Field Listing :: Political pressure groups and leaders
This entry includes a listing of a country's political, social, labor, or religious organizations that are involved in politics, or that exert political pressure, but whose leaders do not stand for legislative election. International movements or organizations are generally not listed.
Country
Political pressure groups and leaders
Afghanistan other: religious groups, tribal leaders, ethnically based groups, Taliban
Albania Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kol NIKOLLAJ]
Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]
Mjaft Movement [Elton KACIDHJA]
Omonia [Vasil BOLLANO]
Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
Algeria The Algerian Human Rights League or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Youth Action Rally or RAJ
American Samoa Population Pressure LAS (addresses the growing population pressures)
Angola Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO]
note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; Several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues Mingas], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese soccer team in 2010
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [Wigley GEORGE]
People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
Argentina Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA)
Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association)
Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association)
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association)
Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a union for employed and unemployed workers)
General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization)
Roman Catholic Church
White and Blue CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation)
other: business organizations, Peronist-dominated labor movement, Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government), students
Armenia Aylentrank (Impeachment Alliance) [Nikol PASHINIAN]
Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
Aruba other: environmental groups
Australia other: business groups, environmental groups, social groups, trade unions
Austria Austrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic)
Federal Economic Chamber
Labor Chamber or AK (Social Democratic-leaning think tank)
OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV
Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
other: three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
Azerbaijan EL Movement [Eldar NAMAZOV]
Karabakh Liberation Organization
Forum of Intelligentsia [Rustam IBRAHIMBEYOV]
Republican Alternative (REAL) [Ilgar MAMMADOV]
National Council of Democratic Forces [Jamil HASANLI]
NIDA Youth Movement [Turgut GAMBAR, Zaur GURBANLI (in jail)]
Positive Change Youth Movement [Bakhtiyar HAJIYEV]
Ireli Youth Movement [Rauf MERDIYEV]
Ol! Youth Movement [Vugar SALAMLI]
Bahamas, The Friends of the Environment
other: trade unions
Bahrain Sunni:
Al-Fatih Awakening
Shia:
14 February Revolution Youth Coalition
Bahrain Islamic Freedom Movement [Said SHIHABI]
Haqq Movement [Hasan MUSHAYMA]
Islamic Amal [Muhammad Ali AL-MAHFUDH]
Khalas [Abd al-Rauf AL-SHAYIB]
Wafa Islamic Society [Abd al-Wahab HUSAYN]
Bangladesh Advocacy to End Gender-based Violence through the MoWCA (Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs)
Ain o Salish Kendro (Law and Order Center)
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee or BRAC
Bangladesh Center for Worker Solidarity
Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Odikhar (Human Rights)
other: associations of madrassa teachers; business associations, including those intended to promote international trade; development and advocacy NGOs associated with the Grameen Bank; environmentalists; Islamist groups; labor rights advocacy groups; nongovernmental organizations focused on poverty, alleviation, and socioeconomic international trade; religious leaders; tribal groups and advocacy organizations; union leaders
Barbados Barbados Secondary Teachers' Union or BSTU [Mary REDMAN]
Barbados Union of Teachers or BUT [Karen BEST]
Congress of Trade Unions and Staff Associations of Barbados or CTUSAB, (includes the BWU, NUPW, BUT, and BSTU) [Leroy TROTMAN]
Barbados Workers Union or BWU [Linda BROOKS]
Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMISSIONG]
National Union of Public Workers [Walter MALONEY]
Belarus Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH] (unregistered)
Belarusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]
Belarusian Association of Journalists [Zhana LITVINA]
Belarusian Helsinki Committee [Aleh HULAK]
Belarusian Independence Bloc (unregistered) and For Freedom movement [Aleksandr MILINKEVICH]
Belarusian Organization of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]
BPF-Youth [Andrus KRECHKA] (unregistered)
Charter 97 [Andrey SANNIKOV] (unregistered)
Perspektiva small business association [Anatol SHUMCHENKO]
Nasha Vyasna ("Our Spring") human rights center [Ales BYALYATSKI] (unregistered)
"Tell the Truth" Movement [Vladimir NEKLYAYEV] (unregistered)
Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]
Young Belarus (Malady Belarus) [Zmitser KASPYAROVICH] (unregistered)
Youth Front (Malady Front) [Zmitser DASHKEVICH] (unregistered)
Belgium Federation of Enterprises in Belgium [Pieter TIMMERMANS/Pierre Alain DE SMEDT]; Confederation of Christan Trade Unions [Luc CORTEBEECK/Claude ROLIN]; Belgian General Federation of Labor [Rudy DE LEEUW/Anne DEMELENNE]
other: trade unions; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations representing the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants
Belize Society for the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Nicole HAYLOCK]
Association of Concerned Belizeans or ACB [David VASQUEZ]
National Trade Union Congress of Belize or NTUC/B [Rene GOMEZ]
Benin other: economic groups; environmentalists; political groups; teachers' unions and other educational groups
Bermuda Association of Bermuda Insurers and Reinsurers or ABIR [Bradley KADING]; Association of Bermuda International Companies or ABIC [George HUTCHINGS]; Bermuda Employer's Council [Keith JENSEN]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Chris Furbert]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Kevin GRANT and Ed BALL]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
Bhutan United Front for Democracy (exiled); Druk National Congress (exiled)
other: Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community
Bolivia Bolivian Workers Central or COB
Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE
Landless Movement or MST
National Coordinator for Change or CONALCAM
Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB
other: Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations (including Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN)
Bosnia and Herzegovina other: war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media
Botswana First People of the Kalahari (Bushman organization); Pitso Ya Ba Tswana; Society for the Promotion of Ikalanga Language (Kalanga elites)
other: diamond mining companies
Brazil Landless Workers' Movement or MST
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
British Virgin Islands The Family Support Network; The Women's Desk
other: environmentalists
Brunei NA
Bulgaria Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB
Podkrepa Labor Confederation
other: numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
Burkina Faso Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Tole SAGNON]
Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]
Citizen's Resistance Front [Luc Marius IBRIGA]
Group of 14 February [Benewende Stanislas SANKARA]
National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB [Laurent OUEDRAOGO]
National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL [Paul KABORE]
other: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
Burma Thai border:
Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC
Federation of Trade Unions-Burma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor advocates)
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government in exile)
National Council-Union of Burma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups)
United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC)
Inside Burma:
Karen National Union or KNU
Karenni National People's Party or KNPP
United Wa State Army or UWSA
88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement)
several other Chin, Karen, Mon, and Shan factions
note: freedom of expression has been highly restricted in Burma; the restrictions are being relaxed by the government; political groups, other than parties approved by the government, are limited in number
Burundi Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC [Pacifique NININAHAZWE] (civil society umbrella organization)
Observatoire de lutte contre la corruption et les malversations economiques or OLUCOME [Gabriel RUFYIRI] (anti-corruption pressure group)
other: Hutu and Tutsi militias (loosely organized)
Cabo Verde other: environmentalists; political pressure groups
Cambodia Cambodian Freedom Fighters or CFF
Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization)
Students Movement for Democracy
The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel
other: human rights organizations; vendors
Cameroon Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]
Southern Cameroon National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]
Canada other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions
Cayman Islands Coalition for Cayman or C4C
National People's Alliance or PNA
National Trust
other: environmentalists
Central African Republic NA
Chad rebel groups
Chile Roman Catholic Church, particularly conservative groups such as Opus Dei
United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations
other: university student federations at all major universities
China no substantial political opposition groups exist
Christmas Island none
Cocos (Keeling) Islands The Cocos Islands Youth Support Centre
Colombia Central Union of Workers or CUT
Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC
General Confederation of Workers or CGT
National Liberation Army or ELN
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC
note: FARC and ELN are the two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia
Comoros other: environmentalists
Congo, Democratic Republic of the FARDC (Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo) - Army of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which commits atrocities on citizens
FDLR (Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Rwanda) - Rwandan militia group made up of some of the perpetrators of Rwanda's Genocide in 1994
CNDP (National Congress for the Defense of the People) - mainly Congolese Tutsis who want refugees returned and more representation in government
M23 - rebel group comprised largely from ex-CNDP forces
Congo, Republic of the Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC
General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC
Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC
Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
Cook Islands Reform Conference (lobby for political system changes)
other: various groups lobbying for political change
Costa Rica Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate)
Chamber of Coffee Growers
Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate)
Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate)
Costa Rican Exporter's Chamber or CADEXCO
Costa Rican Solidarity Movement
Costa Rican Union of Private Sector Enterprises or UCCAEP
Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP
National Association for Economic Development or ANFE
National Association of Educators or ANDE
National Association of Public and Private Employees or ANEP
Confederation of Workers Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate)
Cote d'Ivoire Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Serges KOFFI]
National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or CNRD [Bernard DADIE]
Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP [Alphonse DJEDJE MADY]
Young Patriots [Charles BLE GOUDE]
Croatia other: human rights groups
Cuba Human Rights Watch
National Association of Small Farmers
Cyprus Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West)
Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is
Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen
Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)
Czech Republic Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Jaroslav ZAVADIL]
Denmark Confederation of Danish Employers or DA [President Jorn Neergaard LARSEN]
Confederation of Danish Industries [CEO Karsten DYBVAD]
Confederation of Danish Labor Unions (Landsorganisationen) or LO [President Harald BORSTING]
Danish Shipowners' Association [Chairman Carsten MORTENSEN]; Danish Bankers Association [CEO Joergen HORWITZ]
DaneAge Association [President Bjarne HASTRUP]
Danish Society for Nature Conservation [President Ella Maria BISSCHOP-LARSEN]
other: environmental groups; humanitarian relief; development assistance; human rights NGOs
Djibouti NA
Dominica Dominica Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)
Dominican Republic Citizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania)
Collective of Popular Organizations or COP
Foundation for Institution-Building and Justice or FINJUS
Ecuador Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO]
Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel CHUGCHILAN, president]
National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN
National Teacher's Union or UNE [Mariana PALLASCO]
Egypt NA
El Salvador labor organizations:
Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES
Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS
National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS
National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS
Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES
Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC
Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS
Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL

business organizations:
National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP
Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC
Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
Equatorial Guinea ASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform)
EG Justice (US-based anti-corruption group)
Eritrea Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Eritrean Kunama (DMLEK)
Eritrean Democratic Alliance (EDA)
Eritrean National Congress for Democratic Change (ENCDC)
Eritrean National Salvation Front (ENSF)
Eritrean Islamic Party for Justice and Development (EIPJD) (includes the Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement (EIJM), Eritrean Islamic Salvation, and the Eritrean Islamic Foundation)
Eritrean People's Democratic Party (EPDP)
Red Sea Afar Democratic Organization (RSADO)
Ethiopia Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF
Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF
Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Falkland Islands Association (supports freedom of the people from external causes)
Faroe Islands conservationists
Fiji Group Against Racial Discrimination or GARD [Dr. Anirudk SINGH] (for restoration of a democratic government)
Viti Landowners Association
France Confederation francaise democratique du travail or CFDT, left-leaning labor union with approximately 803,000 members
Confederation francaise de l'encadrement - Confederation generale des cadres or CFE-CGC, independent white-collar union with 196,000 members
Confederation francaise des travailleurs chretiens of CFTC, independent labor union founded by Catholic workers that claims 132,000 members
Confederation generale du travail or CGT, historically communist labor union with approximately 700,000 members
Confederation generale du travail - Force ouvriere or FO, independent labor union with an estimated 300,000 members
Mouvement des entreprises de France or MEDEF, employers' union with 750,000 companies as members (claimed)

French Guiana:
conservationists
gold mining pressure groups
hunting pressure groups

Guadeloupe:
Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG
General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers or CGT-G
General Union of Guadeloupe Workers or UGTG
Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI
The Socialist Renewal Movement

Martinique:
Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC
Central Union for Martinique Workers or CSTM
Frantz Fanon Circle
League of Workers and Peasants
Proletarian Action Group or GAP

Reunion:
NA
French Polynesia NA
Gabon NA
Gambia, The National Environment Agency or NEA
West African Peace Building Network-Gambian Chapter or WANEB-GAMBIA
Youth Employment Network Gambia or YENGambia
other: special needs group advocates; teachers and principals
Georgia separatists in the Russian-occupied regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
Germany business associations and employers' organizations
trade unions; religious, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
Ghana Christian Aid (water rights)
Committee for Joint Action or CJA (education reform)
National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP (water rights)
Oxfam (water rights)
Public Citizen (water rights)
Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education reform)
Third World Network (education reform)
Gibraltar Chamber of Commerce
Gibraltar Representatives Organization
Women's Association
Greece Supreme Administration of Civil Servants Unions or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]
Federation of Greek Industries or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]
General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]
Greenland conservationists; environmentalists
Grenada Committee for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG
New Jewel Movement Support Group
The British Grenada Friendship Society
The New Jewel 19 Committee
Guam Guam Commission on Decolonization
Guam Federation of Teachers' Union
Guam Waterworks Authority Workers
We Are Guahan
Guatemala Alliance Against Impunity or AI (which includes among others Center for Legal Action on Human Rights (CALDH), and Family and Friends of the Disappeared of Guatemala (FAMDEGUA))
Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC
Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF (which includes among others the Agrarian Chamber (CAMAGRO) and the Industry Chamber of Guatemala (CIG))
Guatemalan Chamber of Commerce (Camara de Comercio)
International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala or CICIG
Mutual Support Group or GAM
Movimiento PRO-Justicia
National Union of Agriculture Workers or UNAGRO
Guernsey Stop Traffic Endangering Pedestrian Safety or STEPS
No More Masts [Colin FALLAIZE]
Guinea National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG and Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG); Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
Guinea-Bissau NA
Guyana Amerindian People's Association
Guyana Bar Association
Guyana Citizens Initiative
Guyana Human Rights Association
Guyana Public Service Union or GPSU
Private Sector Commission
Trades Union Congress
Haiti Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]
Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH
Economic Forum of the Private Sector or EF [Reginald BOULOS]
Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS
General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]
Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA
The Haitian Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE]
National Popular Assembly or APN
Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]
Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP
Protestant Federation of Haiti
Roman Catholic Church
Holy See (Vatican City) none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Honduras Beverage and Related Industries Syndicate or STIBYS
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH
Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH
Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP
General Workers Confederation or CGT
Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP
National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH
National Union of Campesinos or UNC
Popular Bloc or BP
United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH
United Farm Workers' Movement of the Aguan (MUCA)
Hong Kong Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions or CTU (pro-democracy) [LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Federation of Trade Unions or FTU (pro-China) [CHENG Yiu-tong, executive councilor]; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [LEE Cheuk-yan, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [FUNG Wai-wah, president]; Neighborhood and Workers' Service Center or NWSC [LEUNG Yiu-chung, LegCo member] (pro-democracy); Civic Act-up [Cyd HO Sau-lan, LegCo member] (pro-democracy)
Hungary Air Work Group (works to reduce air pollution in towns and cities)
Danube Circle (protests the building of the Gabchikovo-Nagymaros dam)
Fourth Republic (Negyedik Koztarsasag) or 4K! (anti-Orban, pro-democracy Facebook movement emerged from a Facebook group, One Million for Freedom of the Press or "Milla")
Green Future (protests the impact of lead contamination of local factory on health of the people)
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)
Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)
Szolidaritas ("Solidarity," formed in October 2011 by three trade unions and an NGO - anti-Orban government)
"Egyutt 2014-Parbeszed Magyarorszagert" ("Together 2014-Dialogue for Hungary," a political electoral alliance bringing together Milla, Szolidaritas, and "Haza es Haladas," an association headed by former PM Gordon BAJNAI, to contest Fidesz and Viktor ORBAN in the 2014 parliamentary elections)
Civil Osszefogas Forum ("Civil Unity Forum," nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies)

environmentalists:
Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society (Magyar Madartani Egyesulet) or MME
Green Alternative (Zold Alternativa)
India All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)
Bajrang Dal (religious organization)
India Against Corruption [Anna HAZARE]
Jamiat Ulema-e Hind (religious organization)
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (religious organization)
Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Ashok SINGHAL] (religious organization)

other:
numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations
hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level
various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
Indonesia Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
Iran groups that generally support the Islamic Republic:
Ansar-e Hizballah
Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader
Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh)
Islamic Engineers Society
Tehran Militant Clergy Association (MCA; Ruhaniyat)

active pro-reform student group:
Office of Strengthening Unity (OSU)

opposition groups:
Freedom Movement of Iran
Green Path movement [Mehdi KARUBI, Mir-Hosein MUSAVI]
Marz-e Por Gohar
National Front
various ethnic and monarchist organizations

armed political groups repressed by the government:
Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI)
Harekat-e Ansar-e Iran (splinter faction of Jundallah)
Jaysh l-Adl (formerly known as Jundallah)
Komala
Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO)
People's Fedayeen
People's Free Life Party of Kurdistan (PJAK)
Iraq Sunni militias
Shia militias, some associated with political parties
Ireland Families Acting for Innocent Relatives or FAIR [Brian MCCONNELL] (seek compensation for victims of violence);
Iona Institute [David QUINN] (a conservative Catholic think tank);
Irish Anti-War Movement [Richard BOYD BARRETT] (campaigns against wars around the world);
Oglaigh na hEireann (terrorist group);
Continuity IRA (terrorist group);
Republican Action Against Drugs, and other unaffiliated republican paramilitary groups);
New Irish Republican Army (terrorist group combining elements of the Real IRA);
Keep Ireland Open (environmental group);
Midland Railway Action Group or MRAG [Willie ALLEN] (transportation promoters);
Peace and Neutrality Alliance [Roger COLE] (campaigns to protect Irish neutrality);
Rail Users Ireland (formerly the Platform 11 - transportation promoters);
32 Country Sovereignty Movement or 32CSM (supports unifying Northern Ireland with the rest of the island under Irish government sovereignty);
Isle of Man Alliance for Progressive Government or APG (a government watchdog)
Mec Vannin (political party advocating a sovereign state and environment policies); note - has only had one member elected to the Tynwald
Israel B'Tselem [Jessica MONTELL, Executive Director] monitors human rights abuses
Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, Secretary General] supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
YESHA Council [Danny DAYAN, Chairman] promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise
Breaking the Silence [Yehuda SHAUL, Executive Director] collects testimonies from soldiers who served in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
Italy manufacturers and merchants associations - Confcommercio; Confindustria
organized farm groups - Confcoltivatori; Confagricoltura; Roman Catholic Church
three major trade union confederations - Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] which is left wing; Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI], which is Roman Catholic centrist; Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist
Jamaica New Beginnings Movement or NBM
Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
Japan other: business groups; trade unions
Jersey Institute of Directors, Jersey branch (provides business support)
Jersey Hospitality Association [Robert JONES] (trade association)
Jersey Rights Association [David ROTHERHAM] (human rights)
La Societe Jersiaise (education and conservation group)
Progress Jersey [Daren O'TOOLE, Gino RISOLI] (human rights)
Royal Jersey Agriculture and Horticultural Society or RJA&HS (development and management of the Jersey breed of cattle)
Save Jersey's Heritage (protects heritage through building preservation)
Jordan 15 April Movement [Mohammad SUNEID, chairman]
24 March Movement [Mu'az al-KHAWALIDAH, Abdel Rahman HASANEIN, spokespersons]
1952 Constitution Movement
Anti-Normalization Committee [Hamzah MANSOUR, chairman]
Economic and Social Association of Retired Servicemen and Veterans or ESARSV [Abdulsalam al-HASSANAT, chairman]
Group of 36
Higher Coordination Committee of Opposition Parties [Said DIAB]
Higher National Committee for Military Retirees or HNCMR [Ali al-HABASHNEH, chairman]
Hirak
Jordan Bar Association [Saleh al-ARMUTI, chairman]
Jordanian Campaign for Change or Jayin
Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood [Dr. Hamam SAID, controller general]
Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]
National Front for Reform or NFR [Ahmad OBEIDAT, chairman]
Popular Gathering for Reform
Professional Associations Council [Abd al-Hadi al-FALAHAT, chairman]
Sons of Jordan
Kazakhstan Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]
Almaty Helsinki Committee [Ninel FOKINA]
Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]
For Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV]
Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Chairman of Bureau's Council, Roza AKYLBEKOVA, director]
Khalyk Maidany (Peoples' Front) - an informal union between the unregistered Alga Party, the unregistered Communist Party of Kazakhstan, and several opposition-oriented civil society groups, banned in November 2012 [no formal leader]
Pan-National Social Democratic Party of Kazakhstan [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]
Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]
Republican Network of International Monitors [Daniyar LIVAZOV]
Transparency International [Sergey ZLOTNIKOV]
Kenya Council of Islamic Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Idris MOHAMMED]
Kenya Human Rights Commission [L. Muthoni WANYEKI]
Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]
National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]
Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]
Roman Catholic and other Christian churches
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]

other: labor unions, Kenya Association of Manufacturers, Kenya Private Sector Alliance
Kiribati NA
Korea, North none
Korea, South Catholic Priests' Association for Justice
Citizen's Coalition for Economic Justice
Federation of Korean Industries
Federation of Korean Trade Unions
Korean Confederation of Trade Unions
Korean Veterans' Association
Lawyers for a Democratic Society
National Council of Churches
People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy
Kosovo Council for the Defense of Human Rights and Freedom (human rights)
Organization for Democracy, Anti-Corruption and Dignity Rise! [Avni ZOGIANI]
Serb National Council (SNV)
The Speak Up Movement [Ramadan ILAZI]
Kuwait other: Islamists; merchants; political groups; secular liberals and pro-governmental deputies; Shia activists; tribal groups
Kyrgyzstan Adilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]
Citizens Against Corruption [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]
Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA]
Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV]
Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA]
Union of True Muslims [Nurlan MOTUEV]
Laos NA
Latvia Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia [Peteris KRIGERS]
Employers' Confederation of Latvia [Vitalijs GAVRILOVS]
Farmers' Parliament [Juris LAZDINS]
Lebanon Maronite Church [Patriarch Bishara al-Ra'i]

other: note - most sects retain militias and a number of militant groups operate in Palestinian refugee camps
Lesotho Media Institute of Southern Africa, Lesotho chapter [Tsebo MATŠASA] (pushes for media freedom)
Liberia other: demobilized former military officers
Libya NA
Liechtenstein NA
Luxembourg ABBL (bankers' association) [Ernst Wilhelm CONTZEN]
ALEBA (financial sector trade union) [Marc GLESENER]
Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers) [Marc FISCH]
CEP (professional sector chamber) [Stephane LIA]
CGFP (trade union representing civil service) [Joseph DALEIDEN]
Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de Commerce) [Carlo THELEN]
Chamber of Artisans (Chambre des Metiers) [Roland KUHN]
FEDIL (federation of industrialists) [Nicolas SOISSON]
Greenpeace (environment protection) [Kumi NAIDOO]
LCGP (center-right trade union) [Patrick DURY]
Mouvement Ecologique (environment protection) [Blanche WEBER]
OGBL (center-left trade union) [Jean-Claude REDING]
Macau Civic Power [Agnes LAM lok-fong]
Democratic Action [LEE Kin-yun]
Bar-Bending Workers' Association {WONG Wai-Man]
Macau New Chinese Youth Association [LEONG Sin-man]
Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO]
Macau Worker's Union [HO Heng-kuok]
New Macau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]
Macedonia Federation of Free Trade Unions [Mirjana ANDREVSKA]
Federation of Trade Unions [Zivko MITREVSKI]
Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture [Jakim NEDELKOV]
Madagascar Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR
Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]
National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
Malawi Council for NGOs in Malawi or CONGOMA (human rights, democracy, and development)
Human Rights Consultative Committee or HRCC (human rights)
Malawi Economic Justice Network or MEJN (pro economic growth, development, government accountability)
Malawi Law Society (an umbrella organization of all lawyers in Malawi)
Public Affairs Committee or PAC (promotes democracy, development, peace and unity)
Malaysia Bar Council
BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
PEMBELA (Muslim NGO coalition)
PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)

other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
Maldives other: various unregistered political parties
Mali other: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT
Malta Alliance of Liberal Democrats Malta (Alleanza Liberali-Demokratika Malta) of ALDM (for divorce, abortion, gay marriage, women's rights)
Together for a Better Environment (Flimkien Ghal-Ambjent Ahjar) or FAA (pro-environment)

other: environmentalists
Marshall Islands NA
Mauritania General Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary general]
Independent Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CLTM [Samory Ould BEYE]
Mauritanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general]

other: Arab nationalists; Ba'thists; Islamists
Mauritius LALIT Political Party
Blok 104. Rezistans ek Alternativ (Resistence and Alternative), Say No to Coal!
other: various labor unions
Mexico Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE
Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX
Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN
Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM
Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO
Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE
Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES
National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA
National Confederation of Popular Organizations or CNOP
National Coordinator for Education Workers or CNTE
National Peasant Confederation or CNC
National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE
National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE
National Union of Workers or UNT
Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO
Roman Catholic Church
Micronesia, Federated States of NA
Moldova NA
Monaco NA
Mongolia other: human rights groups; women's groups
Montenegro NA
Montserrat NA
Morocco Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]
General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]
Justice and Charity Organization or JCO
Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]
National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]
Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]
Mozambique Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]
Namibia National Society for Human Rights or NSHR (NAMRIGHTS as of 2010)
various labor unions
Nauru Woman Information and News Agency (women's issues)
Nepal The Communist Party of Nepal - Maoist (CPN-M); note - this party split from the UCPN(M) in June 2012,opposed the November 2013 elections, and is not represented in the current Constituent Assembly
other: a variety of groups advocating regional autonomy such as the Federal State Limbuwan Council in far eastern Nepal
Netherlands Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Jaap SMIT]
Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Bernard WIENTJES]
Federation for Small and Medium-sized businesses or MKB [Hans BIESHEUVEL]
Netherlands Trade Union Federation or FNV [Ton HEERTS]
Social Economic Council or SER [Wiebe DRAIJER]
Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or MHP [Reginald VISSER]
New Caledonia NA
New Zealand Women's Electoral Lobby or WEL

other: apartheid groups; civil rights groups; farmers groups; Maori; nuclear weapons groups; women's rights groups
Nicaragua National Workers Front or FNT (a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including: Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN)
Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT (an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including: Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS)
Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN (an independent labor union)
Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP (a confederation of business groups)
Nigeria Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
Campaign for Democracy or CD
Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
Constitutional Right Project or CRP
Human Right Africa
National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
the press
Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
Niue NA
Norfolk Island none
Northern Mariana Islands NA
Norway Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise (Naeringslivets Hovedorganisasjon) or NHO [President Tore ULSTEIN; CEO Kristin SKOGEN LUND]
Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge) or LO [Gerd KRISTIANSEN]

other: environmental groups; media; digital privacy movements
Oman none
Pakistan other: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
Palau NA
Panama Chamber of Commerce
Concertacion Nacional (mechanism for government of Panama to formally dialogue with representatives of civil society)
National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO
National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP
National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS)
Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE
Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP
Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP
Papua New Guinea Centre for Environment Law and Community Rights or Celcor [Damien ASE]
Community Coalition Against Corruption
National Council of Women
Transparency International PNG
Paraguay Ahorristas Estafados or AE
National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]
National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]
National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]
Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT
Roman Catholic Church
Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
Peru General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
Philippines Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]
Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA]
Pitcairn Islands none
Poland All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Jan GUZ]
Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal Stanislaw DZIWISZ, Archbishop Jozef MICHALIK]
Independent and Self-Governing Trade Union "Solidarity" [Piotr DUDA]
Portugal Armed Forces Officers' Association (AOFA) [Colonel Pereira CRACEL]
the Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages, precarious labor conditions, and unemployment)
the General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers (UGT) [Carlos SILVA]
Portuguese National Workers' Conference (CGTP) [Armenio CARLOS]
TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action)

other: the media; labor unions
Puerto Rico Boricua Popular Army or EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los Macheteros)

note: the following radical groups are considered dormant by Federal law enforcement: Armed Forces for National Liberation or FALN, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance, Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution
Qatar none
Romania other: various human rights and professional associations
Russia Confederation of Labor of Russia (KTR)
Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia
Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights
Memorial
Movement Against Illegal Migration
Russkiye
Solidarnost
The World Russian People's Congress
Union of the Committees of Soldiers' Mothers
Union of Russian Writers
other - business associations, environmental organizations, religious groups (especially those with Orthodox or Muslim affiliation), and veterans groups
Rwanda IBUKA (association of genocide survivors)
Saint Barthelemy The Marine Reserve (protection of fish)
Rotary Club
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha other: private sector; unions
Saint Kitts and Nevis NA
Saint Lucia NA
Saint Martin NA
Saint Pierre and Miquelon NA
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines NA
Samoa NA
San Marino NA
Sao Tome and Principe Association of Sao Tome and Principe NGOs or FONG
other: the media
Saudi Arabia Ansar Al Marah (supports women's rights); Freedom and Justice Coalition (supports Shia rights)
other: gas companies; religious groups
Senegal other: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
Serbia 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
Dveri - Movement for the Life of Serbia [Bosko OBRADOVIC]
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
SNP NASI (Serbian National Movement NASI)
Seychelles Roman Catholic Church
other: trade unions
Sierra Leone other: student unions; trade unions
Singapore none
Slovakia Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS
Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ
Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS
Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic
Medical Trade Association or LOZ
National Union of Employers or RUZ
Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK
The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS
Slovenia Slovenian Roma Association [Jozek Horvat MUC]; various trade and public sector employee unions

other: Catholic Church
Solomon Islands Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM)
Malaita Eagle Force (MEF)

note: these rival armed ethnic factions crippled the Solomon Islands in a wave of violence from 1999 to 2003
Somalia other: numerous clan and sub-clan factions exist both in support and in opposition to the transitional government
South Africa Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]
South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]
South African National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]

note: COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the ANC
Spain Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization)
15-M or 15 May protest movement, which is also known as the Indignados, Spanish for the "indignant ones" (a loose association of grassroots organizations that advocate for greater accountability and transparency in Spanish politics, increased social justice and job creation)
Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO
Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
Spanish Confederation of Employers' Organizations or CEOE

other: business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
Sri Lanka Buddhist clergy
labor unions
hard-line nationalist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism
Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups
Sudan Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) [Malik AGAR]
Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) [Malik AGAR]
National Consensus Front (NCF) [Farouq ABU ISSA]
Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM], the Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW [Abdel Wahid NUR] [various factional leaders], Sudan Liberation or SLM-MM /[Minni Arkou MINAWI]
Suriname Association of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE]
Association of Saramaccan Authorities or Maroon [Head Captain WASE]
Women's Parliament Forum or PVF [Iris GILLIAD]
Svalbard NA
Swaziland Swaziland Democracy Campaign
Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions
Swaziland Solidarity Network or SSN
Sweden Children's Rights in Society
Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO
Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Wanja LUNDBY-WEDIN]

other: environmental groups; media
Switzerland NA
Syria Free Syrian Army
Syrian Muslim Brotherhood or SMB [Muhammad Riyad al-SHAQFAH] (operates in exile in London)
Syrian Opposition Coalition or National Coalition of Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces [al-Asi- al-JARBAL]
note: there are also hundreds of local groups that organize protests and stage armed attacks
Taiwan environmental groups
independence movement
various business groups

note: debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of domestic politics on Taiwan; public opinion polls consistently show a substantial majority of Taiwan people supports maintaining Taiwan's status quo for the foreseeable future; advocates of Taiwan independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually unify with mainland China; advocates of eventual unification predicate their goal on the democratic transformation of the mainland
Tajikistan influential religious leader Akbar TURAJONZODA
unregistered Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON]
unregistered opposition group Guruhi-24 (Group-24) [Umarali QUVVATOV]
Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
unregistered presidential candidate of Union of Reformist Forces of Tajikistan Oynihol BOBONAZAROVA
unregistered New Tajikistan party [Zayd SAIDOV]
Tanzania Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF
Free Zanzibar
Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
Thailand Multicolor Group
People's Alliance for Democracy or PAD
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD
Timor-Leste NA
Togo NA
Tokelau none
Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman]
Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]
Trinidad and Tobago Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin ABU BAKR]
Tunisia 18 October Group [collective leadership]; Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI]; Tunisian General Labor Union or UGTT [Hassine ABASSI]
Turkey Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey or TUSKON [Rizanur MERAL]
Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN]
Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Tayfun GORGUN]
Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer Cihad VARDAN]
Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]
Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugrul KUDATGOBILIK]
Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa KUMLU]
Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]
Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Umit BOYNER]
Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
Turkmenistan none
Turks and Caicos Islands NA
Tuvalu none
Uganda Lord's Resistance Army or LRA [Joseph KONY]
Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO
National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]
The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
Ukraine Committee of Voters of Ukraine [Oleksandr CHERNENKO]
OPORA [Olha AIVAZOVSKA]
United Arab Emirates NA
United Kingdom Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Confederation of British Industry
National Farmers' Union
Trades Union Congress
United States environmentalists; business groups; labor unions; churches; ethnic groups; political action committees or PACs; health groups; education groups; civic groups; youth groups; transportation groups; agricultural groups; veterans groups; women's groups; reform lobbies
Uruguay Chamber of Commerce and Export of Agriproducts
Chamber of Industries (manufacturer's association)
Exporters Union of Uruguay
National Chamber of Commerce and Services
PIT/CNT (powerful federation of Uruguayan Unions - umbrella labor organization)
Rural Association of Uruguay (rancher's association)
Uruguayan Network of Political Women

other: B'nai Brith; Catholic Church; students
Uzbekistan there are no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups operating in Uzbekistan
Vanuatu NA
Venezuela Bolivarian and Socialist Workers' Union (a ruling party labor union)
Confederacion Venezolana de Industriales or Coindustria (a conservative business group)
Consejos Comunales (pro-Chavez local cooperatives)
FEDECAMARAS (a conservative business group)
Union of Oil Workers of Venezuela or FUTPV
Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (opposition-oriented labor organization)
various civil society groups and human rights organizations
Vietnam 8406 Bloc
Democratic Party of Vietnam or DPV
People's Democratic Party Vietnam or PDP-VN
Alliance for Democracy

note: these groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by the government
Virgin Islands NA
Wallis and Futuna NA
Western Sahara none
Yemen Muslim Brotherhood
Women National Committee

other: conservative tribal groups; Huthis, southern secessionist groups; al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
Zambia NA
Zimbabwe Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition
National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]
Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenny WILLIAMS]
Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Wellington CHIBEBE]