This entry includes a listing of a country's political, social, labor, or religious organizations that are involved in politics, or that exert political pressure, but whose leaders do not stand for legislative election. International movements or organizations are generally not listed.

Country Comparison to the World

Afghanistan other: religious groups, tribal leaders, ethnically based groups, Taliban
Albania Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kol NIKOLLAJ]
Omonia [Vasil BOLLANO]
Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
Algeria Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD]
SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]
Youth Action Rally or RAJ
Angola Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO]
note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese soccer team in 2010
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [Wigley GEORGE]
People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
Argentina Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs or CILFA
Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association)
Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association)
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association)
Blue and White CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation)
Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a union for employed and unemployed workers)
General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization)
Roman Catholic Church
other: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); students
Armenia Aylentrank (Impeachment Alliance) [Nikol PASHINIAN]
Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
Aruba other: environmental groups
Australia other: business groups, environmental groups, social groups, trade unions
Austria Austrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic)
Federal Economic Chamber (OeVP-dominated)
Labor Chamber or AK (Social Democratic-leaning think tank)
OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV
Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
other: three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
Azerbaijan Club-125 [Ilhamia RZAYEVA]
Ireli Youth Movement [MirHasan SEYIDOV]
National Council of Democratic Forces [Jamil HASANLI]
NIDA Youth Movement [Turgut GAMBAR, Zaur GURBANLI]
Positive Change Youth Movement [Bakhtiyar HAJIYEV]
Republican Alternative or REAL [Ilgar MAMMADOV (in jail)]
Bahamas, The Friends of the Environment
other: trade unions
Bahrain none
Bangladesh Ain o Salish Kendro (Centre for Law and Mediation) or ASK (legal aid and civil rights)
Bangladesh Center for Worker Solidarity
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee or BRAC
Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs or MoWCA (advocacy group to end gender-based violence)
Odikhar (human rights group)
other: associations of madrassa teachers; business associations, including those intended to promote international trade; development and advocacy NGOs associated with the Grameen Bank; environmentalists; Islamist groups; labor rights advocacy groups; NGOs focused on poverty, alleviation, and socioeconomic international trade; religious leaders; tribal groups and advocacy organizations; union leaders
Barbados Barbados Secondary Teachers' Union or BSTU [Mary REDMAN]
Barbados Union of Teachers or BUT [Karen BEST]
Barbados Workers Union or BWU [Linda BROOKS]
Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMISSIONG]
Congress of Trade Unions and Staff Associations of Barbados or CTUSAB, (includes the BWU, NUPW, BUT, and BSTU) [Leroy TROTMAN]
National Union of Public Workers or NUPW [Walter MALONEY]
Belarus Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH] (unregistered)
Belarusian Association of Journalists [Zhanna LITVINA]
Belarusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]
Belarusian Helsinki Committee [Aleh HULAK]
Malady Front (Young Front) [Zmitser DASHKEVICH] (unregistered)
Vyasna (Spring) human rights center [Ales BELYATSKIY] (unregistered)
Perspektiva [Anatol SHUMCHENKO] (small business association)
"Tell the Truth" Movement [Vladimir NEKLYAYEV] (unregistered)
Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]
Belgium Belgian General Federation of Labor [Rudy DE LEEUW, Marc GOBLET]
Confederation of Christan Trade Unions [Marc LEEMANS, Marie-Helene SKA]
Federation of Enterprises in Belgium [Pieter TIMMERMANS, Michele SIOEN]
other: numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; trade unions; various organizations representing the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants
Belize National Trade Union Congress of Belize or NTUC/B [Marvin MORA]
Benin other: economic groups; environmentalists; political groups; teachers' unions and other educational groups
Bermuda Association of Bermuda Insurers and Reinsurers or ABIR [Bradley KADING]
Association of Bermuda International Companies or ABIC [George HUTCHINGS]
Bermuda Employer's Council [Keith JENSEN]
Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Chris Furbert]
Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Kevin GRANT and Ed BALL]
Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
Bhutan Druk National Congress (exiled)
United Front for Democracy (exiled)
other: Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepali-Bhutanese organizations (exiled); Indian merchant community
Bolivia Bolivian Workers Central or COB
Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE
Landless Movement or MST
National Coordinator for Change or CONALCAM
Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB
other: Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations (including Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN)
Bosnia and Herzegovina other: war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media
Botswana First People of the Kalahari (Bushman organization)
Pitso Ya Ba Tswana
Society for the Promotion of Ikalanga Language (Kalanga elites)
other: diamond mining companies
Brazil Landless Workers' Movement or MST
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
British Virgin Islands Family Support Network
Woman's Desk
other: environmentalists
Brunei NA
Bulgaria Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB
Podkrepa Labor Confederation
other: numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
Burkina Faso Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Tole SAGNON]
Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]
Citizen's Resistance Front [Luc Marius IBRIGA]
Group of 14 February [Benewende Stanislas SANKARA]
National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB [Laurent OUEDRAOGO]
National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL [Paul KABORE]
other: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
Burma Thai border: Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC
Federation of Trade Unions-Burma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor advocates)
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government in exile)
National Council-Union of Burma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups)
United Nationalities Federal Council or UNFC
inside Burma: Kachin Independence Organization
Karen National Union or KNU
Karenni National People's Party or KNPP
United Wa State Army or UWSA
88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement)
several other Chin, Karen, Mon, and Shan factions
note: freedom of expression has been highly restricted in Burma; the restrictions are being relaxed by the government; a limited number of political groups, other than parties are approved by the government
Burundi Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC [Pacifique NININAHAZWE] (civil society umbrella organization)
Observatoire de lutte contre la corruption et les malversations economiques or OLUCOME [Gabriel RUFYIRI] (anti-corruption pressure group)
other: Hutu and Tutsi militias (loosely organized)
Cabo Verde other: environmentalists; political pressure groups
Cambodia Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization)
Students Movement for Democracy
The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel
other: human rights organizations; vendors
Cameroon Network of Human Rights Defenders in Central Africa or REDHAC [Maximilliene Ngo MBE]
Tribunal 53 [Patrice NGANANG]
Canada other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions
Cayman Islands Coalition for Cayman or C4C
National People's Alliance or PNA
National Trust
other: environmentalists
Chad NA
Chile Roman Catholic Church, particularly conservative groups such as Opus Dei
United Labor Central or CUT (includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations)
other: university student federations at all major universities
China no substantial political opposition groups exist
Christmas Island none
Cocos (Keeling) Islands The Cocos Islands Youth Support Centre
Colombia Central Union of Workers or CUT
Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC
General Confederation of Workers or CGT
National Liberation Army or ELN
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC
note: FARC and ELN are the two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia
Comoros Federation Comorienne des Consomateurs or FCC [Mohamed Said Abdallah MCHANGANA]
Mouvement des Entreprises comorienne or MODEC [Faharate HOUSSEIN]
Union des Chambres de Commerce et de l'Industrie et de l'Agriculture or UCCIA [Fahmy THABIT]
Confederation des Travailleurs Comoriens or CTC
other: environmentalists
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Allied Democratic Forces or ADF (anti-Ugandan government rebel groups]
Forces Armes de la Rpublique Dmocratique du Congor (Army of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) or FARDC
Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Rwanda or FDLR (Rwandan militia group made up of some of the perpetrators of Rwanda's genocide in 1994)
M23 (rebel group comprised largely of ex-CNDP forces)
Congo, Republic of the Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC
General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC
Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC
Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
Cook Islands Reform Conference (lobby for political system changes)
other: various groups lobbying for political change
Costa Rica Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate)
Chamber of Coffee Growers
Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate)
Confederation of Workers Rerum Novarum or CTRN (National Libertion Party affiliate)
Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (National Libertion Party affiliate)
Costa Rican Exporter's Chamber or CADEXCO
Costa Rican Solidarity Movement
Costa Rican Union of Private Sector Enterprises or UCCAEP
Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP
National Association for Economic Development or ANFE
National Association of Educators or ANDE
National Association of Public and Private Employees or ANEP
Cote d'Ivoire Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Augustin MIAN]
National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or CNRD [Bernard DADIE]
Panafrican Congress for Justice and Peoples Equality or COJEP [Roselin BLY]
Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP
Croatia other: human rights groups
Cuba Cuban Commission for Human Rights and National Reconciliation
Damas de Blanco (Ladies in White)
National Association of Small Farmers
Patriotic Union of Cuba
other: political dissidents and bloggers
Cyprus Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK [Nicos MOYSEOS] (pro-West)
Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled) [Pambis KYRITSIS]
area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is
Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen [Asian BICAKLI]
Czech Republic Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Josef STREDULA]
Denmark Confederation of Danish Employers or DA [President Jorn Neergaard LARSEN]
Confederation of Danish Industries [CEO Karsten DYBVAD]
Confederation of Danish Labor Unions (Landsorganisationen) or LO [President Harald BORSTING]
DaneAge Association [President Bjarne HASTRUP]
Danish Shipowners' Association [Chairman Carsten MORTENSEN]
Danish Bankers Association [CEO Joergen HORWITZ]
Danish Society for Nature Conservation [President Ella Maria BISSCHOP-LARSEN]
other: environmental groups; humanitarian relief; development assistance; human rights NGOs
Dominica Dominica Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)
Dominican Republic Citizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania)
Collective of Popular Organizations or COP
Foundation for Institution-Building and Justice or FINJUS
Ecuador Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO]
Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel CHUGCHILAN, president]
National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN
National Teacher's Union or UNE [Mariana PALLASCO]
Egypt NA
El Salvador labor organizations:
Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES
Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS
National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS
National Trade Union Federation of Salvadoran Workers or FENASTRAS
National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS
Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES
Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS
Union of Judiciary Workers or SITTOJ
Union of Workers of the Ministry of Treasury or SITRAMI
Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL

business organizations:
American Chamber of Commerce in El Salvador
National Association of Private Enterprise or ANEP
Salvadoran Chamber of Commerce
Salvadoran Chamber of the Construction Industry or CASALCO
Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
Equatorial Guinea ASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform)
Coalicion CEIBA (group formed by diverse, exiled political parties)
C.O.R.E.D. (originally led by Raimundo Ela Nsang; based in Paris)
EG Justice (US-based anti-corruption group)
Eritrea Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Eritrean Kunama or DMLEK
Eritrean Democratic Alliance or EDA
Eritrean Islamic Party for Justice and Development or EIPJD (includes the Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement (EIJM), Eritrean Islamic Salvation, and the Eritrean Islamic Foundation)
Eritrean National Congress for Democratic Change or ENCDC
Eritrean National Salvation Front or ENSF
Eritrean People's Democratic Party or EPDP
Red Sea Afar Democratic Organization or RSADO
Ethiopia Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF
Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF
Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Falkland Islands Association (supports freedom of the people from external causes)
Faroe Islands other: conservationists
Fiji Group Against Racial Discrimination or GARD [Dr. Anirudk SINGH] (suports restoration of a democratic government)
Viti Landowners Association
France Confederation francaise de l'encadrement - Confederation generale des cadres (French Confederation of Management - General Confederation of Executives) or CFE-CGC [Carole COUVERT, president] (independent white-collar union with 140,000 members)
Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail (French Democratic Confederation of Labor) or CFDT [Laurent BERGER, secretary general] (left-leaning labor union with approximately 875,000 members)
Confederation francaise des travailleurs chretiens (French Confederation of Christian Workers) or CFTC [Philippe LOUIS, president] (independent labor union founded by Catholic workers that claims 142,000 members)
Confederation generale du travail (General Confederation of Labor) or CGT [Bernard THIBAULT, secretary general] (historically communist labor union with approximately 710,000 members)
Confederation generale du travail - Force ouvriere (General Confederation of Labor - Worker's Force) or FO [Jean-Claude MAILLY, secretary general] (independent labor union with an estimated 300,000 members)
Mouvement des entreprises de France or MEDEF [Pierre GATTAZ, president] (employers' union with claimed 750,000 companies as members)

French Guiana:
conservationists; gold mining pressure groups; hunting pressure groups

Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG
General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers or CGT-G
General Union of Guadeloupe Workers or UGTG
Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI
The Socialist Renewal Movement

Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC
Central Union for Martinique Workers or CSTM
Frantz Fanon Circle
League of Workers and Peasants
Proletarian Action Group or GAP

Gabon NA
Gambia, The National Environment Agency or NEA
West African Peace Building Network-Gambian Chapter or WANEB-GAMBIA
Youth Employment Network Gambia or YENGambia
other: special needs group advocates; teachers and principals
Georgia other: separatists in the Russian-occupied regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
Germany other: business associations and employers' organizations
trade unions; religious, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
Ghana Christian Aid (water rights)
Committee for Joint Action or CJA (social and economic issues)
National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP (water rights)
Oxfam (water rights)
Public Citizen (water rights)
Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education reform)
Third World Network (social and economic issues)
Gibraltar Chamber of Commerce
Gibraltar Representatives Organization
Women's Association
Greece Supreme Administration of Civil Servants Unions or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]
Federation of Greek Industries or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]
General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]
Greenland other: conservationists; environmentalists
Grenada Committee for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG
New Jewel Movement Support Group
The British Grenada Friendship Society
The New Jewel 19 Committee
Guam Guam Commission on Decolonization
Guam Federation of Teachers' Union
Guam Waterworks Authority Workers
We Are Guahan
Guatemala Alliance Against Impunity or AI (includes among others Center for Legal Action on Human Rights (CALDH), Family and Friends of the Disappeared of Guatemala (FAMDEGUA))
Civic and Political Convergence of Women
Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC
Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF
Foundation for the Development of Guatemala or FUNDESA
Guatemala Visible
Mutual Support Group or GAM
Movimiento PRO-Justicia
National Union of Agriculture Workers or UNAGRO
Guernsey No More Masts [Colin FALLAIZE]
Stop Traffic Endangering Pedestrian Safety or STEPS
Guinea-Bissau Chamber of Commerce of Agriculture, Industry, and Services [Braima CAMARA]
Guinea National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG, Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG)
Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
Guyana Amerindian People's Association
Guyana Bar Association
Guyana Citizens Initiative
Guyana Human Rights Association
Guyana Public Service Union or GPSU
Private Sector Commission
Trades Union Congress
Haiti Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]
Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH
Economic Forum of the Private Sector or EF [Reginald BOULOS]
Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS
General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]
Grand-Anse Resistance Committee or KOREGA
Haitian Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE]
National Popular Assembly or APN
Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]
Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP
Protestant Federation of Haiti
Roman Catholic Church
Holy See (Vatican City) none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Honduras Beverage and Related Industries Syndicate or STIBYS
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH
Commiittee of the Relatives of the Disappeared in Honduras or COFADEH
Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH
Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP
General Workers Confederation or CGT
Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP
National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH
National Union of Campesinos or UNC
Popular Bloc or BP
United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH
United Farm Workers' Movement of the Aguan OR MUCA
Hong Kong Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China)
Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong
Civic Act-up [Cyd HO Sau-lan, Legislative Council of Hong Kong member] (pro-democracy)
Confederation of Trade Unions or CTU [LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary] (pro-democracy)
Federation of Hong Kong Industries
Federation of Trade Unions or FTU [LAM Shuk-yee, President] (pro-China)
Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [LEE Cheuk-yan, chairman]
Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan)
Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce
Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [FUNG Wai-wah, president]
Neighborhood and Workers' Service Center or NWSC [LEUNG Yui-chung, Legislative Council of Hong Kong member] (pro-democracy)
Hungary Civil Osszefogas Forum ("Civil Unity Forum," nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies)
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)
Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)
MostMi ("Now Us") [Bori TAKACS, Zsolt VARADY](Facebook group that was a major participant at anti-government demonstrations in late 2014-early 2015; pro-Europe, anti-establishment movement that blames Fidesz for the state of the country, but also blames all established political parties for perceived political and economic failures since the fall of communism)
Okotars (empowerment of civil society in Hungary)

Energy Club (Energia Klub)
Greenpeace Hungary (Greenpeace Magyarorszag)
India All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)
Bajrang Dal (religious organization)
India Against Corruption [Anna HAZARE]
Jamiat Ulema-e Hind [Mahmood MADANI] (religious organization)
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (nationalist organization)
Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Ashok SINGHAL] (religious organization)
other: hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
Indonesia Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
Iran groups that generally support the Islamic Republic:
Ansar-e Hizballah
Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader
Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh)
Islamic Engineers Society
Tehran Militant Clergy Association or MCA (Ruhaniyat)
active pro-reform student group:
Office of Strengthening Unity or OSU
opposition groups:
Freedom Movement of Iran
Green Path movement [Mehdi KARUBI, Mir-Hosein MUSAVI]
Marz-e Por Gohar
National Front
various ethnic and monarchist organizations
armed political groups repressed by the government:
Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan or KDPI
Harekat-e Ansar-e Iran (splinter faction of Jundallah)
Jaysh l-Adl (formerly known as Jundallah)
Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization or MEK (MKO)
People's Fedayeen
People's Free Life Party of Kurdistan or PJAK
Iraq Sunni militias
Ireland Continuity IRA (terrorist group)
Families Acting for Innocent Relatives or FAIR [Brian MCCONNELL] (seek compensation for victims of violence);
Iona Institute [David QUINN] (a conservative Catholic think tank)
Irish Anti-War Movement [Richard BOYD BARRETT] (campaigns against wars around the world)
Keep Ireland Open (environmental group)
Oglaigh na hEireann (terrorist group)
Midland Railway Action Group or MRAG [Willie ALLEN] (transportation promoters)
New Irish Republican Army (terrorist group combining elements of the former Real IRA and Republican Action Against Drugs)
Peace and Neutrality Alliance [Roger COLE] (campaigns to protect Irish neutrality)
Rail Users Ireland (formerly the Platform 11 - transportation promoters)
32 Country Sovereignty Movement or 32CSM (supports unifying Northern Ireland with the rest of the island under Irish government sovereignty)
Isle of Man Alliance for Progressive Government or APG (a government watchdog)
Israel Breaking the Silence [Yehuda SHAUL, Executive Director] collects testimonies from soldiers who served in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
B'Tselem [Jessica MONTELL, Executive Director] monitors human rights abuses
Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, Secretary General] supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
YESHA Council [Danny DAYAN, Chairman] promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise
manufacturers and merchants associations: Confcommercio
organized farm groups: Confcoltivatori
major trade union confederations: Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] (left wing)
Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI] (Roman Catholic centrist)
Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] (lay centrist)
other: Roman Catholic Church
Jamaica New Beginnings Movement or NBM
Japan other: business groups; trade unions
Jersey Institute of Directors, Jersey branch (provides business support)
Jersey Hospitality Association [Robert JONES] (trade association)
Jersey Rights Association [David ROTHERHAM] (human rights)
La Societe Jersiaise (education and conservation group)
Progress Jersey [Daren O'TOOLE, Gino RISOLI] (human rights)
Royal Jersey Agriculture and Horticultural Society or RJA&HS (development and management of the Jersey breed of cattle)
Save Jersey's Heritage (protects heritage through building preservation)
Jordan 15 April Movement [Mohammad SUNEID, chairman]
24 March Movement [Mu'az al-KHAWALIDAH, Abdel Rahman HASANEIN, spokespersons]
1952 Constitution Movement
Anti-Normalization Committee [Hamzah MANSOUR, chairman]
Economic and Social Association of Retired Servicemen and Veterans or ESARSV [Abdulsalam al-HASSANAT, chairman]
Group of 36
Higher Coordination Committee of Opposition Parties [Said DIAB]
Higher National Committee for Military Retirees or HNCMR [Ali al-HABASHNEH, chairman]
Jordan Bar Association [Saleh al-ARMUTI, chairman]
Jordanian Campaign for Change or Jayin
Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood [Dr. Hamam SAID, controller general]
Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]
National Front for Reform or NFR [Ahmad OBEIDAT, chairman]
Popular Gathering for Reform
Professional Associations Council [Abd al-Hadi al-FALAHAT, chairman]
Sons of Jordan
Kazakhstan Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]
Almaty Helsinki Committee [Ninel FOKINA]
Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]
For Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV]
Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Chairman of Bureau's Council, Roza AKYLBEKOVA, director]
Khalyk Maidany (Peoples' Front) - an informal union between the unregistered Alga Party, the unregistered Communist Party of Kazakhstan, and several opposition-oriented civil society groups, banned in November 2012 [no formal leader]
Pan-National Social Democratic Party of Kazakhstan [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]
Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]
Republican Network of International Monitors [Daniyar LIVAZOV]
Transparency International [Sergey ZLOTNIKOV]
Kenya Council of Imams and Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Mohammed DOR]
Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya
Kenya Association of Manufacturers
Kenya Human Rights Commission or KHRC [Professor Makau MUTUA]
Kenya Private Sector Alliance
Kenyans for Peace with Truth and Justice (umbrella group of more than 30 NGOs)
Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]
National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]
Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]
Roman Catholic church
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Hassan Ole NAADO, secretary general]

other: labor unions, other Christian churches
Korea, North none
Korea, South Catholic Priests' Association for Justice
Christian Council of Korea
Citizen's Coalition for Economic Justice
Federation of Korean Industries
Federation of Korean Trade Unions
Korean Confederation of Trade Unions
Korean Veterans' Association
Lawyers for a Democratic Society
National Council of Churches in Korea
People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy
Kosovo CiviKos Platform [Valdete IDRIZI]
Council for the Defense of Human Rights and Freedom (human rights)
Group for Political and Legal Studies [Fisnik KORENICA]
KLA Veterans [Xhevdet QERIQI]
Kosova Women's Network [Igballe ROGOVA]
Kosovar Civil Society Foundation [Venera HAJRULLAHU]
Kosovo Democratic Institute [Ismet KRYEZIU]
Organization for Democracy, Anti-Corruption and Dignity Rise! [Avni ZOGIANI]
Serb National Council (SNV)
Speak Up [Ramadan ILAZI, executive director]
Kuwait other: Islamists; merchants; political groups; secular liberals and pro-governmental deputies; Shia activists; tribal groups
Kyrgyzstan Adilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]
Citizens Against Corruption [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]
Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA]
Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV]
Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA]
Union of True Muslims [Nurlan MOTUEV]
Laos NA
Latvia Employers' Confederation of Latvia [Vitalijs GAVRILOVS]
Farmers' Parliament [Juris LAZDINS]
Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia [Peteris KRIGERS]
Lebanon Maronite Church [Patriarch Bishara al-Ra'i]
note: most sects retain militias and a number of militant groups operate in Palestinian refugee camps
Lesotho Media Institute of Southern Africa, Lesotho chapter [Tsebo MATASA] (pushes for media freedom)
Liberia other: demobilized former military officers
Libya NA
Luxembourg Business Federation Luxembourg or FEDIL [Nicolas SOISSON]
Centrale Paysanne [Marc FISCH] (federation of agricultural producers)
Chamber of Artisans (Chambre des Metiers) [Roland KUHN]
Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de Commerce) [Carlo THELEN]
Chambre des Salaries or CSL [Jean-Claude REDING]
General Association of Officials (Confederation Generale de la Fonction Publique or CGFP [Romain WOLFF] (trade union representing civil service)
Greenpeace [Kumi NAIDOO]
LCGP [Patrick DURY] (center-right trade union)
Luxembourg Association of Bankers and Insurance Employees or ALEBA [Roberto SCOLATI]
Luxembourg Bankers Association or ABBL [Yves MAAS]
Mouvement Ecologique [Blanche WEBER] (environment protection)
OGB-L [Andre ROELTGEN] (center-left trade union)
Macau Bar-Bending Workers' Association [WONG Wai-Man]
Civic Power [Agnes LAM lok-fong]
Democratic Action [LEE Kin-yun]
Macau New Chinese Youth Association [LEONG Sin-man]
Macau Worker's Union [HO Heng-kuok]
New Macau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]
Workers' Self-Help Union [CHEONG Weng-fat]
Macedonia Federation of Free Trade Unions [Mirjana ANDREVSKA]
Federation of Trade Unions [Zivko MITREVSKI]
Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture or SONK [Jakim NEDELKOV]
Student Plenum
Eco Guerilla [Arianit XHAFERI]
Madagascar Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR
Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert ZAFY]
National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
Malawi Council for NGOs in Malawi or CONGOMA (human rights, democracy, and development)
Human Rights Consultative Committee or HRCC (human rights)
Malawi Economic Justice Network or MEJN (pro economic growth, development, government accountability)
Malawi Law Society (an umbrella organization of all lawyers in Malawi)
Public Affairs Committee or PAC (promotes democracy, development, peace and unity)
Malaysia Bar Council
BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
ISMA (Muslim NGO)
PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)
other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
Maldives other: various unregistered political parties
Mali other: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT
Malta Alliance of Liberal Democrats Malta (Alleanza Liberali-Demokratika Malta) or ALDM (for divorce, abortion, gay marriage, women's rights)
Alliance for Change (Alleanza Bidla) (Euros-septic)
Together for a Better Environment (Flimkien Ghal-Ambjent Ahjar) or FAA (pro-environment)

other: environmentalists
Marshall Islands NA
Mauritania General Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary general]
Independent Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CLTM and El Hor [Samory Ould BEYE] (civil society organization)
Mauritanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general]
SOS-Esclaves [Boubacar MESSAOUD] (anti-slavery group)
other: Arab nationalists; Ba'athists; Islamists; Nasserists
Mauritius Lalit Political Party
Say No to Coal!
other: various labor unions
Mexico Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE
Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX
Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN
Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM
Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO
Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE
Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES
National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA
National Confederation of Popular Organizations or CNOP
National Coordinator for Education Workers or CNTE
National Peasant Confederation or CNC
National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE
National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE
National Union of Workers or UNT
Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO
Roman Catholic Church
Micronesia, Federated States of NA
Moldova NA
Monaco NA
Mongolia other: human rights groups; women's groups; disability rights groups
Montenegro NA
Montserrat NA
Morocco Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir EL AMAOUI]
General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Mohamed KAFI CHERRAT]
Justice and Charity Organization or JCO [Mohammed ben Abdesslam ABBADI]
Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Miriem BENSALAH-CHAQROUN]
National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Mohamed YATIM]
Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Miloudi EL MOUKHARIK]
Mozambique Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]
Namibia National Society for Human Rights or NAMRIGHTS
other: various labor unions
Nauru Woman Information and News Agency (women's issues)
Nepal other: various groups advocating regional autonomy such as the Federal State Limbuwan Council in far eastern Nepal
Netherlands Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Maurice LIMMEN]
Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Hans DE BOER]
Federation for Small and Medium-sized Businesses or MKB [Michael VAN STRAALAN]
Netherlands Trade Union Federation or FNV [Ton HEERTS]
Social Economic Council or SER [Mariette HAMER]
Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or CMHP [Reginald VISSER]
New Caledonia NA
New Zealand Women's Electoral Lobby or WEL
other: apartheid groups; civil rights groups; farmers groups; Maori; nuclear weapons groups; women's rights groups
Nicaragua National Workers Front or FNT (a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including: Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN)
Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN (an independent labor union)
Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT (an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including: Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS)
Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP (a confederation of business groups)
Nigeria Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
Campaign for Democracy or CD
Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
Constitutional Right Project or CRP
Human Right Africa
National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
other: the press
Niue NA
Norfolk Island none
Northern Mariana Islands NA
Norway Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise (Naeringslivets Hovedorganisasjon) or NHO [President Tore ULSTEIN; CEO Kristin SKOGEN LUND]
Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge) or LO [Gerd KRISTIANSEN]
other: environmental groups; media; digital privacy movements
Oman none
Pakistan other: military; ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
Palau NA
Panama Chamber of Commerce
Concertacion Nacional (mechanism for Government of Panama to formally dialogue with representatives of civil society)
National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO
National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP
National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS)
Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE
Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP
Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP
Papua New Guinea Centre for Environment Law and Community Rights or Celcor [Damien ASE]
Community Coalition Against Corruption
National Council of Women
Transparency International Papau New Guinea or TI PNG (chapter of Transparency International)
Paraguay Ahorristas Estafados or AE
National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]
National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]
National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]
Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT
Roman Catholic Church
Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
Peru General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
Philippines Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]
Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA]
Pitcairn Islands none
Poland All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ [Jan GUZ] (trade union)
Independent Self-Governing Trade Union "Solidarity" [Piotr DUDA]
Roman Catholic Church [Archbishop Wojciech POLAK, Archbishop Stanislaw GADECKI]
Portugal Armed Forces Officers' Association or AOFA [Colonel Pereira CRACEL]
the Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages, precarious labor conditions, and unemployment)
General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers or UGT [Carlos SILVA]
Portuguese National Workers' Conference or CGTP [Armenio CARLOS]
TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action)
other: the media; labor unions
Puerto Rico Boricua Popular Army or EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los Macheteros)
Qatar none
Romania other: various human rights and professional associations
Russia Confederation of Labor of Russia or KTR
Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia
Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights
Movement Against Illegal Migration
The World Russian People's Congress
Union of the Committees of Soldiers' Mothers
Union of Russian Writers
other: business associations; environmental organizations; religious groups (especially those with Orthodox or Muslim affiliation); veterans groups
Rwanda IBUKA (association of genocide survivors)
Saint Barthelemy Rotary Club
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha other: private sector; unions
Saint Kitts and Nevis NA
Saint Lucia NA
Saint Martin NA
Saint Pierre and Miquelon NA
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines NA
Samoa NA
San Marino NA
Sao Tome and Principe Association of Sao Tome and Principe NGOs or FONG
other: the media
Saudi Arabia other: gas companies; religious groups
Senegal other: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
Serbia Association of Journalists of Serbia or NUNS
Journalists Association of Serbia (Udruzenje novinara Srbije) or UNS
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
SNP 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
SNP NASI 1389 (Serbian National Movement NASI)
Sierra Leone other: student unions; trade unions
Singapore none
Slovakia Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS
Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ
Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS
Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic or AZZZ
Medical Trade Association or LOZ
National Union of Employers or RUZ
Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK
The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS
Slovenia Catholic Church
other: various trade and public sector employee unions
Solomon Islands Isatabu Freedom Movement or IFM
Malaita Eagle Force or MEF
note: these rival armed ethnic factions crippled the Solomon Islands in a wave of violence from 1999 to 2003
Somalia other: numerous political associations and clan and sub-clan factions exist both in support and in opposition to the incumbent president
South Africa Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]
South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]
South African National Civic Organization or SANCO [Richard MDAKANE, national president]
note: COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the African National Congress
Spain Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization)
Catholic Church
15-M or 15 May protest movement, also known as the Indignados, Spanish for the "indignant ones" (a loose association of grassroots organizations that advocate for greater accountability and transparency in Spanish politics, increased social justice and job creation)
Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT (includes the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO)
Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
Spanish Confederation of Employers' Organizations or CEOE
other: business and landowning interests; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
Sri Lanka Buddhist clergy
Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups
other: labor unions; hard-line nationalist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism
Sudan Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW [Abdel Wahid NUR,various factional leaders], Sudan Liberation or SLM-MM [Minni Arkou MINAWI]
National Consensus Front or NCF [Farouq ABU ISSA]
Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North or SPLM-N [Malik AGAR]
Sudan Revolutionary Front or SRF [Malik AGAR]
Suriname Association of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE]
Association of Saramaccan Authorities or Maroon [Head Captain WASE]
Women's Parliament Forum or PVF [Iris GILLIAD]
Svalbard NA
Swaziland Swaziland Democracy Campaign
Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions
Swaziland Solidarity Network or SSN
Sweden Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations or SACO
Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO
Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Wanja LUNDBY-WEDIN]
other: environmental groups; media
Switzerland NA
Syria Free Syrian Army
Syrian Muslim Brotherhood or SMB [Muhammad Riyad al-SHAQFAH] (operates in exile in London)
Syrian Opposition Coalition or National Coalition of Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces [al-Asi- al-JARBAL]
note: there are also hundreds of local groups that organize protests and stage armed attacks
Taiwan other: environmental groups; independence movement; various business groups
note: debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of domestic politics; public opinion polls consistently show most Taiwanese support maintaining Taiwan's status quo for the foreseeable future; advocates of Taiwan independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually unify with mainland China; advocates of eventual unification predicate their goal on the democratic transformation of the mainland
Tajikistan influential religious leader Akbar TURAJONZODA
New Tajikistan party [Zayd SAIDOV] (unregistered)
Guruhi-24 (Group-24) [Umarali QUVVATOV] (unregistered opposition group)
presidential candidate of Union of Reformist Forces of Tajikistan Oynihol BOBONAZAROVA (unregistered)
Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON] (unregistered)
Tanzania Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF
Free Zanzibar
Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
Tanzaina Private Sector Foundation or TPSF
Thailand Multicolor Group
People's Alliance for Democracy or PAD
People's Democratic Reform Committee or PDRC
Student and People Network for Thailand's Reform or STR
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD
Timor-Leste NA
Togo NA
Tokelau none
Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman]
Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]
Trinidad and Tobago Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin ABU BAKR]
Tunisia 18 October Group [collective leadership]
Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI]
Tunisian General Labor Union or UGTT [Hassine ABASSI]
Turkey Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey or TUSKON [Rizanur MERAL]
Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN, Sazyie KOSE, co-chairs]
Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Tayfun GORGUN]
Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Nail OLPAK]
Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]
Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugrul KUDATGOBILIK]
Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Ergun ATALAY]
Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]
Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Muharrem YILMAZ]
Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
Turkmenistan none
Turks and Caicos Islands NA
Tuvalu none
Uganda Activists for Change or A4C
National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]
Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO
Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
Ukraine Committee of Voters of Ukraine [Oleksandr CHERNENKO]
United Arab Emirates NA
United Kingdom Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Confederation of British Industry
National Farmers' Union
Trades Union Congress
United States other: environmentalists; business groups; labor unions; churches; ethnic groups; political action committees or PACs; health groups; education groups; civic groups; youth groups; transportation groups; agricultural groups; veterans groups; women's groups; reform lobbies
Uruguay B'nai Brith
Catholic Church
Chamber of Commerce and Export of Agriproducts
Chamber of Industries (manufacturer's association)
Exporters Union of Uruguay
National Chamber of Commerce and Services
PIT/CNT (powerful federation of Uruguayan Unions - umbrella labor organization)
Rural Association of Uruguay (rancher's association)
Uruguayan Network of Political Women
other: students
Uzbekistan no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups in Uzbekistan
Vanuatu NA
Venezuela Bolivarian and Socialist Workers' Union (a ruling-party-oriented organized labor union)
Confederacion Venezolana de Industriales or Coindustria (a conservative business group)
Consejos Comunales (pro-government local communal councils)
Federation of Chambers and Associations of Commerce and Production of Venezuela or FEDECAMARAS (a conservative business group)
Union of Oil Workers of Venezuela or FUTPV
Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (opposition-oriented labor organization)
other: various civil society groups and human rights organizations
Vietnam 8406 Bloc
Democratic Party of Vietnam or DPV
People's Democratic Party Vietnam or PDP-VN
Alliance for Democracy
note: these groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by the government
Virgin Islands NA
Wallis and Futuna NA
Western Sahara none
Yemen Houthis
Muslim Brotherhood
Women National Committee
other: conservative tribal groups; southern secessionist groups; al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
Zimbabwe Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition
National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]
Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenni WILLIAMS]
Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Japhet MOYO]
Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights or ZLHR [Irene PETRAS]