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FIELD LISTING :: POLITICAL PRESSURE GROUPS AND LEADERS Print
This entry includes a listing of a country's political, social, labor, or religious organizations that are involved in politics, or that exert political pressure, but whose leaders do not stand for legislative election. International movements or organizations are generally not listed.


Country Comparison to the World

CountryPOLITICAL PRESSURE GROUPS AND LEADERS
Afghanistan other: religious groups, tribal leaders, ethnically based groups, Taliban
Albania Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kol NIKOLLAJ
Omonia [Vasil BOLLANO
Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA
Algeria The Algerian Human Rights League or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD
SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR
Youth Action Rally or RAJ
American Samoa Population Pressure LAS (addresses the growing population pressures)
Angola Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO
note: Flec's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; Several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the Flec-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [Wigley GEORGE
People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL
Argentina Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA)
Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association)
Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association)
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association)
Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a union for employed and unemployed workers)
General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization)
Roman Catholic Church
Blue and White CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation)
other: business organizations, Peronist-dominated labor movement, Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government), students
Armenia Aylentrank (Impeachment Alliance) [Nikol PASHINIAN
Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN
Aruba other: environmental groups
Australia other: business groups, environmental groups, social groups, trade unions
Austria Austrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic)
Federal Economic Chamber (OeVP-dominated)
Labor Chamber or AK (Social Democratic-leaning think tank)
OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV
Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
other: three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
Azerbaijan Club-125 [Ilhamia RZAYEVA
Ireli Youth Movement [MirHasan SEYIDOV
National Council of Democratic Forces [Jamil HASANLI
NIDA Youth Movement [Turgut GAMBAR, Zaur GURBANLI
Positive Change Youth Movement [Bakhtiyar HAJIYEV
Republican Alternative (REAL) [Ilgar MAMMADOV (in jail)
Bahamas, The Friends of the Environment
other: trade unions
Bahrain Sunni: Al-Fatih Awakening
Shia: 14 February Revolution Youth Coalition
Bahrain Islamic Freedom Movement [Said SHIHABI
Haqq Movement [Hasan MUSHAYMA
Islamic Amal [Muhammad Ali AL-MAHFUDH
Khalas [Abd al-Rauf AL-SHAYIB
Wafa Islamic Society [Abd al-Wahab HUSAYN
Bangladesh Advocacy to End Gender-based Violence through the MoWCA (Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs)
Ain o Salish Kendro (Law and Order Center)
Bangladesh Center for Worker Solidarity
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee or BRAC
Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Odikhar (Human Rights)
other: associations of madrassa teachers; business associations, including those intended to promote international trade; development and advocacy NGOs associated with the Grameen Bank; environmentalists; Islamist groups; labor rights advocacy groups; nongovernmental organizations focused on poverty, alleviation, and socioeconomic international trade; religious leaders; tribal groups and advocacy organizations; union leaders
Barbados Barbados Secondary Teachers' Union or BSTU [Mary REDMAN
Barbados Union of Teachers or BUT [Karen BEST
Barbados Workers Union or BWU [Linda BROOKS
Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMISSIONG
Congress of Trade Unions and Staff Associations of Barbados or CTUSAB, (includes the BWU, NUPW, BUT, and BSTU) [Leroy TROTMAN
National Union of Public Workers [Walter MALONEY
Belarus Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH
Belarusian Association of Journalists [Zhanna LITVINA
Belarusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Aleksandr YAROSHUK
Belarusian Helsinki Committee [Aleh HULAK
Malady Front (Young Front) [Zmitser DASHKEVICH
Vyasna (Spring) human rights center [Ales BELYATSKIY
Perspektiva small business association [Anatol SHUMCHENKO
"Tell the Truth" Movement [Vladimir NEKLYAYEV
Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA
Belgium Belgian General Federation of Labor [Rudy DE LEEUW/Anne DEMELENNE
Confederation of Christan Trade Unions [Luc CORTEBEECK/Claude ROLIN
Federation of Enterprises in Belgium [Pieter TIMMERMANS/Pierre Alain DE SMEDT
other: trade unions; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations representing the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants
Belize Association of Concerned Belizeans or ACB [David VASQUEZ
National Trade Union Congress of Belize or NTUC/B [Rene GOMEZ
Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Nicole HAYLOCK
Benin other: economic groups; environmentalists; political groups; teachers' unions and other educational groups
Bermuda Association of Bermuda Insurers and Reinsurers or ABIR [Bradley KADING
Association of Bermuda International Companies or ABIC [George HUTCHINGS
Bermuda Employer's Council [Keith JENSEN
Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Chris Furbert
Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Kevin GRANT and Ed BALL
Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES
Bhutan United Front for Democracy (exiled); Druk National Congress (exiled)
other: Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepali-Bhutanese organizations (exiled); Indian merchant community
Bolivia Bolivian Workers Central or COB
Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE
Landless Movement or MST
National Coordinator for Change or CONALCAM
Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB
other: Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations (including Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN)
Bosnia and Herzegovina other: war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media
Botswana First People of the Kalahari (Bushman organization)
Pitso Ya Ba Tswana
Society for the Promotion of Ikalanga Language (Kalanga elites)
other: diamond mining companies
Brazil Landless Workers' Movement or MST
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
British Virgin Islands The Family Support Network
The Women's Desk
other: environmentalists
Brunei NA
Bulgaria Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB
Podkrepa Labor Confederation
other: numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
Burkina Faso Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Tole SAGNON
Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE
Citizen's Resistance Front [Luc Marius IBRIGA
Group of 14 February [Benewende Stanislas SANKARA
National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB [Laurent OUEDRAOGO
National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL [Paul KABORE
other: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
Burma Thai border: Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC
Federation of Trade Unions-Burma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor advocates)
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN
National Council-Union of Burma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups)
United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC)
inside Burma: Kachin Independence Organization
Karen National Union or KNU
Karenni National People's Party or KNPP
United Wa State Army or UWSA
88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement)
several other Chin, Karen, Mon, and Shan factions
note: freedom of expression has been highly restricted in Burma; the restrictions are being relaxed by the government; a limited number of political groups, other than parties are approved by the government
Burundi Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC [Pacifique NININAHAZWE
Observatoire de lutte contre la corruption et les malversations economiques or OLUCOME [Gabriel RUFYIRI
other: Hutu and Tutsi militias (loosely organized)
Cabo Verde other: environmentalists; political pressure groups
Cambodia Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization)
Students Movement for Democracy
The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel
other: human rights organizations; vendors
Cameroon Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president
Southern Cameroon National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN
Canada other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions
Cayman Islands Coalition for Cayman or C4C
National People's Alliance or PNA
National Trust
other: environmentalists
Chad other: rebel groups
Chile Roman Catholic Church, particularly conservative groups such as Opus Dei
United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations
other: university student federations at all major universities
China no substantial political opposition groups exist
Christmas Island none
Cocos (Keeling) Islands The Cocos Islands Youth Support Centre
Colombia Central Union of Workers or CUT
Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC
General Confederation of Workers or CGT
National Liberation Army or ELN
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC
note: FARC and ELN are the two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia
Comoros other: environmentalists
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Forces Armes de la Rpublique Dmocratique du Congor or FARDC - Army of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Rwanda or FDLR (Rwandan militia group made up of some of the perpetrators of Rwanda's genocide in 1994)
M23 - rebel group comprised largely of ex-CNDP forces
Allied Democratic Forces or ADF (anti-Ugandan government rebel groups
Congo, Republic of the Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC
General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC
Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC
Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
Cook Islands Reform Conference (lobby for political system changes)
other: various groups lobbying for political change
Costa Rica Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate)
Chamber of Coffee Growers
Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate)
Confederation of Workers Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate)
Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate)
Costa Rican Exporter's Chamber or CADEXCO
Costa Rican Solidarity Movement
Costa Rican Union of Private Sector Enterprises or UCCAEP
Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP
National Association for Economic Development or ANFE
National Association of Educators or ANDE
National Association of Public and Private Employees or ANEP
Cote d'Ivoire Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Augustin MIAN
National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or CNRD [Bernard DADIE
Panafrican Congress for Justice and Peoples Equality or COJEP [Roselin BLY
Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP
Croatia other: human rights groups
Cuba Damas de Blanco
National Association of Small Farmers
Patriotic Union of Cuba
The Cuban Commission for Human Rights and National Reconciliation
other: political dissidents and bloggers
Cyprus Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West)
Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)
area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen
Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is
Czech Republic Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Josef STREDULA
Denmark Confederation of Danish Employers or DA [President Jorn Neergaard LARSEN
Confederation of Danish Industries [CEO Karsten DYBVAD
Confederation of Danish Labor Unions (Landsorganisationen) or LO [President Harald BORSTING
DaneAge Association [President Bjarne HASTRUP
Danish Shipowners' Association [Chairman Carsten MORTENSEN
Danish Bankers Association [CEO Joergen HORWITZ
Danish Society for Nature Conservation [President Ella Maria BISSCHOP-LARSEN
other: environmental groups; humanitarian relief; development assistance; human rights NGOs
Dominica Dominica Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)
Dominican Republic Citizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania)
Collective of Popular Organizations or COP
Foundation for Institution-Building and Justice or FINJUS
Ecuador Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO
Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel CHUGCHILAN, president
National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN
National Teacher's Union or UNE [Mariana PALLASCO
Egypt NA
El Salvador labor organizations:
Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES
Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS
National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS
National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS
Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES
Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petroleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC
Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS
Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL

business organizations:
National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP
Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC
Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
Equatorial Guinea ASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform)
EG Justice (US-based anti-corruption group)
Eritrea Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Eritrean Kunama or DMLEK
Eritrean Democratic Alliance or EDA
Eritrean National Congress for Democratic Change or ENCDC
Eritrean National Salvation Front or ENSF
Eritrean Islamic Party for Justice and Development or EIPJD (includes the Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement (EIJM), Eritrean Islamic Salvation, and the Eritrean Islamic Foundation)
Eritrean People's Democratic Party or EPDP
Red Sea Afar Democratic Organization or RSADO
Ethiopia Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF
Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF
Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Falkland Islands Association (supports freedom of the people from external causes)
Faroe Islands other: conservationists
Fiji Group Against Racial Discrimination or GARD [Dr. Anirudk SINGH
Viti Landowners Association
France Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail (French Democratic Confederation of Labor) or CFDT, left-leaning labor union with approximately 875,000 members [Laurent BERGER, Secretary General
Confederation francaise de l'encadrement - Confederation generale des cadres (French Confederation of Management - General Confederation of Executives) or CFE-CGC, independent white-collar union with 140,000 members [Carole COUVERT, president
Confederation francaise des travailleurs chretiens (French Confederation of Christian Workers) or CFTC, independent labor union founded by Catholic workers that claims 142,000 members [Philippe LOUIS, president
Confederation generale du travail (General Confederation of Labor) or CGT, historically communist labor union with approximately 710,000 members [Bernard THIBAULT, secretary general
Confederation generale du travail - Force ouvriere (General Confederation of Labor - Worker's Force) or FO, independent labor union with an estimated 300,000 members [Jean-Claude MAILLY, secretary general
Mouvement des entreprises de France or MEDEF, employers' union with 750,000 companies as members (claimed) [Pierre GATTAZ, president

French Guiana:
conservationists; gold mining pressure groups; hunting pressure groups

Guadeloupe:
Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG
General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers or CGT-G
General Union of Guadeloupe Workers or UGTG
Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI
The Socialist Renewal Movement

Martinique:
Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC
Central Union for Martinique Workers or CSTM
Frantz Fanon Circle
League of Workers and Peasants
Proletarian Action Group or GAP

Reunion:
NA
Gabon NA
Gambia, The National Environment Agency or NEA
West African Peace Building Network-Gambian Chapter or WANEB-GAMBIA
Youth Employment Network Gambia or YENGambia
other: special needs group advocates; teachers and principals
Georgia other: separatists in the Russian-occupied regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
Germany other: business associations and employers' organizations
trade unions; religious, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
Ghana Christian Aid (water rights)
Committee for Joint Action or CJA (education reform)
National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP (water rights)
Oxfam (water rights)
Public Citizen (water rights)
Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI
Third World Network (education reform)
Gibraltar Chamber of Commerce
Gibraltar Representatives Organization
Women's Association
Greece Supreme Administration of Civil Servants Unions or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS
Federation of Greek Industries or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS
General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS
Greenland other: conservationists; environmentalists
Grenada Committee for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG
New Jewel Movement Support Group
The British Grenada Friendship Society
The New Jewel 19 Committee
Guam Guam Commission on Decolonization
Guam Federation of Teachers' Union
Guam Waterworks Authority Workers
We Are Guahan
Guatemala Alliance Against Impunity or AI (which includes among others Center for Legal Action on Human Rights (CALDH), and Family and Friends of the Disappeared of Guatemala (FAMDEGUA))
Civic and Political Convergence of Women
Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC
Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF
Foundation for the Development of Guatemala or FUNDESA
Guatemala Visible
Mutual Support Group or GAM
Movimiento PRO-Justicia
National Union of Agriculture Workers or UNAGRO
Guernsey Stop Traffic Endangering Pedestrian Safety or STEPS
No More Masts [Colin FALLAIZE
Guinea-Bissau NA
Guinea National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG and Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG)
Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
Guyana Amerindian People's Association
Guyana Bar Association
Guyana Citizens Initiative
Guyana Human Rights Association
Guyana Public Service Union or GPSU
Private Sector Commission
Trades Union Congress
Haiti Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR
Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH
Economic Forum of the Private Sector or EF [Reginald BOULOS
Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS
General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS
Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA
The Haitian Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE
National Popular Assembly or APN
Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE
Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP
Protestant Federation of Haiti
Roman Catholic Church
Holy See (Vatican City) none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Honduras Beverage and Related Industries Syndicate or STIBYS
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH
Commiittee of the Relatives of the Disappeared in Honduras or COFADEH
Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH
Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP
General Workers Confederation or CGT
Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP
National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH
National Union of Campesinos or UNC
Popular Bloc or BP
United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH
United Farm Workers' Movement of the Aguan OR MUCA
Hong Kong Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions or CTU (pro-democracy) [LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary
Hungary Civil Osszefogas Forum ("Civil Unity Forum," nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies)
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)
Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)
MostMi ("Now Us," Facebook group led by Bori TAKACS and Zsolt VARADY, that was a major participant at anti-government demonstrations in late 2014-early 2015; pro-Europe, anti-establishment movement that blames Fidesz for the state of the country, but also blames all established political parties for perceived political and economic failures since the fall of communism)
Okotars (empowerment of civil society in Hungary)

environmentalists:
Energy Club (Energia Klub)
Greenpeace Hungary (Greenpeace Magyarorszag)
India All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)
Bajrang Dal (religious organization)
India Against Corruption [Anna HAZARE
Jamiat Ulema-e Hind [Mahmood MADANI
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT
Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Ashok SINGHAL
other: hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
Indonesia Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
Iran groups that generally support the Islamic Republic:
Ansar-e Hizballah
Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader
Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh)
Islamic Engineers Society
Tehran Militant Clergy Association (MCA; Ruhaniyat)
active pro-reform student group:
Office of Strengthening Unity (OSU)
opposition groups:
Freedom Movement of Iran
Green Path movement [Mehdi KARUBI, Mir-Hosein MUSAVI
Marz-e Por Gohar
National Front
various ethnic and monarchist organizations
armed political groups repressed by the government:
Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI)
Harekat-e Ansar-e Iran (splinter faction of Jundallah)
Jaysh l-Adl (formerly known as Jundallah)
Komala
Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO)
People's Fedayeen
People's Free Life Party of Kurdistan (PJAK)
Iraq Sunni militias
Ireland Continuity IRA (terrorist group)
Families Acting for Innocent Relatives or FAIR [Brian MCCONNELL
Iona Institute [David QUINN
Irish Anti-War Movement [Richard BOYD BARRETT
Keep Ireland Open (environmental group)
Oglaigh na hEireann (terrorist group)
Midland Railway Action Group or MRAG [Willie ALLEN
New Irish Republican Army (terrorist group combining elements of the former Real IRA and Republican Action Against Drugs)
Peace and Neutrality Alliance [Roger COLE
Rail Users Ireland (formerly the Platform 11 - transportation promoters)
32 Country Sovereignty Movement or 32CSM (supports unifying Northern Ireland with the rest of the island under Irish government sovereignty)
Isle of Man Alliance for Progressive Government or APG (a government watchdog)
Mec Vannin (political party advocating a sovereign state and environment policies); note - has only had one member elected to the Tynwald
Israel Breaking the Silence [Yehuda SHAUL, Executive Director
B'Tselem [Jessica MONTELL, Executive Director
Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, Secretary General
YESHA Council [Danny DAYAN, Chairman
Italy manufacturers and merchants associations:
Confcommercio
Confindustria
organized farm groups:
Confcoltivatori
Confagricoltura
Roman Catholic Church
three major trade union confederations:
Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO
Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI
Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI
Jamaica New Beginnings Movement or NBM
Rastafarians
Japan other: business groups; trade unions
Jersey Institute of Directors, Jersey branch (provides business support)
Jersey Hospitality Association [Robert JONES
Jersey Rights Association [David ROTHERHAM
La Societe Jersiaise (education and conservation group)
Progress Jersey [Daren O'TOOLE, Gino RISOLI
Royal Jersey Agriculture and Horticultural Society or RJA&HS (development and management of the Jersey breed of cattle)
Save Jersey's Heritage (protects heritage through building preservation)
Jordan 15 April Movement [Mohammad SUNEID, chairman
24 March Movement [Mu'az al-KHAWALIDAH, Abdel Rahman HASANEIN, spokespersons
1952 Constitution Movement
Anti-Normalization Committee [Hamzah MANSOUR, chairman
Economic and Social Association of Retired Servicemen and Veterans or ESARSV [Abdulsalam al-HASSANAT, chairman
Group of 36
Higher Coordination Committee of Opposition Parties [Said DIAB
Higher National Committee for Military Retirees or HNCMR [Ali al-HABASHNEH, chairman
Hirak
Jordan Bar Association [Saleh al-ARMUTI, chairman
Jordanian Campaign for Change or Jayin
Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood [Dr. Hamam SAID, controller general
Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president
National Front for Reform or NFR [Ahmad OBEIDAT, chairman
Popular Gathering for Reform
Professional Associations Council [Abd al-Hadi al-FALAHAT, chairman
Sons of Jordan
Kazakhstan Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA
Almaty Helsinki Committee [Ninel FOKINA
Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN
For Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV
Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Chairman of Bureau's Council, Roza AKYLBEKOVA, director
Khalyk Maidany (Peoples' Front) - an informal union between the unregistered Alga Party, the unregistered Communist Party of Kazakhstan, and several opposition-oriented civil society groups, banned in November 2012 [no formal leader
Pan-National Social Democratic Party of Kazakhstan [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY
Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman
Republican Network of International Monitors [Daniyar LIVAZOV
Transparency International [Sergey ZLOTNIKOV
Kenya Council of Imams and Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Mohammed DOR
Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya
Kenya Human Rights Commission or KHRC [Professor Makau MUTUA
Kenyans for Peace with Truth and Justice (an umbrella group of more than 30 NGOs)
Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI
National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI
Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI
Roman Catholic and other Christian churches
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Hassan Ole NAADO, secretary general

other: labor unions, Kenya Association of Manufacturers, Kenya Private Sector Alliance
Korea, North none
Korea, South Catholic Priests' Association for Justice
Christian Council of Korea
Citizen's Coalition for Economic Justice
Federation of Korean Industries
Federation of Korean Trade Unions
Korean Confederation of Trade Unions
Korean Veterans' Association
Lawyers for a Democratic Society
National Council of Churches in Korea
People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy
Kosovo Council for the Defense of Human Rights and Freedom (human rights)
Organization for Democracy, Anti-Corruption and Dignity Rise! [Avni ZOGIANI
Serb National Council (SNV)
The Speak Up Movement [Ramadan ILAZI
Kuwait other: Islamists; merchants; political groups; secular liberals and pro-governmental deputies; Shia activists; tribal groups
Kyrgyzstan Adilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA
Citizens Against Corruption [Tolekan ISMAILOVA
Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA
Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA
Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV
Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA
Union of True Muslims [Nurlan MOTUEV
Laos NA
Latvia Employers' Confederation of Latvia [Vitalijs GAVRILOVS
Farmers' Parliament [Juris LAZDINS
Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia [Peteris KRIGERS
Lebanon Maronite Church [Patriarch Bishara al-Ra'i
note: most sects retain militias and a number of militant groups operate in Palestinian refugee camps
Lesotho Media Institute of Southern Africa, Lesotho chapter [Tsebo MATASA
Liberia other: demobilized former military officers
Libya NA
Luxembourg ABBL (bankers' association) [Yves MAAS
ALEBA (financial sector trade union) [Roberto SCOLATI
Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers) [Marc FISCH
CSL (Chambre des Salaries) [Jean-Claude REDING
CGFP (trade union representing civil service) [Romain WOLFF
Chamber of Artisans (Chambre des Metiers) [Roland KUHN
Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de Commerce) [Carlo THELEN
FEDIL (federation of industrialists) [Nicolas SOISSON
Greenpeace (environment protection) [Kumi NAIDOO
LCGP (center-right trade union) [Patrick DURY
Mouvement Ecologique (environment protection) [Blanche WEBER
OGBL (center-left trade union) [Andre ROELTGEN
Macau Bar-Bending Workers' Association [WONG Wai-Man
Civic Power [Agnes LAM lok-fong
Democratic Action [LEE Kin-yun
Macau New Chinese Youth Association [LEONG Sin-man
Macau Worker's Union [HO Heng-kuok
New Macau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong
Workers' Self-Help Union [CHEONG Weng-fat
Macedonia Federation of Free Trade Unions [Mirjana ANDREVSKA
Federation of Trade Unions [Zivko MITREVSKI
Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture [Jakim NEDELKOV
Madagascar Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR
Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert ZAFY
National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
Malawi Council for NGOs in Malawi or CONGOMA (human rights, democracy, and development)
Human Rights Consultative Committee or HRCC (human rights)
Malawi Economic Justice Network or MEJN (pro economic growth, development, government accountability)
Malawi Law Society (an umbrella organization of all lawyers in Malawi)
Public Affairs Committee or PAC (promotes democracy, development, peace and unity)
Malaysia Bar Council
BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
PEMBELA (Muslim NGO coalition)
PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)
other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
Maldives other: various unregistered political parties
Mali other: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT
Malta Alliance of Liberal Democrats Malta (Alleanza Liberali-Demokratika Malta) of ALDM (for divorce, abortion, gay marriage, women's rights)
Alliance for Change (Alleanza Bidla) (Euroseptic)
Together for a Better Environment (Flimkien Ghal-Ambjent Ahjar) or FAA (pro-environment)

other: environmentalists
Marshall Islands NA
Mauritania General Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary general
Independent Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CLTM [Samory Ould BEYE
Mauritanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general

other: Arab nationalists; Ba'thists; Islamists
Mauritius Blok 104. Rezistans ek Alternativ (Resistence and Alternative), Say No to Coal!
other: various labor unions
Mexico Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE
Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX
Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN
Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM
Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO
Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE
Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES
National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA
National Confederation of Popular Organizations or CNOP
National Coordinator for Education Workers or CNTE
National Peasant Confederation or CNC
National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE
National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE
National Union of Workers or UNT
Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO
Roman Catholic Church
Micronesia, Federated States of NA
Moldova NA
Monaco NA
Mongolia other: human rights groups; women's groups
Montenegro NA
Montserrat NA
Morocco Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI
General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL
Justice and Charity Organization or JCO
Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI
National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI
Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK
Mozambique Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president
Namibia National Society for Human Rights or NAMRIGHTS
other: various labor unions
Nauru Woman Information and News Agency (women's issues)
Nepal The Communist Party of Nepal - Maoist (CPN-M); note - this party split from the UCPN(M) in June 2012,opposed the November 2013 elections, and is not represented in the current Constituent Assembly
other: a variety of groups advocating regional autonomy such as the Federal State Limbuwan Council in far eastern Nepal
Netherlands Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Maurice LIMMEN
Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Hans DE BOER
Federation for Small and Medium-sized businesses or MKB [Michael VAN STRAALAN
Netherlands Trade Union Federation or FNV [Ton HEERTS
Social Economic Council or SER [Mariette HAMER
Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or CMHP [Reginald VISSER
New Caledonia NA
New Zealand Women's Electoral Lobby or WEL
other: apartheid groups; civil rights groups; farmers groups; Maori; nuclear weapons groups; women's rights groups
Nicaragua National Workers Front or FNT (a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including: Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN)
Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN (an independent labor union)
Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT (an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including: Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS)
Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP (a confederation of business groups)
Nigeria Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
Campaign for Democracy or CD
Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
Constitutional Right Project or CRP
Human Right Africa
National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
other: the press
Niue NA
Norfolk Island none
Northern Mariana Islands NA
Norway Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise (Naeringslivets Hovedorganisasjon) or NHO [President Tore ULSTEIN; CEO Kristin SKOGEN LUND
Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge) or LO [Gerd KRISTIANSEN
other: environmental groups; media; digital privacy movements
Oman none
Pakistan other: military; ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
Palau NA
Panama Chamber of Commerce
Concertacion Nacional (mechanism for government of Panama to formally dialogue with representatives of civil society)
National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO
National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP
National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS)
Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE
Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP
Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP
Papua New Guinea Centre for Environment Law and Community Rights or Celcor [Damien ASE
Community Coalition Against Corruption
National Council of Women
Transparency International PNG
Paraguay Ahorristas Estafados or AE
National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO
National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA
National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES
Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT
Roman Catholic Church
Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo
Peru General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)
Philippines Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO
Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA
Pitcairn Islands none
Poland All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Jan GUZ
Independent and Self-Governing Trade Union "Solidarity" [Piotr DUDA
Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal Stanislaw DZIWISZ, Archbishop Jozef MICHALIK
Portugal Armed Forces Officers' Association (AOFA) [Colonel Pereira CRACEL
the Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages, precarious labor conditions, and unemployment)
the General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers (UGT) [Carlos SILVA
Portuguese National Workers' Conference (CGTP) [Armenio CARLOS
TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action)
other: the media; labor unions
Puerto Rico Boricua Popular Army or EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los Macheteros)
the following radical groups are considered dormant by Federal law enforcement: Armed Forces for National Liberation or FALN, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance, Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution
Qatar none
Romania other: various human rights and professional associations
Russia Confederation of Labor of Russia (KTR)
Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia
Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights
Memorial
Movement Against Illegal Migration
Russkiye
Solidarnost
The World Russian People's Congress
Union of the Committees of Soldiers' Mothers
Union of Russian Writers
other: business associations; environmental organizations; religious groups (especially those with Orthodox or Muslim affiliation); veterans groups
Rwanda IBUKA (association of genocide survivors)
Saint Barthelemy Rotary Club
The Marine Reserve (protection of fish)
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha other: private sector; unions
Saint Kitts and Nevis NA
Saint Lucia NA
Saint Martin NA
Saint Pierre and Miquelon NA
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines NA
Samoa NA
San Marino NA
Sao Tome and Principe Association of Sao Tome and Principe NGOs or FONG
other: the media
Saudi Arabia other: gas companies; religious groups
Senegal other: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
Serbia 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
SNP NASI (Serbian National Movement NASI)
Seychelles Roman Catholic Church
other: trade unions
Sierra Leone other: student unions; trade unions
Singapore none
Slovakia Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS
Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ
Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS
Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic
Medical Trade Association or LOZ
National Union of Employers or RUZ
Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK
The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS
Slovenia Slovenian Roma Association [Jozek Horvat MUC
other: Catholic Church; various trade and public sector employee unions
Solomon Islands Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM)
Malaita Eagle Force (MEF)
other: these rival armed ethnic factions crippled the Solomon Islands in a wave of violence from 1999 to 2003
Somalia other: numerous clan and sub-clan factions exist both in support and in opposition to the transitional government
South Africa Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary
South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary
South African National Civics Organization or SANCO [Richard MDAKANE, national president
note: COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the ANC
Spain Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization)
Catholic Church
15-M or 15 May protest movement, which is also known as the Indignados, Spanish for the "indignant ones" (a loose association of grassroots organizations that advocate for greater accountability and transparency in Spanish politics, increased social justice and job creation)
Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO
Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
Spanish Confederation of Employers' Organizations or CEOE
other: business and landowning interests; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
Sri Lanka Buddhist clergy
Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups
other: labor unions; hard-line nationalist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism
Sudan Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM
National Consensus Front (NCF) [Farouq ABU ISSA
Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) [Malik AGAR
Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) [Malik AGAR
Suriname Association of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE
Association of Saramaccan Authorities or Maroon [Head Captain WASE
Women's Parliament Forum or PVF [Iris GILLIAD
Svalbard NA
Swaziland Swaziland Democracy Campaign
Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions
Swaziland Solidarity Network or SSN
Sweden Children's Rights in Society
Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO
Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Wanja LUNDBY-WEDIN
other: environmental groups; media
Switzerland NA
Syria Free Syrian Army
Syrian Muslim Brotherhood or SMB [Muhammad Riyad al-SHAQFAH
Syrian Opposition Coalition or National Coalition of Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces [al-Asi- al-JARBAL
note: there are also hundreds of local groups that organize protests and stage armed attacks
Taiwan other: environmental groups; independence movement; various business groups
note: debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of domestic politics on Taiwan; public opinion polls consistently show a substantial majority of Taiwan people supports maintaining Taiwan's status quo for the foreseeable future; advocates of Taiwan independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually unify with mainland China; advocates of eventual unification predicate their goal on the democratic transformation of the mainland
Tajikistan influential religious leader Akbar TURAJONZODA
New Tajikistan party, unregistered [Zayd SAIDOV
opposition group Guruhi-24 (Group-24), unregistered [Umarali QUVVATOV
presidential candidate of Union of Reformist Forces of Tajikistan Oynihol BOBONAZAROVA, unregistered
Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV
Youth Party of Tajikistan, unregistered [Izzat AMON
Tanzania Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF
Free Zanzibar
Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
Thailand Multicolor Group
People's Alliance for Democracy or PAD
People's Democratic Reform Committee or PDRC
Student and People Network for Thailand's Reform or STR
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD
Timor-Leste NA
Togo NA
Tokelau none
Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman
Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE
Trinidad and Tobago Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin ABU BAKR
Tunisia 18 October Group [collective leadership
Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI
Tunisian General Labor Union or UGTT [Hassine ABASSI
Turkey Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey or TUSKON [Rizanur MERAL
Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN
Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Tayfun GORGUN
Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer Cihad VARDAN
Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN
Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugrul KUDATGOBILIK
Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa KUMLU
Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN
Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Muharrem YILMAZ
Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU
Turkmenistan none
Turks and Caicos Islands NA
Tuvalu none
Uganda Activists for Change or A4C
National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON
Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO
The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
Ukraine Committee of Voters of Ukraine [Oleksandr CHERNENKO
OPORA [Olha AIVAZOVSKA
United Arab Emirates NA
United Kingdom Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Confederation of British Industry
National Farmers' Union
Trades Union Congress
United States other: environmentalists; business groups; labor unions; churches; ethnic groups; political action committees or PACs; health groups; education groups; civic groups; youth groups; transportation groups; agricultural groups; veterans groups; women's groups; reform lobbies
Uruguay B'nai Brith
Catholic Church
Chamber of Commerce and Export of Agriproducts
Chamber of Industries (manufacturer's association)
Exporters Union of Uruguay
National Chamber of Commerce and Services
PIT/CNT (powerful federation of Uruguayan Unions - umbrella labor organization)
Rural Association of Uruguay (rancher's association)
Uruguayan Network of Political Women
other: students
Uzbekistan there are no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups operating in Uzbekistan
Vanuatu NA
Venezuela Bolivarian and Socialist Workers' Union (a ruling party labor union)
Confederacion Venezolana de Industriales or Coindustria (a conservative business group)
Consejos Comunales (pro-Chavez local cooperatives)
FEDECAMARAS (a conservative business group)
Union of Oil Workers of Venezuela or FUTPV
Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (opposition-oriented labor organization)
other: various civil society groups and human rights organizations
Vietnam 8406 Bloc
Democratic Party of Vietnam or DPV
People's Democratic Party Vietnam or PDP-VN
Alliance for Democracy
note: these groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by the government
Virgin Islands NA
Wallis and Futuna NA
Western Sahara none
Yemen Huthis
Muslim Brotherhood
Women National Committee
other: conservative tribal groups; southern secessionist groups; al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
Zimbabwe Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition
National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU
Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenni WILLIAMS
Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Wellington CHIBEBE
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