; the govt. trying to stimulate competition, improve end-users pricing and step up quality; strong growth in cable and fiber sectors; fixed wireless broadband remains strong, with penetration among the highest in the EU (2020)
domestic: 14 per 100 fixed-line and mobile telephone usage increased to 119 per 100 mobile-cellular, the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population (2018)
international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2019)
note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Denmark
general assessment: excellent telephone and Internet services; Denmark's competitive telecom market has led to the country having the second highest broadband penetration rate in Europe; the fixed-line sector continues to see a decline in revenue while customers move to VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) and mobile alternatives; comprehensive LTE coverage and a fast-developing 5G segment; the government is able to offer broadband coverage in rural areas (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 19 per 100, 124 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 45; landing points for the NSC, COBRAcable, CANTAT-3, DANICE, Havfrue/AEC-2, TAT-14m Denmark-Norway-5 & 6, Skagenfiber West & East, GC1, GC2, GC3, GC-KPN, Kattegat 1 & 2 & 3, Energinet Lyngsa-Laeso, Energinet Laeso-Varberg, Fehmarn Balt, Baltica, German-Denmark 2 & 3, Ronne-Rodvig, Denmark-Sweden 15 & 16 & 17 & 18, IP-Only Denmark-Sweden, Scandinavian South, Scandinavian Ring North, Danica North, 34 series of fiber-optic submarine cables link Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, US and UK; satellite earth stations - 18 (6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East)); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Djibouti
general assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country; Djibouti is one of the few remaining countries in which the national telco, Djibouti Telecom (DT), has a monopoly on all telecom services, including fixed lines, mobile, Internet and broadband; the lack of competition has meant that the market has not lived up to its potential; broadband's growth held back by the expense and mobile and Internet markets need foreign investment (2020)
domestic: 4 per 100 fixed-line and 45 per 100 mobile-cellular; Djibouti Telecom (DT) is the sole provider of telecommunications services and utilizes mostly a microwave radio relay network; fiber-optic cable is installed in the capital; rural areas connected via wireless local loop radio systems; mobile cellular coverage is primarily limited to the area in and around Djibouti city (2019)
international: country code - 253; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3 & 5, EASSy, Aden-Djibouti, Africa-1, DARE-1, EIG, MENA, Bridge International, PEACE Cable, and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems providing links to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, Southeast Asia, Australia and Africa; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean and 1 Arabsat) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Dominica
general assessment: fully automatic network; there are multiple competing operators licensed to provide services, most of them are small and localized; the telecom sector across the Caribbean region remains one of the key growth areas; (2020)
domestic: fixed-line connections continue to decline slowly with only two active operators providing about 4 fixed-line connections per 100 persons; subscribership among the three mobile-cellular providers is about 102 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-767; landing points for the ECFS and the Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cables providing connectivity to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad and to the US; microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Dominican Republic
general assessment: there are multiple operators licensed to provide services, most of them are small and localized; the telecom sector across the Caribbean region remains one of the key growth areas; fixed-line teledensity well-below Latin America averages; development of LTE and HSPA (high speed packet access) services, mobile broadband has taken off; income inequalities seen in telephone accesses (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 12 per 100 persons; multiple providers of mobile-cellular service with a subscribership of 82 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-809; 1-829; 1-849; landing point for the ARCOS-1, Antillas 1, AMX-1, SAm-1, East-West, Deep Blue Cable and the Fibralink submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Ecuador
general assessment: much of the country's fixed-line structure is influenced by topographical challenges associated with the Andes Mountains; Ecuador has a small telecom market with a dominant mobile sector; the state-owned incumbent CNT dominates the fixed-line market, and therefore the DSL broadband market as well; mobile broadband market growing and expanding LTE services (2020)
domestic: fixed-line services with digital networks provided by multiple telecommunications operators; fixed-line teledensity stands at about 14 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular use has surged and subscribership has reached 96 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 593; landing points for the PAN-AM, PCCS, America Movil-Telxius West Coast Cable and SAm-1 submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, and extending onward to the Caribbean and the US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Egypt
general assessment: one of the biggest fixed-line systems in Africa and the Arab region; one of the largest mobile telecom markets in North Africa; penetration rate of about 94%; LTE launch in late 2017, which greatly helped the capabilities of mobile broadband services, and the beginning of developing the 5G network; recent govt. efforts to fund next generation networks, develop technology parks and extend broadband availability (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 8 per 100, mobile-cellular 94 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 20; landing points for Aletar, Africa-1, FEA, Hawk, IMEWE, and the SEA-ME-WE-3 & 4 submarine cable networks linking to Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Australia ; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
El Salvador
general assessment: multiple mobile-cellular operators began rolling out Long Term Evolution (LTE) data services in late-2016; Internet usage grew almost 400% between 2007 and 2015; 6% of phones are fixed-line while 94% are mobile-cellular; as of March 2019, the regulator launched a public dialog that allowed mobile network operators to improve the reach and quality of service; telecom legislation encourages competition and foreign investment; only 1 DSL market leader retaining a monopoly; govt. increases tax on telecom services to 18% (2020)
domestic: growth in fixed-line services 14 per 100, has slowed in the face of mobile-cellular competition at 148 per 100 (2019)
international: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Equatorial Guinea
general assessment: digital fixed-line network in most major urban areas and decent mobile cellular coverage; 3G technology has allowed for estimated 9.5% of growth during 2016 -2021; mobile data will be the fastest-growing segment 2016-2021 (2018)
domestic: fixed-line density is about 1 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular subscribership is 74 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 240; landing points for the ACE, Ceiba-1, and Ceiba-2 submarine cables providing communication from Bata and Malabo, Equatorial Guinea to numerous Western African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Eritrea
general assessment: woefully inadequate service provided by state-owned telecom monopoly; most fixed-line telephones are in Asmara; cell phone use is limited by government control of SIM card issuance; no data service; only about 4% of households having computers with 2% Internet; untapped market ripe for competition; direct phone service between Eritrea and Ethiopia was restored in September 2018; government telco working on roll-out of 3G network; in 2019 11% mobile penetration (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscribership is less than 1 per 100 person and mobile-cellular 9 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 291 (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Estonia
general assessment: a range of regulatory measures, competition and foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures has greatly improved telephone service with a wide range of high-quality voice, data, and Internet services; one of the most advanced mobile markets in Europe; one of the highest broadband penetration in Europe; govt. commits 20 million euro to rural broadband program; regulator auctions spectrum in the 2.6GHz band for LTE and 5G services (2020)
domestic: 28 per 100 for fixed-line and 155 per 100 for mobile-cellular; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are widely available; schools and libraries are connected to the Internet, a large percentage of the population files income tax returns online, and online voting - in local and parliamentary elections - has climbed steadily since first being introduced in 2005; a large percent of Estonian households have broadband access (2018)
international: country code - 372; landing points for the EE-S-1, EESF-3, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, FEC and EESF-2 fiber-optic submarine cables to other Estonia points, Finland, and Sweden; 2 international switches are located in Tallinn (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Eswatini
general assessment: earlier government monopoly in telecommunications hindered its growth; new regulatory authority established in 2013 has aided expansion in the telecom sector; 2G, 3G, 4G and LTE services (2018)
domestic: Eswatini has 2 mobile-cellular providers; communication infrastructure has a geographic coverage of about 90% and a rising subscriber base; fixed-line stands at 3 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 68 telephones per 100 persons; telephone system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay (2018)
international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Ethiopia
general assessment: Ethio Telecom maintained a monopoly over telecommunication services until recently and is now part-private; new expansion of LTE services; in 2019 govt. approved legislations which opened the market to competition and provides much needed foreign investment; one of the tech companies is Chinese company Huawei; govt. reduces tariffs by up to 50% in 2018, the result is an increase in data and voice traffic; govt. launches mobile app as part of e-govt initiative to build tech city (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions at 1 per 100 while mobile-cellular stands at 59 per 100; the number of mobile telephones is increasing steadily (2018)
international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2016)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
European Union
note - see individual country entries of member states
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
general assessment: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions 77 per 100, 146 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2015)
international: country code - 500; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries (2015)
Faroe Islands
general assessment: good international and domestic communications; telecommunications network of high standards with excellent  coverage throughout most parts of the country and at competitive prices (2020)
domestic: 34 per 100 for fixed-line and 111 per 100 for mobile-cellular; both NMT (analog) and GSM (digital) mobile telephone systems are installed
international: country code - 298; landing points for the SHEFA-2, FARICE-1, and CANTAT-3 fiber-optic submarine cables from the Faeroe Islands, to Denmark, Germany, UK and Iceland; satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Fiji
general assessment: local, interisland, and international telecommunications; subject to occasional devastating cyclones; Fiji is a leader in the Pacific region in terms of development of its ICT (Information & Communications Technology) sector and investment in telecoms infrastructure; mobile services the primary source of Internet access across the region; most advanced economy in the Pacific island region as well as hosting the highest mobile Internet penetration; initial progress towards 5G readiness (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 8 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 112 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 679; landing points for the ICN1, SCCN, Southern Cross NEXT, Tonga Cable and Tui-Samoa submarine cable links to US, NZ, Australia and Pacific islands of Fiji, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, Fallis & Futuna, and American Samoa; satellite earth stations - 2 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Finland
general assessment: excellent service; one of the most progressive in Europe; one of the highest broadband and mobile penetrations rates in the region; for 2025 and 2030 FttP (fiber to the home) and DOCSIS3.1 (new generation of cable services for high speed connections) technologies; subscribers are migrating from 3G to LTE and 5G networks; astute regulatory measures have encouraged market competition and company investment (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 6 per 100 subscription and 129 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 358; landing points for Botnia, BCS North-1 & 2, SFL, SFS-4, C-Lion1, Eastern Lights, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, FEC, and EESF-2 & 3 submarine cables that provide links to many Finland points, Estonia, Sweden, Germany, and Russia; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
France
general assessment: one of the largest mobile phone markets in Europe, worth 13 billion annually; LTE has universal coverage with extensive 5G launching any day, one of the largest broadband subscriber bases in Europe; regional govt. and telecom companies have invested in higher bandwidth w/ fiber infrastructure improvements, an investment more than 20 billion euros (2020)
domestic: 57 per 100 persons for fixed-line and 105 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 33; landing points for Circe South, TAT-14, INGRID, FLAG Atlantic-1, Apollo, HUGO, IFC-1, ACE, SeaMeWe-3 & 4, Dunant, Africa-1, AAE-1, Atlas Offshore, Hawk, IMEWE, Med Cable, PEACE Cable, and TE North/TGN-Eurasia/SEACOM/Alexandros/Medex submarine cables providing links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Africa and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries (2019)
overseas departments: country codes: French Guiana - 594; landing points for Ella Link, Kanawa, Americas II to South America, Europe, Caribbean and US; Guadeloupe - 590; landing points for GCN, Southern Caribbean Fiber, and ECFS around the Caribbean and US; Martinique - 596; landing points for Americas II, ECFS, and Southern Caribbean Fiber to South America, US and around the Caribbean;  Mayotte - 262; landing points for FLY-LION3 and LION2 to East Africa and East African Islands in Indian Ocean; Reunion - 262; landing points for SAFE, METISS, and LION submarine cables to Asia, South and East Africa, Southeast Asia and nearby Indian Ocean Island countries of Mauritius, and Madagascar (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
French Polynesia
general assessment: one of the most advanced telecom infrastructures for the Pacific island region; 85% mobile broadband coverage; 40% of its mobile connections using 3G and the rest using emerging 4G LTE technology; 100% mobile penetration; uses Uplink systems of the Galileo satellite network; and with the launch of the Kacific-1 satellite in 2019, it will allow speedy access to the Internet for Pacific islands (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions 31 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular density is roughly 104 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 689; landing points for the NATITUA, Manatua, and Honotua submarine cables to other French Polynesian Islands, Cook Islands, Niue, Samoa and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Gabon
general assessment: fixed-line and Internet sectors have remained underdeveloped due to the lack of competition and high prices; sufficient international bandwidth due to submarine cable systems, but monopolized by Gabon Telecom; 3G and mobile LTE services and mobile broadband available; govt. commits to XAF 150 billion in backbone infrastructure work through 2020; efforts towards new legal and regulatory improvements (2020)
domestic: fixed-line is 1 per 100 subscriptions; a growing mobile cellular network with multiple providers is making telephone service more widely available with mobile cellular teledensity at 138 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 241; landing points for the SAT-3/WASC, ACE and Libreville-Port Gentil Cable fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and West Africa; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Gambia, The
general assessment: state-owned Gambia Telecommunications partially privatized but still retaining a monopoly with fixed-line service; multiple mobile networks offering effective competition; three licensed ISPs which serve local area without much competition; mobile penetrations above the African average; lack of availability of fixed-line services in many rural areas of the country; govt. started a National Broadband Network program aimed at closing the digital divide but not funded by Parliament in 2018; the Chinese company Huawei helping in the telecommunications sector (2020)
domestic: fixed-line stands at 2 per 100 subscriptions with one dominant company and mobile-cellular teledensity, aided by multiple mobile-cellular providers, is over 152 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 220; landing point for the ACE submarine cable to West Africa and Europe; microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Gaza Strip
general assessment: Israel has final say in allocating frequencies in the Gaza Strip and does not permit anything beyond a 2G network (2018)
domestic: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for fixed-line services; the Palestinian JAWWAL company provides cellular services; a slow 2G network allows calls and limited data transmission; fixed-line 9 per 100 and mobile-cellular 76 per 100 (includes West Bank)
international: country code 970 or 972 (2018)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Georgia
general assessment: telecommunications fastest growing area of Georgia's economy; LTE services now cover the vast majority of the population; fixed-line telecommunications network has limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country; broadband subscribers steadily increasing; with the recent investment in infrastructure customers are moving from copper to fiber networks (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 12 per 100, cellular telephone networks cover the entire country; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 111 per 100 persons; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi (2018)
international: country code - 995; landing points for the Georgia-Russia, Diamond Link Global, and Caucasus Cable System fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Russia, Romania and Bulgaria; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Germany
general assessment: one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part; universal 3G infrastructure available and LTE networks; mobile market the largest in Europe 107.5 million as of 2019; available reach of 5G services in 5 cities; 98% LTE coverage; penetration in broadband and mobile sectors average for region; Hamburg develops smart city concept (2020)
domestic: extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries; 53 per 100 for fixed-line and 134 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 49; landing points for SeaMeWe-3, TAT-14, AC-1, CONTACT-3, Fehmarn Balt, C-Lion1, GC1, GlobalConnect-KPN, and Germany-Denmark 2 & 3 - submarine cables to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia; as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Ghana
general assessment: highly competitive Internet market; govt. helped fund programs for telecom services nationally; mobile accounts for how people access the Internet; LTE service launched in 2019; the government invested in fiber infrastructure and set up 600 additional towers to provide basic mobile services; m-money inter-operability launched; international submarine cables and new terrestrial cables have improved Internet capacity and reduced price for end-users; one of the most active mobile markets in Africa (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 subscriptions; competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 146 per 100 persons and rising (2018)
international: country code - 233; landing points for the SAT-3/WASC, MainOne, ACE, WACS and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South and West Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors; Ghana-1 satellite launched in 2020 (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Gibraltar
general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities (2018)
domestic: automatic exchange facilities; 60 per 100 fixed-line and 139 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 350; landing point for the EIG to Europe, Asia, Africa and the Middle East via submarine cables; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
Greece
general assessment: good mobile telephone and international services; 3 mobile network operators; broadband penetration developing steadily despite rough economic conditions; plans to repurpose 3G network for LTE and 5G by 2022 (2020)
domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands; 48 per 100 for fixed-line and 114 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 30; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3, Adria-1, Italy-Greece 1, OTEGLOBE, MedNautilus Submarine System, Aphrodite 2, AAE-1 and Silphium optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, Asia and Australia;  tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat - Indian Ocean region) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Greenland
general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables, and microwave radio relay; the fundamental telecommunications infrastructure consists of a digital radio link from Nanortalik in south Greenland to Uummannaq in north Greenland; satellites cover north and east Greenland for domestic and foreign telecommunications; a marine cable connects south and west Greenland to the rest of the world, extending from Nuuk and Qaqortoq to Canada and Iceland (2018)
domestic: 14 per 100 for fixed-line subscriptions and 108 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 299; landing points for Greenland Connect, Greenland Connect North, Nunavut Undersea Fiber System submarine cables to Greenland, Iceland, and Canada; satellite earth stations - 15 (12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean)) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Grenada
general assessment: adequate, island-wide telephone system; lack of local competition, but telecoms are a high contributors to overall GDP; growth sectors include the mobile telephony and data segments (2020)
domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links; 29 per 100 for fixed-line and 101 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 1-473; landing points for the ECFS, Southern Caribbean Fiber and CARCIP submarine cables with links to 13 Caribbean islands extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad & Tobago including Puerto Rico and Barbados; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Guam
general assessment: integrated with US facilities for direct dialing, including free use of 800 numbers (2020)
domestic: three major companies provide both fixed-line and mobile services, as well as access to the Internet; fixed-line 42 per 100 and 113 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 1-671; major landing points for Atisa, HANTRU1, HK-G, JGA-N, JGA-S, PIPE-1, SEA-US, SxS, Tata TGN-Pacific, AJC, GOKI, AAG, AJC and Mariana-Guam Cable submarine cables between Asia, Australia, and the US (Guam is a transpacific communications hub for major carriers linking the US and Asia); satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Guatemala
general assessment: network centered in the city of Guatemala; one of the lowest teledensities in the region especially in the country, rural areas have no fixed-line access so mobile services adopted as necessary; state-owned telecommunications company privatized in the late 1990s opened the way for competition; steady improvement of fixed-line which has also spurred growth in mobile-cellular and broadband; open regulatory framework coupled with competition and greater disposable household revenue spurs growth (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 15 per 100 persons; fixed-line investments are concentrating on improving rural connectivity; mobile-cellular teledensity about 123 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 502; landing points for the ARCOS, AMX-1, American Movil-Texius West Coast Cable and the SAm-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that, together, provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Guernsey
general assessment: high performance global connections with quality service; connections to major cities around the world to rival and attract future investment and future needs of islanders and businesses (2018)
domestic: fixed-line 60 per 100 and mobile-cellular 113 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 44; landing points for Guernsey-Jersey, HUGO, INGRID, Channel Islands -9 Liberty and UK-Channel Islands-7 submarine cable to UK and France (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Guinea
general assessment: huge improvement over the last ten years; in May 2019, 4G Wi-Fi was launched in the capital; the regional administrative centers all have 3G access; the 2018 set up of an IXP (Internet Exchange Point) reduced the cost of Internet bandwidth and improved infrastructure; a National Backbone Network is nearing completion to connect administrative centers (2020)
domestic: there is national coverage and Conakry is reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate but is improving; fixed-line teledensity is less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding rapidly and now 101 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 224; ACE submarine cable connecting Guinea with 20 landing points in Western and South Africa and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Guinea-Bissau
general assessment: small system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile cellular communications; 2 mobile network operators; one of the poorest countries in the world and this is reflected in the countries telecommunications development; radio is the most important source of information for the public (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile cellular teledensity is roughly 81 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 245; ACE submarine cable connecting Guinea-Bissau with 20 landing points in Western and South Africa and Europe (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Guyana
general assessment: reliable international long distance service; 100% digital network; national transmission supported by fiber optic cable and rural network by microwaves; more than 150,000 lines; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone services; 2019 budget allocates funds for ICT (Information and Communications Technology) development; broadband subscribers remains small and end-users incur expense to use (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 87 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 592; landing point for the SG-SCS submarine cable to Suriname, and the Caribbean; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Haiti
general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is among the least-developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic cell service is functional; Hurricane Matthew in 2016 caused $35 million worth of damage to telecoms infrastructure; some expansion of LTE services (2020)
domestic: fixed-line is less than 1 per 100; mobile-cellular telephone services have expanded greatly in the last decade due to low-cost GSM (Global Systems for Mobile) phones and pay-as-you-go plans; mobile-cellular teledensity is 59 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 509; landing points for the BDSNi and Fibralink submarine cables to 14 points in the Bahamas and Dominican Republic; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Holy See (Vatican City)
general assessment: automatic digital exchange (2018)
domestic: connected via fiber-optic cable to Telecom Italia network (2018)
international: country code - 39; uses Italian system
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Honduras
general assessment: fixed-line connections are increasing but still limited; competition among multiple providers of mobile-cellular services and international investment has contributed to a sharp increase in subscribership; demand for broadband increasing and some investment needed in network upgrades; mobile penetration below regional average; free access to the Internet in public schools (2020)
domestic: private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed lines in order to expand telephone coverage contributing to a small increase in fixed-line teledensity 6 per 100; mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 84 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 504; landing points for both the ARCOS and the MAYA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable systems that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Hong Kong
general assessment: excellent domestic and international services; some of the highest peak average broadband speeds in the world; HK aims to be among the earliest adopters of 5G mobile technology; almost all households have access to high-speed broadband connectivity; HK broadband penetration rate is among the highest in the world; in the next five years the government has organized the development of 'smart cities' in six areas - "smart mobility", "smart living", "smart environment", "smart people", "smart government", and "smart economy"  by 2024 (2020)
domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network; fixed-line is 58 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 276 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 852; landing points for the APG, ASE, EAC-C2C, HK-G, Bay-to-Bay Express Cable System, H2 Cable, HKA, SJC, SJC2, PLCN, SeaMeWe-3, TGN-IA, APCN-2, AAG, FLAG and FEA submarine cables that provide connections to Asia, US, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Hungary
general assessment: telephone system is digital and highly automated; broadband penetration is the highest in Eastern Europe; replacement of all copper infrastructure with fiber nationally; govt. expands e-payment systems; regulator makes preparations for 5G service (2020)
domestic: competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones, 102 per 100, and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections, 31 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Iceland
general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is modern and fully digitized, with satellite-earth stations, fiber-optic cables, and an extensive broadband network; LTE licenses providing 99% population coverage; small but most progressive telecom market in Europe; good competition among mobile and broadband markets (2020)
domestic: liberalization of the telecommunications sector beginning in the late 1990s has led to increased competition especially in the mobile services segment of the market; 40 per 100 for fixed line and 124 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 354; landing points for the CANTAT-3, FARICE-1, Greenland Connect and DANICE submarine cable system that provides connectivity to Canada, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, UK, Denmark, and Germany; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Iceland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
India
general assessment: supported by deregulation and liberalization of telecommunication laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; implementation of 4G/LTE services shift to data services across the country; highly competitive mobile market with price wars and value-added-services of mobile data; potential to become one of the largest five data center markets globally; steps taken towards 5G services; fixed broadband penetration is expected to grow at a moderate rate over the next five years to 2023 (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions stands at 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular at 91 per 100; mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT) (2018)
international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 & 4, AAE-1, BBG, EIG, FALCON, FEA, GBICS, MENA, IMEWE, SEACOM/ Tata TGN-Eurasia, SAFE, WARF, Bharat Lanka Cable System, IOX, Chennai-Andaman & Nicobar Island Cable, SAEx2, Tata TGN-Tata Indicom and i2icn that provide connectivity to Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, South East Asia, numerous Indian Ocean islands including Australia ; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Indonesia
general assessment: international service good; Indonesia has very low fixed line and fixed broadband penetration, high mobile penetration and moderate mobile broadband penetration; 4G mobile services are relatively advanced, 7 operators compete for revenue in the Indonesian market; Chinese company Huawei and LTE work on the development of 5G technology in the country; mobile broadband market still in early stages of development; data center market has experienced significant growth; Kacific-1 satellite launched in 2019 to significantly improve telecommunications (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 3 per 100 and mobile-cellular 122 per 100 persons; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly (2018)
international: country code - 62; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3 & 5, DAMAI, JASUKA, BDM, Dumai-Melaka Cable System, IGG, JIBA, Link 1, 3, 4,  & 5, PGASCOM, B3J2, Tanjung Pandam-Sungai Kakap Cable System, JAKABARE, JAYABAYA, INDIGO-West, Matrix Cable System, ASC, SJJK, Jaka2LaDeMa, S-U-B Cable System, JBCS, MKCS, BALOK, Palapa Ring East, West and Middle, SMPCS Packet-1 and 2, LTCS, TSCS, SEA-US and Kamal Domestic Submarine Cable System, 35 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, Australia, Southeast Asia, Africa and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Iran
general assessment: opportunities for telecoms growth, but disadvantaged by the lack of significant investment; one of the largest populations in the Middle East with a huge demand for services; mobile penetration is high with over 90% accessing 4G LTE coverage; Iranian-net, is currently expanding a fiber network to reach 8 million customers; govt. is proactively preparing regulations for 5G development (2020)
domestic: 37 per 100 for fixed-line and 107 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions; investment by Iran's state-owned telecom company has greatly improved and expanded both the fixed-line and mobile cellular networks; a huge percentage of the cell phones in the market have been smuggled into the country (2019)
international: country code - 98; landing points for Kuwait-Iran, GBICS & MENA, FALCON, OMRAN/3PEG Cable System, POI and UAE-Iran submarine fiber-optic cable to the Middle East, Africa and India; (TAE) fiber-optic line runs from Azerbaijan through the northern portion of Iran to Turkmenistan with expansion to Georgia and Azerbaijan; HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; satellite earth stations - 13 (9 Intelsat and 4 Inmarsat) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Iraq
general assessment: the 2003 liberation of Iraq severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq; widespread government efforts to rebuild domestic and international communications have slowed due to political unrest; 2018 showed signs of stability and installations of new fiber-optic cables and growth in mobile broadband subscribers; the most popular plans are pre-paid; 3 major operators in mobile sector preparing 4G and even 5G technologies; operators focused on fixing and replacing networks damaged during civil war (2020)
domestic: the mobile cellular market continues to expand; 3G services offered by three major mobile operators; 4G offered by one operator in Iraqi Kurdistan Region; conflict has destroyed infrastructure in areas; 7 per 100 for fixed-line and 98 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 964; landing points for FALCON, and GBICS/MENA submarine cables providing connections to the Middle East, Africa and India; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region, and 1 Arabsat (inoperative)); local microwave radio relay connects border regions to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Ireland
general assessment: a previous depressed economic climate has changed to one with Ireland having one of the highest GDP growth rates in Europe, which translates to mean spending among telecom consumers; introduction of flat-rate plans; upgraded LTE technologies in rural areas; govt. intends to spend millions on the National Broadband Plan (NBP) initiative to change the broadband landscape; plans to auction spectrum suitable for 5G services; broadband market seen steady development; 20 towns see commercial 5G services (2020)
domestic: increasing levels of broadband access particularly in urban areas; fixed-line 36 per 100 and mobile-cellular 98 per 100 subscriptions; digital system using cable and microwave radio relay (2018)
international: country code - 353; landing point for the AEConnect -1, Celtic-Norse, Havfrue/AEC-2, GTT Express, Celtic, ESAT-1, IFC-1, Solas, Pan European Crossing, ESAT-2, CeltixConnect -1 & 2, GTT Atlantic, Sirius South, Emerald Bridge Fibres and Geo Eirgrid submarine cable with links to the US, Canada, Norway, Isle of Man and UK; satellite earth stations - 81 (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Isle of Man
domestic: landline, telefax, mobile cellular telephone system
international: country code - 44; fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, satellite earth station, submarine cable
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Israel
general assessment: one of the most highly developed system in the Middle East; mobile broadband 100% population penetration; consumers enjoy inexpensive 3G and 4G cellular service; fixed broadband available to 99% of all households; 6 mobile operators in fierce competition; in 2019 govt. began process of 5G licensing (2020)
domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; competition among both fixed-line and mobile cellular providers results in good coverage countrywide; fixed-line 38 per 100 and 127 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2019)
international: country code - 972; landing points for the MedNautilus Submarine System, Tameres North, Jonah and Lev Submarine System submarine cables that provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Italy
general assessment: well-developed, fully automated telephone, and data services; highest mobile penetration rates in Europe, benefitted from progressive govt. programs aimed at developing fiber in broadband sector; leading edge of development with 5G in 6 cities; regulator consults on extending 3.5 Gz licensing; fiber network reaches 60% of population (2020)
domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks; 33 per 100 for fixed-line and 134 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 39; landing points for Italy-Monaco, Italy-Libya, Italy-Malta, Italy-Greece-1, Italy-Croatia, BlueMed, Janna, FEA, SeaMeWe-3 & 4 & 5, Trapani-Kelibia, Columbus-III, Didon, GO-1, HANNIBAL System, MENA, Bridge International, Malta-Italy Interconnector, Melita1, IMEWE, VMSCS, AAE-1, and OTEGLOBE, submarine cables that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Jamaica
general assessment: good domestic and international service; mobile sector dominate, accounting for 82% of the Internet connections; extensive LTE networks providing coverage to 90% of the island population (2020)
domestic: while the number of fixed-lines, 13 per 100, subscriptions has declined, cellular-mobile has grown 105 per 100 subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 1-876 and 1-658; landing points for the ALBA-1, CFX-1, Fibralink, East-West, and Cayman-Jamaican Fiber System submarine cables providing connections to South America, parts of the Caribbean, Central America and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Japan
general assessment: excellent domestic and international service; exceedingly high mobile, mobile broadband and fixed broadband penetration; strong govt. policies for over a decade see over 90% of households with FttX; one of Japan's largest e-commerce companies planning to build its own nationwide stand-alone 5G mobile network; govt. to implement a telecom tax to pay for rural 5G network; FttH will continue to increase its share of total fixed broadband subscriptions as DSL is phased out; mature telecom system will show slow growth in the next few years to 2024 (2020)
domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind; 50 per 100 for fixed-line and 143 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 81; numerous submarine cables with landing points for HSCS, JIH, RJCN, APCN-2, JUS, EAC-C2C, PC-1, Tata TGN-Pacific, FLAG North Asia Loop/REACH North Asia Loop, APCN-2, FASTER, SJC, SJC2, Unity/EAC-Pacific, JGA-N, APG, ASE, AJC, JUPITER, MOC, Okinawa Cellular Cable, KJCN, GOKI, KJCN, and SeaMeWE-3, submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa and US; satellite earth stations - 7 Intelsat (Pacific and Indian Oceans), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), 2 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions), and 8 SkyPerfect JSAT (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Jersey
general assessment: good system with broadband access (2018)
domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; fixed-line 58 per 100 and mobile-cellular 119 per 100 subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 44; landing points for the INGRID, UK-Channel Islands-8, and Guernsey-Jersey-4, submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey, the UK, and France (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Jordan
general assessment: microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services; recent influx of refugees putting burden on country's economy, infrastructure and society; mobile broadband is area of growth with 4G services; govt. recently launched Ministry of Digital Economy & Entrepreneurship; preparing for next wave of development with 5G and IoT/MsM services (2020)
domestic: 1995 telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005, monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; currently multiple mobile-cellular providers with subscribership up to 83 per 100 persons; fixed-line 4 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 962; landing point for the FEA and Taba-Aqaba submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Asia; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Kazakhstan
general assessment: one of the most progressive telecoms sectors in Central Asia; vast 4G network; low fixed-line and fixed-broadband penetration, moderate mobile broadband penetration and high mobile penetration; mobile market highly competitive and slow growth due to saturation (2020)
domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is 18 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage increased rapidly and the subscriber base approaches 139 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the TAE fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Kenya
general assessment: the mobile-cellular system is generally good with a mobile subscriber base of 47 million, especially in urban areas; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; to encourage advancement of the LTE services the govt. has fostered an open-access approach and pushed for a national broadband strategy; more licensing being awarded has led to competition which is good for growth; govt. commits KE 300million to its free Wi-Fi project (2020)
domestic: multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 97 per 100 persons; fixed-line subscriptions stand at less than 1 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS, LION2, DARE1, PEACE Cable, and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems covering East, North and South Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat; launched first micro satellites in 2018 (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Kiribati
general assessment: generally good quality national and international service; wireline service available on Tarawa and Kiritimati (Christmas Island); connections to outer islands by HF/VHF radiotelephone; recently formed mobile network operator (MNO) is implementing the first phase of improvements with 3G and 4G upgrades on some islands; islands are connected to each other and the rest of the world via satellite; launch of Kacific-1 in December 2019 will improve telecommunication for Kiribati (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 54 per 100 subscriptions
international: country code - 686; landing point for the Southern Cross NEXT submarine cable system from Australia, 7 Pacific Ocean island countries to the US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Korea, North
general assessment: nationwide fiber-optic network; mobile-cellular service expanded beyond Pyongyang; infrastructure underdeveloped yet growing mobile penetration by means of foreign investment; Chinese services being increasingly favored and FaceBook and Instagram actions dropped and now absent; low broadband penetration; mobile penetration in North Korea believed to stay well below other Asian nations due to government restrictions; 3G network deployed among universal population (2020)
domestic: fiber-optic links installed down to the county level; telephone directories unavailable; mobile service launched in late 2008 for the Pyongyang area and considerable progress in expanding to other parts of the country since; fixed-lines are 5 per 100 and mobile-cellular 14 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 850; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Russian - Indian Ocean region); other international connections through Moscow and Beijing
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Korea, South
general assessment: excellent domestic and international services featuring rapid incorporation of new technologies; ranked 2nd out of 34 Asian telecom companies; exceedingly high mobile and mobile broadband penetration and very high fixed broadband penetration; highest number of broadband per capita; strong support from govt., savvy population has catapulted the nation into one of the world's most active telecommunication markets; 5G services live for enterprise customers in 2019, all 3 mobile operators offer 5G networks; slower growth predicted over the next five years to 2023 due to saturation and maturity of market; Chinese telecommunications company Huawei has partnered with other MNOs in South Korea (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 50 per 100 and mobile-cellular services 129 per 100 persons; rapid assimilation of a full range of telecommunications technologies leading to a boom in e-commerce (2018)
international: country code - 82; landing points for EAC-C2C, FEA, SeaMeWe-3, TPE, APCN-2, APG, FLAG North Asia Loop/REACH North Asia Loop, KJCN, NCP, and SJC2 submarine cables providing links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southeast Asia and US; satellite earth stations - 66 (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Kosovo
general assessment: Kosovo being part of the EU pre-accession process has helped with their progress in the telecom industry, following a regulatory framework, European standards, and a market of new players encourages development in its telecommunications; 2 MNOs dominate the sector; poor telecom infrastructure means low fixed-line penetration; little expansion of fiber networks for broadband; expansion of LTE services (2020)
domestic: fixed-line stands at 45 per 100 and mobile-cellular 31 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 383
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Kuwait
general assessment: the quality of service is excellent; new telephone exchanges provide a large capacity for new subscribers; trunk traffic is carried by microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and open-wire and fiber-optic cable; a 4G LTE mobile-cellular telephone system operates throughout Kuwai; Internet access is available via 4G LTE connections for fixed and mobile users; high ownership of smart phone in Kuwait; one of the highest mobile penetration rates in the world; exploring 5G opportunities; improvements to fiber-broadband underway (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions are 18 per 100 and mobile-cellular stands at 243 per 100 subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 965; landing points for the FOG, GBICS, MENA, Kuwait-Iran, and FALCON submarine cables linking Africa, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 6 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean, and 2 Arabsat) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Kyrgyzstan
general assessment: fixed-line phones declining quickly by roll-out of 4G LTE mobile networks; digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links; low fixed-line and fixed-broadband penetration and moderate mobile broadband penetration; international connectivity continues to grow; 4 mobile networks in operation; 4G networks cover over 50% of the nation, eventually 5G networks will be available (2020 )
domestic: fixed-line penetration 6 per 100 persons remains low and concentrated in urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership up to over 149 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States, 9 members post-Soviet Republics in EU) countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Laos
general assessment: the government relies on a radiotelephone network to communicate with remote areas; the regulatory reform is below industry standards but is trying to strengthen its telecommunication infrastructure and subsequently attract foreign investment; low fixed-broadband penetration due to dominance of mobile platforms; strong boost in mobile broadband penetration but still low compared to other Asian markets; mobile sector growth held back by regulators trying to keep hold on pricing and open competition; development of mobile broadband Internet services given the expansion of 4G services (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 20 per 100 and 51 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 856; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and a second to be developed by China
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Latvia
general assessment: recent efforts focused on bringing competition to the telecommunications sector; the number of fixed-line is decreasing as mobile-cellular telephone service expands; EU regulatory policies, and framework provide guidelines for growth; govt. adopted measures to build a national fiber broadband network, part-funded by European Commission; new competition in mobile markets with extensive LTE-A technologies and 5G service growth (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular 108 per 100 subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 371; the Latvian network is now connected via fiber-optic cable to Estonia, Finland, and Sweden
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Lebanon
general assessment: two mobile-cellular networks provide good service, with 4G LTE services; future improvements to fiber-optic infrastructure for total nation coverage proposed by 2020; in 2018 first successful 5G trial conducted and in 2019 first live mobile 5G site launched, unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted telecoms industry and pricing has been raised (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 15 per 100 and 73 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 961; landing points for the IMEWE, BERYTAR AND CADMOS submarine cable links to Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Lesotho
general assessment: mobile penetration remains below regional average; introduction of mobile broadband in the country & LTE technology, with 5G trials in early 2019; fixed-line teledensity is low; mobile-cellular telephone system is growth sector; regulator considering improving SIM card registration (2020)
domestic: mobile-cellular service dominates the market with a subscribership now over 122 per 100 persons; fixed-line is 1 per 100 subscriptions; rudimentary system consisting of a modest number of landlines, a small microwave radio relay system, and a small radiotelephone communication system (2018)
international: country code - 266; Internet accessibility has improved with several submarine fiber optic cables that land on African east and west coasts, but the country's land locked position makes access prices expensive; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Liberia
general assessment: the limited services available are found almost exclusively in the capital, Monrovia; fixed-line service is stagnant and extremely limited; telephone coverage recently extended to a number of other towns and rural areas by four mobile-cellular network operators; Liberia is almost entirely a wireless telecommunications market; a number of operators avoid paying dues and operate despite regulations; govt. regulatory impose SIM card registration in an attempt to reduce crime, but makes mobile penetration seem low; the high cost and limited bandwidth of connections means that Internet access is expensive and data rates are very low (2020)
domestic: fixed-line less than 1 per 100; mobile-cellular subscription base growing and teledensity approached 66 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 231; landing point for the ACE submarine cable linking 20 West African countries and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Libya
general assessment: political and security instability in Libya has disrupted its telecommunications sector, but much of its infrastructure remains superior to that in most other African countries; registering a SIM card now requires proof of ID; govt. established new independent regulatory authority; LTE-based fixed broadband network launched; highest market penetration rates in Africa; growth opportunity in broadband sector (2020)
domestic: 23 per 100 fixed-line and 91 per 100 mobile-cellular subscriptions; service generally adequate (2019)
international: country code - 218; landing points for LFON, EIG, Italy-Libya, Silphium and Tobrok-Emasaed submarine cable system connecting Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, Arabsat, and Intersputnik;  microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Liechtenstein
general assessment: automatic telephone system; 44 Internet service providers in Liechtenstein and Switzerland combined; FttP (fiber to the home) penetration marketed 3rd highest in EU; fiber network reaches 3/4 of the population (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 40 per 100 and mobile-cellular services 123 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Lithuania
general assessment: adequate; improved international capability and better residential access; SIM card penetration is high for the region; prepaid sector accounts for most subscribers; postpaid subscribers is increasing; LTE networks available to more than 99% of the population; Lithuanian FttP (fiber to the home cable connections for Internet) penetration ranked third highest in Europe; govt. and telecoms invest in fiber, fiber accounts for most new broadband connections; effective competition with 3 network operators in mobile sector and all investing in LTE and mobile data services (2020)
domestic: 15 per 100 for fixed-line subscriptions; rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 164 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 370; landing points for the BCS East, BCS East-West Interlink and NordBalt connecting Lithuania to Sweden, and Latvia ; further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Luxembourg
general assessment: highly developed; by 2020 the government is to provide a 1Gb/s service to all citizens, and to make Luxembourg the first fully fibered country in Europe; new law requiring SIM cards be registered has slowed down growth for mobile subscribers; regulator planning a multi-spectrum auction for 5G use by mid-2020 (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity about 45 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated with 134 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 352
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Macau
general assessment: modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services; high mobile subscriber numbers and mobile penetration with 4 network operators; offering 4G, LTE services and 1st phase of 5G network rollout; possible synchronizing with neighboring regions; Macau's smart city project spans areas of transportation, medical services, tourism and 3-government (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 20 per 100 and mobile-cellular 360 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 853; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Africa, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe; HF radiotelephone communication facility; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Madagascar
general assessment: system is above average for the region; competition among the four mobile service providers has spurred recent growth in the mobile market and helped the service to be less expensive for the consumer; 3G and LTE services available; Telecom service tax raised to 10% (2020)
domestic: less than 1 per 100 for fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 41 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 261; landing points for the EASSy, METISS, and LION fiber-optic submarine cable systems connecting to numerous Indian Ocean Islands, South Africa, and Eastern African countries; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Malawi
general assessment: rudimentary; 2 fixed-line and 3 mobile-cellular operators govern the market; some mobile services to rural areas; in a resolution to discourage crime the regulatory has imposed SIM card registration since 2018; 50 licensed ISPs; DSL services are available; LTE services are available; mobile penetration low in comparison to the region average; potential for growth; national fiber backbone nearing completion; prospect of gaining access to international submarine fiber optic cables from neighboring countries  (2020)
domestic: limited fixed-line subscribership less than 1 per 100 households; mobile-cellular services are expanding but network coverage is limited and is based around the main urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership 36 per 100 households (2018)
international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Malaysia
general assessment: one of the most advanced telecom networks in the developing world; strong commitment to developing a technological society; Malaysia is promoting itself as an Information Tech hub in the Asian region; closing the urban rural divide; 4G and 5G networks with strong competition, mobile dominance over fixed-broadband; roll-out of a national broadband network (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 20 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 133 per 100 persons; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations (2018)
international: country code - 60; landing points for BBG, FEA, SAFE, SeaMeWe-3 & 4 & 5, AAE-1, JASUKA, BDM, Dumai-Melaka Cable System, BRCS, ACE, AAG, East-West Submarine Cable System, SEAX-1, SKR1M, APCN-2, APG, BtoBe, MCT, BaSICS, and Labuan-Brunei Submarine cable providing connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Australia and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean); launch of Kacific-1 satellite in 2019 (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable, and satellite - has moderated
Maldives
general assessment: upgrades to telecom infrastructure extended to outer islands; two mobile operators extend LTE coverage; tourism has strengthened the telecom market with investment and accounts for the high mobile penetration rate; mobile penetration passes 250%; launches 5G trials (2020)
domestic: fixed-line is at 5 per 100 persons and high mobile-cellular subscriptions stands at 219 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 960; landing points for Dhiraagu Cable Network, NaSCOM, Dhiraagu-SLT Submarine Cable Networks and WARF submarine cables providing connections to 8 points in Maldives, India, and Sri Lanka; satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Mali
general assessment: telecoms infrastructure is barely adequate in most town and not available in many areas of the country; geography is a challenge for telecommunications; poverty, security, high illiteracy and low PC use has taken its toll; 4 mobile operators in market; mobile penetration high and potential for mobile broadband service; local plans for Internet Exchange Point; as Mali is landlocked there is hope that neighboring countries will allow use of international bandwidth; G5 Sahel countries adopt free roaming measures; Chinese company Huawei attempts to build a national backbone network but security issues make this difficult (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscribership 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to over 119 per 100 persons; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas (2018)
international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Malta
general assessment: one of the most advanced telecoms in Europe, high penetration of mobile and broadband, and a way forward to expand e-commerce opportunities; stimulated by regulator measures to reduce consumer prices; extensive FttP network and investment in LTE and fiber thru 2023; launches 5G ready network (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 57 per 100  persons and mobile-cellular subscribership 137 per 100 persons; automatic system featuring submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands (2018)
international: country code - 356; landing points for the Malta-Gozo Cable, VMSCS, GO-1 Mediterranean Cable System, Malta Italy Interconnector, Melita-1, and the Italy-Malta submarine cable connections to Italy; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Marshall Islands
general assessment: some telecom infrastructure improvements made in recent years; modern services include fiber optic cable service, cellular, Internet, international calling, caller ID, and leased data circuits; the US Government, World Bank, UN and International Telecommunication Union (ITU), have aided in improvements and monetary aid to the islands telecom; mobile penetrations is around 30%; radio communication is especially vital to remote islands (2018)
domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by high frequency radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes) and mini-satellite telephones; fixed-line 3 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular is 21 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 692; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Mauritania
general assessment: limited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations; mobile-cellular services expanding; 3 mobile network operators; monopolies and little stimulus for competition; 3G penetration high yet little development in LTE and consequently mobile broadband access speeds are low; World Bank and European Investment Bank support attempts to improve telecom and improve regulatory measures; regulator struggles to enforce good quality of service; efforts to improve backbone of network (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular network coverage extends mainly to urban areas with a teledensity of roughly 119 per 100 persons; mostly cable and open-wire lines; a domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott with regional capitals (2018)
international: country code - 222; landing point for the ACE submarine cable for connectivity to 19 West African countries and 2 European countries; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean, 2 Arabsat) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Mauritius
general assessment: small system with good service; LTE and fiber broadband service are available; government supports building a national Wi-Fi network; partial privatization of biggest telecommunications company, open to competition; 3 mobile network operators; the country is a hub for submarine cables providing international connectivity; successfully pursuing a policy to make telecommunications a pillar of economic growth and to have a fully digital-based infrastructure (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity 32 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular services teledensity approaching 141 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 230; landing points for the SAFE, MARS, IOX Cable System, METISS and LION submarine cable system that provides links to Asia, Africa, Southeast Asia, Indian Ocean Islands of Reunion, Madagascar, and Mauritius; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); new microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several countries (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Mexico
general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; relatively low broadband and mobile penetration, potential for growth; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable; two main MNOs despite efforts for competition; 5G development slow given the existing capabilities of LTE; Mexico’s first local Internet Exchange Point opens in Mexico City; regulator strives to bring competition and foreign investment to Mexico; regulator brings back SIM card registration program (2020)
domestic: competition has spurred the mobile-cellular market; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 17 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 95 per 100 persons; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations (2018)
international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the ARCOS-1 and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2016)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable, and satellite - has moderated
Micronesia, Federated States of
general assessment: adequate system, the demand for mobile broadband is increasing due to mobile services being the primary and most wide-spread source for Internet access across the region (2020)
domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone, satellite (Intelsat) ground stations, and some coaxial and fiber-optic cable; mobile-cellular service available on the major islands (2016)
international: country code - 691; landing points for the Chuukk-Pohnpei Cable and HANTRU-1 submarine cable system linking the Federated States of Micronesia and the US; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Moldova
general assessment: the mobile market has extended the reach of services to outside the cities and across most of the country; endeavors to join the EU have promoted regulatory issues to be in line with EU principles and standards; LTE services available; market is competitive with 94 ISPs active; by mid-2019 fiber accounted for about 62% of all fixed broadband connections; most telecom revenue is from the mobile market (2020)
domestic: competition among mobile telephone providers has spurred subscriptions; little interest in expanding fixed-line service 32 per 100; mobile-cellular teledensity sits at 104 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Monaco
general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed-line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers; competitive mobile telephony market; 4G LTE widely available (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 141 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 106 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 377; landing points for the EIG and Italy-Monaco submarine cables connecting Monaco to Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Mongolia
general assessment: liberalized and competitive telecoms market; mobile broadband seen steady growth, but fixed-line broadband is an attractive option; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services; compared to other Asian countries, Mongolia's growth in telecommunications is moderate; mobile broadband is growing with 4 competitive MNOs (mobile network operators) along with better tariffs; 3G mobile broadband products are very popular, launch of 4G LTE services by all major operators; in May 2018 a South Korean company completed the sale of 40% stake back to Mongolian government (2020)
domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity 12 per 100; there are four mobile-cellular providers and subscribership is increasing with 136 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7 (2016)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Montenegro
general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites; telecom sector in-line with EU norms which means competition, access and tariff structures; DSL, cable, leased line, fiber and wireless available; seasonal tourist have boosted mobile penetration; wide availability of LTE technologies has made mobile broadband a viable alternative to fixed-line broadband in rural areas; 5G services anticipated in the future (2020)
domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage growing; fixed-line 28 per 100 and mobile-cellular 185 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Montserrat
general assessment: telecom market one of growth in Caribbean and fully digitalized; high dependency on tourism and offshore financial services; operators expand FttP (Fiber to Home) services; LTE launches and operators invest in mobile networks; effective competition in all sectors (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 57 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 95 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-664; landing point for the ECFS optic submarine cable with links to 14 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Morocco
general assessment: national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; one of the most state-of-the-art markets in Africa; high mobile penetration rates in the region with low cost for broadband Internet access; improvement in LTE and VoD (Video on Demand) reach and capabilities; some market limitations with lack of competition; mobile internet accounts for 93.2% of all Internet connections (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is 6 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 128 per 100 persons; good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat (2018)
international: country code - 212; landing point for the Atlas Offshore, Estepona-Tetouan, Canalink and SEA-ME-WE-3 fiber-optic telecommunications undersea cables that provide connectivity to Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Europe and Australia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Mozambique
general assessment: the mobile segment has shown strong growth; poor fixed-line infrastructure means most Internet access is through mobile accounts; DSL, cable broadband, WiMAX (broadband over long distances), 3G and some fiber broadband available; first LTE services launched in 2018; govt. implemented legislation to enforce the registration of SIM cards; submarine cables reduced the cost of bandwidth (2020)
domestic: extremely low fixed-line teledensity contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; operators provide coverage that includes all the main cities and key roads; fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and 49 per 100 mobile-cellular teledensity (2018)
international: country code - 258; landing points for the EASSy and SEACOM/ Tata TGN-Eurasia fiber-optic submarine cable systems linking numerous east African countries, the Middle East and Asia ; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean); TdM contracts for Itelsat for satellite broadband and bulk haul services (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Namibia
general assessment: fixed-line still a govt. monopoly; penetration rates rise above regional average with the rise of competition in the mobile market; 3G and LTE-A services; Internet and broadband sector fairly competitive; infrastructure investment through 2021; working on implementing 5G (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscribership of 6 per 100 and mobile-cellular 109 per 100 persons (2019)
international: country code - 264; landing points for the ACE and WACS fiber-optic submarine cable linking southern and western African countries to Europe; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Nauru
general assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities; geography is a challenge for the islands; there is a need to service the tourism sector and the South Pacific Islands economy; mobile technology is booming (2018)
domestic: fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular 87 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 674; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Nepal
general assessment: mountainous topography hinders development of telecom infrastructure; mobile service has been extended to all 75 districts covering 90% of Nepal’s land area; fixed broadband is low due to limited number of fixed lines and preeminence of the mobile platform, with overall penetration 2.8%; 3G and 4G subscribers, early stages for mobile broadband market; first launch of a Nepalese satellite (2020)
domestic: 3G coverage is available in 20 major cities (2019); disparity between high coverage in cities and coverage available in underdeveloped rural regions; fixed-line 3 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular 132 per 100 persons; fair radiotelephone communication service; 20% of the market share is fixed (wired) broadband, 2% is fixed (wireless) broadband, and 78% is mobile broadband (2019)
international: country code - 977; Nepal, China and Tibet connected across borders with underground and all-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS) fiber-optic cables; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Netherlands
general assessment: highly developed and well maintained; while fixed-line voice market is in decline the VoIP (voice over Internet protocol) and mobile platforms advance; one of the highest fixed broadband penetration rates in the world, due to government investments; plans for 3G network shutdown in 2022; operators are concentrating investment on LTE-A and 5G services; MNOs and banks launch m-payments system (2020)
domestic: extensive fixed-line, fiber-optic network; large cellular telephone system with five major operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications technology; one in five households now use Voice over the Internet Protocol services; fixed-line 34 per 100 and mobile-cellular 123 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 31; landing points for Farland North, TAT-14, Circe North, Concerto, Ulysses 2, AC-1, UK-Netherlands 14, and COBRAcable submarine cables which provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 5 (3 Intelsat - 1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
New Caledonia
general assessment: well advanced telecoms sector; 3G & 4G network services; one of the highest smart phone adoption rates in the region; telecommunications sector is dominated by govt. owned company with a monopoly on fixed and mobile services, Internet and broadband access (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 34 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 91 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 687; landing points for the Gondwana-1 and Picot-1 providing connectivity via submarine cables around New Caledonia and to Australia; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
New Zealand
general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems; mobile and P2P services soar; LTE rates some of the fastest in the world; growth in mobile broadband and fiber sectors; roll out of 5G; investment and development of infrastructure enable network capabilities to propel the digital economy, digital media sector along with e-government, e-commerce across the country; newest and most powerful commercial satellite, Kacific-1 satellite, launched in 2019 to improve telecommunications in the Asia Pacific region (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 37 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 134 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 64; landing points for the Southern Cross NEXT, Aqualink, Nelson-Levin, SCCN and Hawaiki submarine cable system providing links to Australia, Fiji, American Samoa, Kiribati, Samo, Tokelau, US and around New Zealand; satellite earth stations - 8 (1 Inmarsat - Pacific Ocean, 7 other) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Nicaragua
general assessment: system being upgraded by foreign investment; new canal being built between Pacific and Caribbean with Chinese funding; nearly all installed telecommunications capacity now uses digital technology, owing to investments since privatization of the formerly state-owned telecommunications company; lowest fixed-line teledensity and mobile penetration in Central America; Internet cafe's provide access to Internet and email services; telecom is bigger in the cities and marginal in rural area; liberalization slow; a Russian state corporation is operating in the area; LTE service in 60 towns and cities (2020)
domestic: since privatization, access to fixed-line and mobile-cellular services has improved; fixed-line teledensity roughly 5 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has increased to 122 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 505; landing point for the ARCOS fiber-optic submarine cable which provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Niger
general assessment: mobile services stronger than fixed telecoms; broadband penetration inconsequential; adopts free mobile roaming with other G5 Sahel countries; govt. contributes to Trans-Sahara Backbone network; LTE license awarded; govt. tax of telecom sector (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity remains 46 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned (2018)
international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Nigeria
general assessment: one of the larger telecom markets in Africa; most Internet connections are via mobile networks; foreign investment presence, particularly China; market competition; LTE-A technologies available but GSM technology dominate; mobile penetration rate of 123% and 173 million subscribers; unified licensing regime; government committed to expanding broadband penetration; in Q1 2018, the Nigerian Communications Commission approved seven licenses to telecom companies to deploy fiber optic cable in the six geopolitical zones and Lagos; operators invest in base stations to take care of network congestion (2020)
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 85 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, NCSCS,  MainOne, Glo-1 & 2, ACE, and Equiano fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and South and West Africa; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Niue
general assessment: sole provider service for over 1000 landlines and fixed wireless lines; cellular telephone service operates on AMPS and GSM platforms; difficult geography presents challenges for rural areas; mobile is primary source of Internet access; mobile broadband demand is growing due to mobile services (2020)
domestic: single-line (fixed line) telephone system connects all villages (and virtually all households) on island (2018)
international: country code - 683; landing point for the Manatua submarine cable linking Niue to several South Pacific Ocean Islands; expansion of satellite services (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Norfolk Island
general assessment: adequate, 4G mobile telecommunication network (2020)
domestic: free local calls
international: country code - 672; submarine cable links with Australia and New Zealand; satellite earth station - 1
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
North Macedonia
general assessment: being part of the EU pre-accession process has led to stronger teledensity with a closer regulatory framework and independent regulators; administrative ties with the European Union have led to progress; broadband services are widely available; more customers moving to fiber networks; 2 mobile network operators; end of roaming tariffs (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 18 per 100 and mobile-cellular 93 per 100 subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 389
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Northern Mariana Islands
general assessment: digital fiber-optic cables and satellites connect the islands to worldwide networks; demand for broadband growing given that mobile services are the source for Internet across region; future launch of 5G (2020)
domestic: wide variety of services available including dial-up and broadband Internet, mobile cellular, international private lines, payphones, phone cards, voicemail, and automatic call distribution systems (2018)
international: country code - 1-670; landing points for the Atisa and Mariana-Guam submarine cables linking Mariana islands to Guam; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Norway
general assessment: one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe; high mobile and broadband penetration rates and highly developed digital media sector; forward leaning in LTE-A developments; migrate all DSL subscribers to fiber by 2023; looking to close 2G and 3G networks by 2025; regulator competes 700 MHz auction and assigns spectrum for 5G, partners with Chinese company Huawei (2020)
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems; fixed-line 10 per 100 and mobile-cellular 106 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 47; landing points for the Svalbard Undersea Cable System, Polar Circle Cable, Bodo-Rost Cable, NOR5KE Viking, Celtic Norse, Tempnet Offshore FOC Network, England Cable, Denmark-Norwary6, Havfrue/AEC-2, Skagerrak 4, and the Skagenfiber West & East submarine cables providing links to other Nordic countries, Europe and the US; satellite earth stations - Eutelsat, Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Oman
general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; coaxial cable; domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations; progressive mobile sector with both 3G and 4G LTE networks and reediness for 5G launch; competition among 3 mobile network operators (MNO) (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 16 per 100 and mobile-cellular 184 per 100, subscribership both increasing with fixed-line phone service gradually being introduced to remote villages using wireless local loop systems (2018)
international: country code - 968; landing points for GSA, AAE-1, SeaMeWe-5, Tata TGN-Gulf, FALCON, GBICS/MENA, MENA/Guld Bridge International, TW1, BBG, EIG, OMRAN/EPEG, and POI submarine cables providing connectivity to Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Pakistan
general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving, with investments in mobile-cellular networks increasing, fixed-line subscriptions declining; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks; 4G mobile services broadly available; 5G not before 2030; mobile platform and mobile broadband doing well and dominate over fixed broadband sector (2020)
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed; more than 90% of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage; fiber-optic networks are being constructed throughout the country to increase broadband access, though broadband penetration in Pakistan is still relatively low; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 69 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 92; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3, -4, -5, AAE-1, IMEWE, Orient Express, PEACE Cable, and TW1 submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Palau
general assessment: well-developed mobile sector recently boosted by satellite network capacity upgrades; 3G services available with satellite; lack of telecom regulations; newest and most powerful commercial satellite, Kacific-1 satellite, launched in 2019 to improve telecommunications in the Asia Pacific region (2020)
domestic: fixed-line  34 per 100 and mobile-cellular services 112 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 680; landing point for the SEA-US submarine cable linking Palau, Philippines, Micronesia, Indonesia, Hawaii (US), Guam (US) and California (US); satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Panama
general assessment: domestic and international facilities well-developed; investment from international operators; competition among operators helps reduce price of services; launch of LTE services; govt. fixed-line projects and popularity of mobile broadband connectivity see growth; Chinese company Huawei helps with G-fast technologies (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 19 per 100 and rapid subscribership of mobile-cellular telephone 151 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 507; landing points for the PAN-AM, ARCOS, SAC, AURORA, PCCS, PAC, and the MAYA-1 submarine cable systems that together provide links to the US and parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave System (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Papua New Guinea
general assessment: services are minimal; Internet slow and expensive; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services; a great deal of the population is under served in telecommunications; terrain, living conditions and economic stability is not high; 2G still exists in rural areas, 3G and 4G LTE in urban areas; the launch of the Kacific-1 satellite in 2019, will improve most services in the region (2020)
domestic: access to telephone services is not widely available; fixed-line 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular 55 per 100 person, teledensity has increased (2018)
international: country code - 675; landing points for the Kumul Domestic Submarine Cable System, PNG-LNG, APNG-2, CSCS and the PPC-1 submarine cables to Australia, Guam, PNG and Solomon Islands; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Paraguay
general assessment: the fixed-line market is a state monopoly and fixed-line telephone service is meager; principal switching center is in Asuncion; DSL, cable modem, FttP (fiber to the home) and WiMAX technologies available; competition in mobile market among 4 operators; 18 mobile phones for every fixed-line service phone; mobile and Internet market operators bring new investment and they are working towards LTE (2020)
domestic: deficiencies in provision of fixed-line service have resulted in a rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services fostered by competition among multiple providers; Internet market also open to competition; fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 106 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 595; Paraguay's landlocked position means they must depend on neighbors for interconnection with submarine cable networks, making it cost more for broadband services; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Peru
general assessment: good mobile operator competition with LTE services; broadband subscriber penetration low compared to other Latin American countries; 3G network and new LTE services expanded providing mobile broadband to rural communities, regulator auctions of 700 MHz spectrum for LTE services; Peru is seen as a potential market for growth in broadband, with government work to install fiber-optic backbone to remote areas (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, now 125 telephones per 100 persons; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (2018)
international: country code - 51; landing points for the SAM-1, IGW, American Movil-Telxius, SAC and PAN-AM submarine cable systems that provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Philippines
general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate; National Broadband Plan to improve connectivity in rural areas underway; dominance of mobile platform and mobile broadband over fixed broadband penetration; 4G available now in most areas with 5G roll outs soon; smart city pilot has begun; with more mobile services there is demand for data center services and iCloud; launch of the Kacific-1 satellite in 2019 will improve telecommunication for the region (2020)
domestic: telecommunications infrastructure includes the following platforms: fixed line, mobile cellular, cable TV, over-the-air TV, radio and Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), fiber-optic cable, and satellite for redundant international connectivity; fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 127 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 63; landing points for the NDTN, TGN-IA, AAG, PLCN, EAC-02C, DFON, SJC, APCN-2, SeaMeWe, Boracay-Palawan Submarine Cable System, Palawa-Illoilo Cable System, NDTN, SEA-US, SSSFOIP, ASE and JUPITAR submarine cables that together provide connectivity to the US, Southeast Asia, Asia, Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Australia (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Pitcairn Islands
general assessment: satellite-based phone services; rural connectivity a challenge; 2G services widespread; demand for mobile broadband due to mobile services providing Internet source; the launch of the Kacific-1 satellite in 2019 will improve telecommunications in the region (2020)
domestic: local phone service with international connections via Internet (2018)
international: country code - 872; satellite earth station - 1 (Inmarsat)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Poland
general assessment: fixed-line service is dominated by the former state-owned company, yet it is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services; regulatory is framed by EU principles of competition; regulator measures have improved wholesale market access; rapid extension of LTE networks and development of mobile data service; mobile penetration is above European average; regulator to auction 700MHz spectrum of 5G services; good market competition (2020)
domestic: several nation-wide networks provide mobile-cellular service; coverage is generally good; fixed-line 17 per 100 service lags in rural areas, mobile-cellular 133 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 48; landing points for the Baltica and the Denmark-Poland2 submarine cables connecting Poland, Denmark and Sweden; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Portugal
general assessment: telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities; FttP in 2020; 3G universal and 4G upgrades; regulator release 700MHz spectrum for 5G use; DSL moves to fiber services; FttP for over 5 million customers in 2020 providing national coverage; fiber subscriber base grows 24% in 2018; development in M-payment solutions (2020)
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations; fixed-line 49 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular 115 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 351; landing points for the Ella Link, BUGIO, EIG, SAT-3/WASC, SeaMeWe-3, Equino, MainOne, Tat TGN-Western Europe, WACS, ACE, Atlantis2 and Columbus-III submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, South America and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Puerto Rico
general assessment: modern system integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability; havoc caused by hurricane Maria in 2017 and earthquake in 2020, has left the island lagging behind the mainland US both economically and technologically; competition among network operators helps with growth; availability of LTE coverage increasing to 90%; operators expanding and securing 600 MHz spectrum, LTE reach and launching services based on 5G to majority of the population (2020)
domestic: digital telephone system; mobile-cellular services; fixed-line 21 per 100 and mobile-cellular 101 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-787, 939; landing points for the GTMO-PR, AMX-1, BRUSA, GCN, PCCS, SAm-1, Southern Caribbean Fiber, Americas-II, Antillas, ARCOS, SMPR-1, and Taino-Carib submarine cables providing connectivity to the mainland US, Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Qatar
general assessment: regional leaders in telecom; highest fixed-line and mobile penetrations in Middle East; deployed over 90 5G base stations for 5G launch, claiming 1st commercial launch of 5G in the world May 2018; telecom system centered in Doha; steady LTE networks; good broadband penetration, ADSL, Fiber-to-the-Home (FttP), wireless and mobile services; largest users of the Internet and use of OTT services and bundled services (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 19 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 167 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 974; landing points for the Qatar-UAE Submarine Cable System, AAE-1, FOG, GBICS/East North Africa MENA and the FALCON submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Europe and Southeast Asia; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; retains full ownership of two commercial satellites, Es'hailSat 1 and 2 (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Romania
general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services; competition among a number of telecoms; LTE and 5G services; 1Gb/FttP offering; govt. secures EU funding to extend broadband to areas of the country not yet connected and does away with SIM car registration; operators invest in networks capacity upgrades (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 17 telephones per 100 persons; mobile market served by four mobile network operators; mobile-cellular teledensity over 106 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 40; landing point for the Diamond Link Global submarine cable linking Romania with Georgia; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Russia
general assessment: telecom sector impacted by sanctions related to the annexations in Ukraine; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to 255 million in 2016; fixed-line service has improved but a large demand remains; Russia with low broadband penetration is one of Europe's fastest growing markets for fiber-based broadband and moving from DSL to fiber; use by the population of multiple SIM cards; regulator ended roaming charges and works to bring down prices; 4 major operators in the mobile market; deployment of LTE support mobile broadband and data services, mobile on the cusp of 5G (2020)
domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low-density; 21 per 100 for fixed-line and mobile-cellular 161 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 7; landing points for the Far East Submarine Cable System, HSCS, Sakhalin-Kuril Island Cable, RSCN, BCS North-Phase 2, Kerch Strait Cable and the Georgia-Russian submarine cable system connecting Russia, Japan, Finland, Georgia and Ukraine; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Rwanda
general assessment: govt. invests in smart city infrastructure; expanding wholesale LTE services; govt. launches SIM card registration; growing economy and foreign aid help launch telecom sector, despite widespread poverty; slow to liberalize mobile sector; competing operators roll out national fiber optic backbone that connects to submarine cables of neighboring countries ending expensive dependence on satellite (2020)
domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to provincial centers by microwave radio relay, and recently by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone density has increased to 80 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service); international submarine fiber-optic cables on the African east coast has brought international bandwidth and lessened the dependency on satellites
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Saint Barthelemy
general assessment: fully integrated access; 4G and LTE services (2020)
domestic: direct dial capability with both fixed and wireless systems, 3 FM channels, no broadcasting (2018)
international: country code - 590; landing points for the SSCS and the Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cables providing voice and data connectivity to numerous Caribbean Islands (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha
general assessment: capability to communicate worldwide; ADSL- broadband service; LTE coverage of 95% of population, includes voice calls, text messages, mobile data as well as inbound and outbound roaming; Wi-Fi hotspots in Jamestown, 1 ISP, many services are not offered locally but made available for visitors; some sun outages due to the reliance of international telephone and Internet communication relying on single satellite link (2020)
domestic: automatic digital network; fixed-line 35 per 100 and mobile-cellular 39 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code (Saint Helena) - 290, (Ascension Island) - 247; landing point for the SaEx1 submarine cable providing connectivity to South Africa, Brazil, Virginia Beach (US) and islands in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan de Cunha; international direct dialing; satellite voice and data communications; satellite earth stations - 5 (Ascension Island - 4, Saint Helena - 1) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Saint Kitts and Nevis
general assessment: good interisland and international connections; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) and LTE markets; regulatory development; telecom sector contributes to the overall GDP; telecom sector is a growth area (2020)
domestic: interisland links via ECFS; fixed-line teledensity about 33 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 146 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-869; landing points for the ECFS, Southern Caribbean Fiber and the SSCS submarine cables providing connectivity for numerous Caribbean Islands (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Saint Lucia
general assessment: an adequate system that is automatically switched; good interisland and international connections; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) and LTE markets; regulatory development; telecom sector contributes to the overall GDP; telecom sector is a growth area (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is 22 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 112 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-758; landing points for the ECFS and Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cables providing connectivity to numerous Caribbean islands; direct microwave radio relay link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; tropospheric scatter to Barbados (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Saint Martin
general assessment: fully integrated access; good interisland and international connections; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) and LTE markets; regulatory development; telecom sector contributes to the overall GDP; telecom sector is a growth area (2020)
domestic: direct dial capability with both fixed and wireless systems (2018)
international: country code - 590; landing points for the SMPR-1, Southern Caribbean Fiber and the SSCS submarine cables providing connectivity to numerous Caribbean islands (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
general assessment: adequate (2018)
international: country code - 508; landing point for the St Pierre and Miquelon Cable connecting Saint Pierre & Miquelon and Canada; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
general assessment: adequate island-wide, fully automatic telephone system; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE launches; regulatory development; telecom sector contributes to the overall GDP; telecom sector is a growth area (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity exceeds 19 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 104 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-784; landing points for the ECFS, CARCIP and Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cables providing connectivity to US and Caribbean Islands; connectivity also provided by VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados; SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and Saint Lucia; access to Intelsat earth station in Martinique through Saint Lucia (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Samoa
general assessment: most households have at least one mobile phone; all businesses in the greater Apia area have access to broadband and Wi-Fi, which is reasonably reliable and fast; in rural Upolu and on Savaii Island there is now readily available high-speed Internet and Wi-Fi; due to the establishment of a regulatory infrastructure, liberalization and competition of the mobile market the telecom market has increased coverage and reduced cost; 4G LTE services accessible to about 95% of residents; working to increase speed, reliability and connectivity (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 62 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 685; landing points for the Tui-Samo, Manatua, SAS, and Southern Cross NEXT submarine cables providing connectivity to Samoa, Fiji, Wallis & Futuna, Cook Islands, Niue, French Polynesia, American Samoa, Australia, New Zealand, Kiribati, Los Angeles (US), and Tokelau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
San Marino
general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system (2018)
domestic: fixed-line 47 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 113 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Sao Tome and Principe
general assessment: local telephone network of adequate quality with most lines connected to digital switches; mobile cellular superior choice to landland; dial-up quality low; broadband expensive (2018)
domestic: fixed-line 3 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 80 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 239; landing points for the Ultramar GE and ACE submarine cables from South Africa to over 20 West African countries and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Saudi Arabia
general assessment: one of the most progressive telecom markets in the Middle East; mobile penetration high, with a saturated market; mobile operators competitive and meeting the demand for workers, students and citizens working from home; 5G launched, partners include Chinese company Huawei; broadband is available with DSL, fiber, and wireless; mobile penetration is steep in Saudi Arabia (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 16 per 100 and mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly to 125 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 966; landing points for the SeaMeWe-3, -4, -5, AAE-1, EIG, FALCON, FEA, IMEWE, MENA/Gulf Bridge International, SEACOM, SAS-1, -2, GBICS/MENA, and the Tata TGN-Gulf submarine cables providing connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia ;microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Senegal
general assessment: mobile penetration reached 108% in March 2019; mobile broadband accounts for close to 100% (97.2%) Internet accesses; 3G and LTE services for 50% of population; growth in the intel market along with economic growth for the country; regulator awards more MVNO licenses, deactivated some 5 million unregistered SIM cards (2020)
domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas; fixed-line 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular 110 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 221; landing points for the ACE, Atlantis-2, MainOne and SAT-3/WASC submarine cables providing connectivity from South Africa, numerous western African countries, Europe and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Serbia
general assessment: Serbia's integration with the EU has helped regulator reforms and promotion of telecoms; wireless service is available through multiple providers; national coverage is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 4G/LTE mobile network launched; 5G trials; high mobile penetration the result of multiple SIM cards (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 36 per 100 and mobile-cellular 119 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 381
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Seychelles
general assessment: effective system; direct international calls to over 100 countries; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago; 3 ISPs; use of Internet cafes' for access to Internet; 4G services and 5G soon (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 21 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is 189 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 248; landing points for the PEACE and the SEAS submarine cables providing connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Sierra Leone
general assessment: stability in the country has led to international investment; telecom regulator continues to improve market; telephone service improving with the expansion of the mobile sector; mobile-cellular service has grown rapidly from a small base, overcoming the deficiencies of the fixed-line sector; mobile sector high penetration; regulator approves 27% price increase for mobile voice calls; LTE launched in 2018 to compete with state owned almost monopoly on fixed-line (2020)
domestic: fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 102 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 232; landing point for the ACE submarine cable linking to South Africa, over 20 western African countries and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Singapore
general assessment: excellent service; world leader in telecommunications and perhaps the first 'Smart Nation' where a sensor network is implemented, for water and air, smart logistics and smart sensor in the home of elderly or chronically ill; roll out of 4G and 5G networks to ensure faster speeds; wireless and fiber broadband growing segments of telecommunications; roll out of 'Next Generation Network' (NGNBN) almost complete with FttH and wireless network fiber based services; mobile sector saturated, but with mobile operators competing to offer more to the consumer such as value-added services; 4 MNVO; demand for data storage in Singapore (2020)
domestic: excellent domestic facilities; fixed-line 33 per 100 and mobile-cellular 143 per 100 teledensity; multiple providers of high-speed Internet connectivity (2018)
international: country code - 65; landing points for INDIGO-West, SeaMeWe -3,-4,-5, SIGMAR, SJC, i2icn, PGASCOM, BSCS, IGG, B3JS, SAEx2, APCN-2, APG, ASC, SEAX-1, ASE, EAC-C2C, Matrix Cable System and SJC2 submarine cables providing links throughout Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3, Bukit Timah, Seletar, and Sentosa; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2019 )
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Sint Maarten
general assessment: generally adequate facilities; growth sectors include mobile telephone and data segments; effective competition; LTE expansion; tourism and telecom sector contribute greatly to the GDP (2018)
domestic: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links (2018)
international: country code - 1-721; landing points for SMPR-1 and the ECFS submarine cables providing connectivity to the Caribbean; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Slovakia
general assessment: a modern telecommunications system; near monopoly of fixed-line market; competition in mobile and fixed broadband market; broadband growth in recent years; competition among DSL, cable and fiber platforms; FttP growth in cities; mid-2019 launched 1G cable broadband service in 3 cities and 200,000 premises; EU funds development and improvement of e-govt. and online services; regulator prepares groundwork for 5G services (2020)
domestic: four companies have a license to operate cellular networks and provide nationwide cellular services (cellular operators); a few other companies provide services but do not have their own networks; fixed-line 13 per 100 and mobile-cellular 133 per 100 teledensity (2018)
international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services; connects to DREAM cable (2017)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Slovenia
general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure; four mobile network operators; increase in Internet community demanding e-govt., e-commerce and e-health; govt. funds to improve broadband to more municipalities; high mobile penetration rate and therefore retaining customers with bundled products; regulatory intervention has improved telecommunications; trials for use of 5G; FttP to 90% of population by 2020 (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 33 per 100 and mobile-cellular 117 per 100 teledensity (2018)
international: country code - 386 (2016)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Solomon Islands
general assessment: Internet penetration has reached 20%; 3G and 4G LTE mobile network expansions, investment in mobile services in the region; otherwise 3G and satellite services for communication and Internet access; increase in broadband subscriptions; the launch of the Kacific-1 satellite in 2019 and the Coral Sea Cable System have vastly improved the telecom sector (2020)
domestic: fixed-line is 1 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular telephone density is about 73 per 100 persons; domestic cable system to extend to key major islands (2018)
international: country code - 677; landing points for the CSCS and ICNS2 submarine cables providing connectivity from Solomon Islands, to PNG, Vanuatu and Australia; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Somalia
general assessment: the public telecom system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private companies offer limited local fixed-line service, and private wireless companies offer service in most major cities; mobile sector has 7 networks improving the telecom sector along with submarine cables ending the expensive satellite dependency for Internet access; Al Shabaab Islamic militant group has forced closure of Internet services in some parts of the country; new telecom regulatory sector in place (2020)
domestic: seven networks compete for customers in the mobile sector; some of these mobile-service providers offer fixed-lines and Internet services; fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 68 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 252; landing points for the G2A, DARE1, PEACE, and EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa, Indian Ocean Islands, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
South Africa
general assessment: the system is the best-developed and most modern in Africa; mobile Internet accounts for about 95% of Internet connections; 94% with access to WiMAX/LTE services; LTE-A services launched for commercial use; the mobile sector for both voice and data service demand most investment; first region to launch commercial 5G services; regulator made provisions to anticipate spike in data traffic resulting from COVID-19 lockdown (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 6 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular 167 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria (2018)
international: country code - 27; landing points for the WACS, ACE, SAFE, SAT-3, Equiano, SABR, SAEx1, SAEx2, IOX Cable System, METISS, EASSy, and SEACOM/ Tata TGN-Eurasia fiber-optic submarine cable systems connecting South Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Europe, Southeast Asia, Asia, South America, Indian Ocean Islands, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
South Sudan
general assessment: one of the least developed telecommunications and Internet systems in the world; the international community has provided billions in aid to help the young country, unfortunate instability, widespread poverty and low literacy rate all contribute to a struggle for their telecom sector; the few carriers in the market have reduced the areas in which they offer service, not expanded them; recently the government shut down the largest cellphone carrier isolating 1.4 million customers over a disputed service fee arrangement (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 0 total subscriptions, mobile-cellular 36 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 211 (2017)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Spain
general assessment: well-developed, one of the largest telecom markets in Europe, average mobile penetration for Europe; LTE universal; launch of 5G services; regulator has championed competition; Chinese company Huawei contributes to the telecom sector; fiber broadband accounts for 62% of all fixed-line broadband connections (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 39 per 100 and mobile-cellular 110 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 34; landing points for the MAREA, Tata TGN-Western Europe, Pencan-9, SAT-3/WASC, Canalink, Atlantis-2, Columbus -111, Estepona-Tetouan, FEA, Balalink, ORVAL and PENBAL-5 submarine cables providing connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Africa, South America, Asia, Southeast Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Sri Lanka
general assessment: telephone services have improved significantly; strong growth anticipated as Sri Lanka is lagging behind other Asian telecoms; increase in mobile broadband penetration; govt. funds telecom sector to expand fiber and LTE networks and growing investment in 5G services (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 11 per 100 and mobile-cellular 134 per 100; national trunk network consists of digital microwave radio relay and fiber-optic links; fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong in mobile cellular systems and mobile cellular subscribership is increasing (2018)
international: country code - 94; landing points for the SeaMeWe -3,-5,  Dhiraagu-SLT Submarine Cable Network, WARF Submarine Cable, Bharat Lanka Cable System and the Bay of Bengal Gateway submarine cables providing connectivity to Asia, Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Sudan
general assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; despite economic hardships boosts mobile infrastructure and builds fiber broadband network across country; economic climate has not encouraged growth in telecoms, but some investment has been made to build mobile towers and expand LTE services; launches its own Chinese built satellite to develop space technology sector in 2019 (2020)
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; teledensity fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 70 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 249; landing points for the EASSy, FALCON and SAS-1,-2, fiber-optic submarine cable systems linking Africa, the Middle East, Indian Ocean Islands and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Suriname
general assessment: international facilities are good; state-owned fixed-line teledensity and broadband services below regional average for Latin America and Caribbean, but mobile penetration is above regional average; fixed-line effective along the coastline and poor in the interior; competition in the mobile sector (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 15 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 126 telephones per 100 persons; microwave radio relay network is in place (2018)
international: country code - 597; landing point for the SG-SCS submarine cable linking South America with the Caribbean; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Svalbard
general assessment: modern, well-developed (2018)
domestic: the Svalbard Satellite Station - connected to the mainland via the Svalbard Undersea Cable System - is the only Arctic ground station that can see low-altitude, polar-orbiting satellites; it provides ground services to more satellites than any other facility in the world (2018)
international: country code - 47-790; the Svalbard Undersea Cable System is a twin communications cable that connects Svalbard to mainland Norway; the system is the sole telecommunications link to the archipelago (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Sweden
general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet, and broadband penetration; best developed LTE infrastructures in the region; first in the world to deliver 5G services, expands service based on 5G (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 24 per 100 and mobile-cellular 126 per 100; coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels (2018)
international: country code - 46; landing points for Botina, SFL, SFS-4, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, Eastern Light, Sweden-Latvia, BCS North-Phase1, EE-S1, LV-SE1, BCS East-West Interlink, NordBalt, Baltica, Denmark-Sweden-15,-17,-18, Scandinavian Ring -North,-South, IP-Only Denmark-Sweden, Donica North, Kattegate-1,-2, Energinet Laeso-Varberg and GC2 submarine cables providing links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Switzerland
general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure with extensive domestic and international services; one of the highest broadband penetration rates in Europe; although not a member of the EU, Switzerland follows the EU's telecom framework, and regulations; expansive cable broadband network with effective cross-platform competition; despite the countries expansion of 5G services, and switching off 2G infrastructure, the Environmental Agency has raised concern regarding the 2,000 5G mobile antennas and asked the govt. to halt 5G transmissions, the developers of the 5G infrastructure are allowed to continue with future checks to be studied of the health implications of the radio frequency radiation; regulator auction of 5G spectrum (2020)
domestic: ranked among leading countries for fixed-line teledensity and infrastructure; fixed-line 40 per 100 and mobile-cellular subscribership 130 per 100 persons; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks (2018)
international: country code - 41; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Syria
general assessment: the armed insurgency that began in 2011 has led to major disruptions to the network and has caused telephone and Internet outages throughout the country; 2018 saw some stabilizing; telecoms have become decentralized; fairly high mobile penetration of 98%; potential for growth given that subscription numbers are low; remote areas rely on expensive satellite communications; mobile broadband infrastructure is predominantly 3G for about 85% of the population; LTE launched in 2017; Syria has two mobile telephone operators (2020)
domestic: the number of fixed-line connections increased markedly prior to the civil war in 2011 and now stands at 15 per 100; mobile-cellular service stands at about 97 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 963; landing points for the Aletar, BERYTAR and UGART submarine cable connections to Egypt, Lebanon, and Cyprus; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey; participant in Medarabtel (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Taiwan
general assessment: good telecommunications infrastructure and competitive mobile market; Taiwan has a stable regulatory system and an educated workforce building on availability of fixed and mobile broadband networks; investors attracted to this excellent telecom infrastructure;  fixed-line will decline in the next 5 years; 6 mobile network operators; 4G LTE service; regulator begins multi-spectrum auction for 5G services; govt. to release NT $20.5 billion to encourage development of 5G services (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 56 per 100 and mobile-cellular 125 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 886; landing points for the EAC-C2C, APCN-2, FASTER, SJC2, TSE-1, TPE, APG, SeaMeWe-3, FLAG North Asia Loop/REACH North Asia Loop, HKA, NCP, and PLCN submarine fiber cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, Africa and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Tajikistan
general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; an increase in mobile broadband penetration, but still in the early stages and remains low compared to those in the region; the country has endeavored to launch 4G/LTE services with mixed results; 7 major cities have 4G coverage; 5 major operators in the market (2020)
domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns; fixed-line 6 per 100 and mobile-cellular 111 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Tanzania
general assessment: telecommunications services are marginal and operating below capacity; 1 fixed-line operator and 8 operational mobile networks; unfortunate high tariffs on telecoms; mobile use is growing at 85% penetration; 3G/LTE services; govt. allocates TZ $17.5 billion to improve rural telecom infrastructure and work on national fiber backbone network connecting population around country (2020)
domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and exceeds 78 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital (2018)
international: country code - 255; landing points for the EASSy, SEACOM/Tata TGN-Eurasia, and SEAS fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Thailand
general assessment: high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok; mobile and mobile broadband penetration are on the increase; Fiber-to-the-home (FttH) has seen strong growth in the major cities; 4G TD-LTE available and moving to 5G services; seven smart cities with the hope of 100 smart cities within its borders in the next two decades; one of the biggest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia; fixed broadband remains relative compared to other developed Asian telecom markets and with the dominance of the mobile platform (2020)
domestic: fixed-line system provided by both a government-owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly; fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 182 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 66; landing points for the AAE-1, FEA, SeaMeWe-3,-4, APG, SJC2, TIS, MCT and AAG submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Africa, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2019)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Timor-Leste
general assessment: service in urban and some rural areas, which is expanding with the entrance of new competitors; 4G LTE service, with about 97% of population having access, among 3 mobile operators; increase in mobile broadband penetration; govt. aims to boost e-govt. services with new national terrestrial optical fiber network; the launch in 2019 of the Kacific-1 satellite is important to the telecom sector for the entire region (2020)
domestic: system suffered significant damage during the violence associated with independence; limited fixed-line services; less than 1 per 100 and  mobile-cellular services have been expanding and are now available in urban and most rural areas with teledensity of 111 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 670;  international service is available; partnership with Australia telecom companies for potential deployment of a submarine fiber-optic link (NWCS); geostationary earth orbit satellite
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Togo
general assessment: system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system; telecoms supply 8% of GDP; 3 mobile operators; 12% of residents have access to the Internet; mobile subscribers and mobile broadband both increasing (2020)
domestic: fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 75 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating (2018)
international: country code - 228; landing point for the WACS submarine cable, linking countries along the west coast of Africa with each other and with Portugal; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Tokelau
general assessment: modern satellite-based communications system; demand for mobile broadband increasing due to mobile services being the method of access for Internet across the region; 2G widespread with some 4G LTE service; satellite services will improve with the launch of the Kacific-1 satellite launched in 2019 (2020)
domestic: radiotelephone service between islands; fixed-line less than 1 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 690; landing point for the Southern Cross NEXT submarine cable linking Australia, Tokelau, Samoa, Kiribati, Fiji, New Zealand and Los Angeles, CA (USA); radiotelephone service to Samoa; government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok); satellite earth stations - 3 (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Tonga
general assessment: high speed Internet provided by 3 MNOs, has subsequently allowed for better health care services, faster connections for education and growing e-commerce services; in 2018 new 4G LTE network; fixed-line teledensity has dropped given mobile subscriptions; mobile technology dominates given the island geography; satellite technology is widespread and is important especially in areas away from the city; the launch in 2019 of the Kacific-1 broadband satellite will make broadband more widely available for around 89 remote communities (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 14 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity 101 telephones per 100; fully automatic switched network (2018)
international: country code - 676; landing point for the Tonga Cable and the TDCE connecting to Fiji and 3 separate Tonga islands; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Trinidad and Tobago
general assessment: excellent international service; good local service; broadband access; expand FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE launches; regulatory development; major growth in mobile telephony and data segments which attacks operation investment in fiber infrastructure; moves to end roaming charges (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 26 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity 162 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-868; landing points for the EC Link, ECFS, Southern Caribbean Fiber, SG-SCS and Americas II submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US, parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Tunisia
general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; telephone network is completely digitized; Internet access available throughout the country; penetration rates for mobile and Internet services are among the highest in the region; 3 MNOs (mobile network operator); government Internet censorship abolished in 2013; telecom invests in LTE network and fiber infrastructure with FttP (fiber to the premises) services; 5G license expected to be launched soon; auction of spectrum in the 800MHz band loT (location of Things) and mobile services; use of Chinese company Huawei to develop LTE network (2020)
domestic: in an effort to jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network with international connectivity; rural areas are served by wireless local loops; competition between several mobile-cellular service providers has resulted in lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge in subscribership; fixed-line is 11 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity has reached about 128 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 216; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-4, Didon, HANNIBAL System and Trapani-Kelibia submarine cable systems that provides links to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Southeast Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Turkey
general assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services; rise in subscribers and increase in bundled packages; while mobile broadband becoming increasingly popular DSL has largest share of fixed broadband technologies, but fiber-optic is growing with significant investment; 4G LTE networks well incorporated in Turkey, 93% coverage of the population; strides made with 5G trials with help from Chinese company Huawei (2020)
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is 99 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 90; landing points for the SeaMeWe-3 & -5, MedNautilus Submarine System, Turcyos-1 & -2 submarine cables providing connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia ; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Turkmenistan
general assessment: telecommunications network is gradually improving from the former Soviet republic; state control over most economic activities has not helped growth; in cooperation with foreign partners, the telecom sector has installed high-speed fiber-optic lines and has upgraded most of the country's telephone exchanges and switching centers with new digital technology; the mobile market will see slow growth; some rural areas are still without telephones; mobile broadband is in the early stages of development; in 2019 Russia-based operator said to be leaving the country and leaving only 1 public operator (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 13 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 160 per 100 persons; first telecommunication satellite was launched in 2015 (2018)
international: country code - 993; linked by fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; an exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat (2018)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Turks and Caicos Islands
general assessment: fully digital system with international direct dialing; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE expansion points to investment and focus on data; regulatory development; telecommunication contributes to GDP (2020)
domestic: full range of services available; GSM wireless service available; (2018)
international: country code - 1-649; landing point for the ARCOS fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable providing connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Tuvalu
general assessment: internal communications needs met; small global scale of over 11,000 people on 9 inhabited islands; mobile subscriber penetration about 40% and broadband about 10% penetration; govt. owned and sole provider of telecommunications services; 2G widespread; the launch in 2019 of the Kacific-1 satellite will improve the telecommunication sector for the Asia Pacific region (2020)
domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands; fixed-line 18 per 100 and mobile-cellular 69 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 688; international calls can be made by satellite
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Uganda
general assessment: in recent years, telecommunications infrastructure has developed through private partnerships; as of 2018, fixed fiber backbone infrastructure is available in over half of Uganda’s districts; mobile phone companies now provide 4G networks across all major cities and national parks, while offering 3G coverage in second-tier cities and most rural areas with road access; between 2016 and 2018, commercial Internet services dropped in price from $300/Mbps to $80/Mbps; consumers rely on mobile infrastructure to provide voice and broadband services as fixed-line infrastructure is poor; 5G migration is a few years off; govt. commissions broadband satellite services for rural areas (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile- cellular systems teledensity about 60 per 100 persons; intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations (2018)
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog and digital links to Kenya and Tanzania
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Ukraine
general assessment: telecommunication development plan emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile-cellular system; Turkey and Russia have made investments to Ukraine's telecom market; competition available between 3 alternative operators moving from 3G services, but some areas still use 2G; LTE services available in some areas; FttP networks taking over DSL platforms; political tensions have not added to growth and telecom regulators must not count Crimea numbers (Annexed by Russia in 2014); mobile broadband services present a growth opportunity (2020)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is 14 per 100; the mobile-cellular telephone system's expansion has slowed, largely due to saturation of the market that is now 123 mobile phones per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 380; landing point for the Kerch Strait Cable connecting Ukraine to Russia; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic TAE system and 3 Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic TEL project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by an unknown number of earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
United Arab Emirates
general assessment: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai; 5G capabilities launched in 2019; two operators are competitive, but majority owned by the government; HSPA (high speed packet access) + LTE networks cover most of the population; low cost smart phones readily available; mobile penetration levels among the world's highest; well-established fiber-broadband network provides future growth (2020)
domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic and coaxial cable; fixed-line 24 per 100 and mobile-cellular 207 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 971; landing points for the FLAG, SEA-ME-WE-3 ,-4 & -5, Qater UAE Submarine Cable System, FALCON, FOG, Tat TGN-Gulf, OMRAN/EPEG Cable System, AAE-1, BBG, EIG, FEA, GBICS/MENA, IMEWE, Orient Express, TEAMS, TW1 and the UAE-Iran submarine cables, linking to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian) (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
United Kingdom
general assessment: technologically advanced domestic and international system; one of the largest mobile and telecom markets in Europe for revenue and subscribers; will complete the switch to fiber by 2033; mobile penetration above the EU average; govt. to invest in fiber infrastructure and 5G technologies; operators expanded the reach of 5G services; FttP provided to over a million customers; super-fast broadband available to about 95% of customers (2020)
domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems; fixed-line 49 per 100 and mobile-cellular 122 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 44; Landing points for the GTT Atlantic, Scotland-Northern Ireland -1, & -2, Lanis 1,-2, &-3, Sirius North, BT-MT-1, SHEFA-2, BT Highlands and Islands Submarine Cable System, Northern Lights, FARICE-1, Celtic Norse, Tampnet Offshore FOC Network, England Cable, CC-2, E-LLan, Sirius South, ESAT -1 & -2, Rockabill, Geo-Eirgrid, UK-Netherlands-14, Circle North & South, Ulysses2, Conceto, Farland North, Pan European Crossing, Solas, Swansea-Bream, GTT Express, Tata TGN-Atlantic & -Western Europe, Apollo, EIG, Glo-1, TAT-14, Yellow, Celtic, FLAG Atlantic-1, FEA, Isle of Scilly Cable, UK-Channel Islands-8 and SeaMeWe-3 submarine cables providing links throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Australia, and US; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers (2018)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
United States
general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system; mobile subscriber penetration rate of about 129%; national LTE-M services, closes down 2G infrastructure and reassigns spectrum for 5G; FttP rather than FttN efforts (2020)
domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country; fixed-line 34 per 100 and mobile-cellular 129 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 1; landing points for the Quintillion Subsea Cable Network, TERRA SW, AU-Aleutian, KKFL, AKORN, Alaska United -West, & -East & -Southeast, North Star, Lynn Canal Fiber, KetchCar 1, PC-1, SCCN, Tat TGN-Pacific & -Atlantic, Jupiter, Hawaiki, NCP, FASTER, HKA, JUS, AAG, BtoBE, Currie, Southern Cross NEXT, SxS, PLCN, Utility EAC-Pacific, SEA-US, Paniolo Cable Network, HICS, HIFN, ASH, Telstra Endeavor, Honotua, AURORA, ARCOS, AMX-1, Americas -I & -II, Columbus IIb & -III, Maya-1, MAC, GTMO-1, BICS, CFX-1, GlobeNet, Monet, SAm-1, Bahamas 2, PCCS, BRUSA, Dunant, MAREA, SAE x1, TAT 14, Apollo, Gemini Bermuda, Havfrue/AEC-2, Seabras-1, WALL-LI, NYNJ-1, FLAG Atalantic-1, Yellow, Atlantic Crossing-1, AE Connect -1, sea2shore, Challenger Bermuda-1, and GTT Atlantic submarine cable systems providing international connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Pacific, & Atlantic, and Indian Ocean Islands, Central and South America, Caribbean, Canada and US; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions) (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Uruguay
general assessment: fully digitalized; one of the highest broadband penetrations in Latin America; high fixed-line and mobile penetrations as well; FttP coverage by 2022; nationwide 3G coverage and LTE networks; limited 5G commercial reach; strong focus on fiber infrastructure with 70% residential fixed-broadband connections and all business connections (2020)
domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line 34 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 153 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 598; landing points for the Unisor, Tannat, and Bicentenario submarine cable system providing direct connectivity to Brazil and Argentina; Bicentenario 2012 and Tannat 2017 cables helped end-users with Internet bandwidth; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Uzbekistan
general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas; increased investment in infrastructure and growing subscriber base; fixed-line is underdeveloped due to preeminence of mobile market; introduction of prepaid Internet has contributed to home Internet usage; increase in mobile broadband penetration yet still early stages; Wi-Fi hotspot in the city of Tashkent in the future (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 12 per 100 person and mobile-cellular 77 per 100; the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbek Telecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 2 private and 3 state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 22.8 million as of January 2018 (2018)
international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber-optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Vanuatu
general assessment: telecom services have progressed significantly in recent years; mobile phones are now the primary means of communication and more than 92% of the population is covered by a mobile network; 2016 saw the launch of LTE services and the introduction of rural satellite broadband services; mobile phone use in some rural areas is constrained by electricity shortages; investment in fixed broadband saw recent growth with fiber-optic cables; mobile broadband infrastructure also expanded with a reduction in prices; general broadband penetration is at 45%; Kacific-1 broadband satellite launch in 2019 will change telecommunications for the region (2020)
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 87 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 678; landing points for the ICN1 & ICN2 submarine cables providing connectivity to the Solomon Islands and Fiji; cables helped end-users with Internet bandwidth; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Venezuela
general assessment: by late 2018 teledensity has fallen due to political upheaval in the country with people holding on to mobile service, but cancelling fixed-line telecom services; poor quality of service in many areas of the country due to financial concerns of customers, decrepit sate of fixed-line network and difficulty to pay for equipment from foreign vendors; popularity of social networks has given growth to mobile data traffic; LTE population coverage about 46%; govt. launches National Fiber Optic backbone project; mobile penetration below average for South America; MNO suffering from stolen or damaged infrastructure (2020)
domestic: two domestic satellite systems with three earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; 3 major providers operate in the mobile market and compete with state-owned company; fixed-line 19 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership about 70 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 58; landing points for the Venezuela Festoon, ARCOS, PAN-AM, SAC, GlobeNet, ALBA-1 and Americas II submarine cable system providing connectivity to the Caribbean, Central and South America, and US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Vietnam
general assessment: despite being a communist country there are plans to part privatize the state’s holdings in telecom companies as well as a large number of other enterprises; competition is thriving in the market place; mobile dominates over fixed-line; FttH market growing, as is e-commerce; govt. is the driving force for growth and moving towards commercializing 5G services with test licenses issued in 2019; 5 major operators; Ho Chi Minh City to become the first smart city in Vietnam with cloud computing infrastructure, big data, data centers and security-monitoring centers (2020)
domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly; fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 145 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 84; landing points for the SeaMeWe-3, APG, SJC2, AAE-1, AAG and the TGN-IA submarine cable system providing connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Virgin Islands
general assessment: modern system with total digital switching, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay; good interisland and international connections; broadband access; expansion of FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE launches; regulatory development and expansion in several markets point to investment and focus on data (2020)
domestic: full range of services available; fixed-line 73 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 1-340; landing points for the BSCS, St Thomas-ST Croix System, Southern Caribbean Fiber, Americas II, GCN, MAC, PAN-AM and SAC submarine cable connections to US, the Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth stations - NA (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Wake Island
general assessment: satellite communications; 2 Defense Switched Network circuits off the Overseas Telephone System (OTS); located in the Hawaii area code - 808 (2018)
Wallis and Futuna
general assessment: 2G widespread; bandwidth is limited; mobile subscriber numbers are higher than fixed-line and better suited for islands; good mobile coverage in the capital cities and also reasonable coverage across more remote atolls; recent international interest in infrastructure development; increase in demand for mobile broadband as mobile services serve as primary source for Internet access; Kacific-1 broadband satellite launched in 2019 to improve costs and capability (2020)
international: country code - 681; landing point for the Tui-Samoa submarine cable network connecting Wallis & Futuna, Samoa and Fiji (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
West Bank
general assessment: continuing political and economic instability has impeded liberalization of the telecommunications industry (2018)
domestic: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for fixed-line services; two Palestinian cellular providers, JAWWAL and WATANIYA MOBILE, launched 3G mobile networks in the West Bank in January 2018 after Israel lifted its ban; fixed-line 9 per 100 and mobile-cellular 76 per 100 (includes Gaza Strip) (2018)
international: country code 970 or 972; 1 international switch in Ramallah
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Western Sahara
general assessment: sparse and limited system
international: country code - 212; tied into Morocco's system by microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) linked to Rabat, Morocco
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Yemen
general assessment: large percent of the population is in need of humanitarian assistance, and given the civil conflict, telecommunications services are vital but disrupted; mobile towers are often deliberately targeted; maintenance is dangerous to staff; aid organization rely on satellite and radio communications; scarcity of telecommunications equipment in rural areas; ownership of telecommunications services and the related revenues and taxes have become a political issue; Chinese company Huawei helping with rebuilding and moving some equipment; little progress in the near future until civil unrest stabilizes; earlier damage to the FALCON submarine cable, left Internet service interrupted for a month until repaired (2020)
domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, GSM and CDMA mobile-cellular telephone systems; fixed-line teledensity remains low by regional standards at 4 per 100 but mobile cellular use expanding at 53 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 967; landing points for the FALCON, SeaMeWe-5, Aden-Djibouti, and the AAE-1 international submarine cable connecting Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Southeast Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti (2020)
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Zambia
general assessment: service is among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa; regulatory promotes competition and a partner to private sector service providers, offering mobile voice and Internet at some of the lowest prices in the region; investment made in data centers, education centers and computer assembly training plants; operators invest in 3G and LTE-based services and Chinese company Huawei is helping to upgrade state-owned mobile infrastructure for 5G services; 3 cellular telephone providers currently in operation, plus several data only ISPs; 1,010 towers project to soon be completed (2020)
domestic: fiber optic connections are available between most larger towns and cities with microwave radio relays serving more rural areas; 3G and LTE with FttX in limited urban areas and private Ku or Ka band VSAT terminals in remote locations; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 94 per 100 (2020)
international: country code - 260; multiple providers operate overland fiber optic routes via Zimbabwe/South Africa, Botswana/Namibia and Tanzania provide access to the major undersea cables
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
Zimbabwe
general assessment: competition has driven the expansion of the telecommunications sector, particularly cellular voice and mobile broadband, in recent years; 3 mobile network operators continue to invest in m-commerce and m-banking facilities; continued advancement with national and international fiber backbone network as well as 3G and LTE mobile broadband services; mobile Internet connections make up 98% of all Internet connections (2020)
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, fiber-optic cable, VSAT terminals, and a substantial mobile-cellular network; Internet connection is most readily available in Harare and major towns; two government owned and two private cellular providers; fixed-line 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular 92 per 100 (2018)
international: country code - 263; fiber-optic connections to neighboring states provide access to international networks via undersea cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 5 international digital gateway exchanges
the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated