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Central America and Caribbean :: Antigua and Barbuda
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Antigua and Barbuda
  • Introduction :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • The Siboney were the first people to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early Spanish and French settlements were succeeded by an English colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
  • Geography :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
    17 03 N, 61 48 W
    Central America and the Caribbean
    total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
    land: 442.6 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
    2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    0 km
    153 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
    mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
    NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
    agricultural land: 20.5%
    arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 9.1%
    forest: 22.3%
    other: 57.2% (2011 est.)
    1.3 sq km (2003)
    0.05 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.01 cu km/yr (63%/21%/15%)
    per capita: 97.67 cu m/yr (2005)
    hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
    water management - a major concern because of limited natural freshwater resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor
  • People and Society :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
    adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
    black 87.3%, mixed 4.7%, hispanic 2.7%, white 1.6%, other 2.7%, unspecified 0.9% (2011 est.)
    English (official), Antiguan creole
    Protestant 68.3% (Anglican 17.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.4%, Pentecostal 12.2%, Moravian 8.3%, Methodist 5.6%, Wesleyan Holiness 4.5%, Church of God 4.1%, Baptist 3.6%), Roman Catholic 8.2%, other 12.2%, unspecified 5.5%, none 5.9% (2011 est.)
    91,295 (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 24.3% (male 11,289/female 10,932)
    15-24 years: 16.8% (male 7,588/female 7,723)
    25-54 years: 42.6% (male 17,789/female 21,137)
    55-64 years: 8.9% (male 3,694/female 4,441)
    65 years and over: 7.3% (male 2,886/female 3,816) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 46.4%
    youth dependency ratio: 35.9%
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.4%
    potential support ratio: 9.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 31.1 years
    male: 29.4 years
    female: 32.6 years (2014 est.)
    1.25% (2014 est.)
    15.94 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    5.7 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 24.2% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: -0.95% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    SAINT JOHN'S (capital) 22,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    total: 13.29 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 15.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 11.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 76.12 years
    male: 74.04 years
    female: 78.3 years (2014 est.)
    2.03 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    4.9% of GDP (2013)
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 97.9% of population
    rural: 97.9% of population
    total: 97.9% of population
    urban: 2.1% of population
    rural: 2.1% of population
    total: 2.1% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 91.4% of population
    rural: 91.4% of population
    total: 91.4% of population
    urban: 8.6% of population
    rural: 8.6% of population
    total: 8.6% of population (2011 est.)
    31% (2014)
    2.6% of GDP (2009)
    definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
    total population: 99%
    male: 98.4%
    female: 99.4% (2012 est.)
    total: 14 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 15 years (2012)
  • Government :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
    note: "antiguo" is Spanish for ancient or old; the island was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1493 and, according to tradition, named by him after the the church of Santa Maria la Antigua (Old Saint Mary's) in Seville; "barbuda" is Spanish for bearded and the adjective may refer the alleged beards of the indigenous people or to the island's bearded-fig trees
    constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a Commonwealth realm
    name: Saint John's
    geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
    1 November 1981 (from the UK)
    Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
    several previous; latest presented 31 July 1981, effective 31 October 1981 (Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional Order 1981) (2011)
    common law based on the English model
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Rodney WILLIAMS (since 14 August 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Gaston BROWNE (since 13 June 2014)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
    elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: House of Representatives - last held on 12 June 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - ALP 56.4% UPP 42%; seats by party - ALP 14, UPP 3
    highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Antigua and Barbuda; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; 2 High Court judges reside on Antigua and Barbuda
    judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Chief Justice appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
    subordinate courts: Industrial Court; Magistrates' Courts
    Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Gaston BROWNE]
    Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Trevor WALKER]
    Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]
    Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]
    United Progressive Party or UPP [W. Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
    Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [Wigley GEORGE]
    People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL (since 8 March 2005)
    chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
    telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-5525
    consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
    the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
    red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band; the sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era, black represents the African heritage of most of the population, blue is for hope, and red is for the dynamism of the people; the "V" stands for victory; the successive yellow, blue, and white coloring is also meant to evoke the country's tourist attractions of sun, sea, and sand
    fallow deer; national colors: red, white, blue, black, yellow
    name: "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"
    lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS
    note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

  • Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters. After taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program and was successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from approximately 130% in 2010 to 89% in 2012. In 2009, Antigua's economy was severely hit by the global economic crisis and suffered from the collapse of its largest private sector employer, a steep decline in tourism, a rise in debt, and a sharp economic contraction between 2009 and 2011. Antigua has not yet returned to its pre-crisis growth levels.
    $1.989 billion (2014 est.)
    $1.953 billion (2013 est.)
    $1.918 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $1.236 billion (2014 est.)
    1.9% (2014 est.)
    1.8% (2013 est.)
    3.6% (2012 est.)
    $22,600 (2014 est.)
    $22,400 (2013 est.)
    $22,300 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 78
    15% of GDP (2014 est.)
    16.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    16.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 49.7%
    government consumption: 13.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 26.4%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 52%
    imports of goods and services: -41.4%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 1.9%
    industry: 18.5%
    services: 79.6% (2014 est.)
    cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
    tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
    1% (2014 est.)
    30,000 (1991)
    agriculture: 7%
    industry: 11%
    services: 82% (1983)
    11% (2001 est.)
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $240.3 million
    expenditures: $206.7 million (2014 est.)
    19.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    2.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    89% of GDP (2012 est.)
    130% of GDP (2010 est.)
    1 April - 31 March
    3.1% (2014 est.)
    1.1% (2013 est.)
    6.5% (31 December 2010)
    6.5% (31 December 2009)
    10.1% (31 December 2014 est.)
    9.98% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $233.9 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $221.2 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    $1.088 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.077 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $1.111 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.081 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $-163.7 million (2014 est.)
    $-204.4 million (2013 est.)
    $56.5 million (2014 est.)
    $64.2 million (2013 est.)
    petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals
    $313.1 million (2014 est.)
    $494.4 million (2013 est.)
    food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
    $441.2 million (31 December 2012)
    $458 million (June 2010)
    East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
    2.7 (2014 est.)
    2.7 (2013 est.)
    2.7 (2012 est.)
    2.7 (2011 est.)
    2.7 (2010 est.)

  • 310 million kWh (2011 est.)
    288.3 million kWh (2011 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    55,000 kW (2011 est.)
    100% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    4,174 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    240 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    4,790 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    586,400 Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • 35,000 (2012)
    179,800 (2012)
    general assessment: good automatic telephone system
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is some 200 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France) (2011)
    state-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; ABS operates 1 radio station; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies (2007)
    AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 0 (2008)
    2 (1997)
    11,532 (2012)
    65,000 (2009)
  • Transportation :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • 3 (2013)
    total: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 1
    under 914 m:
    1 (2013)
    total: 1,170 km
    paved: 386 km
    unpaved: 784 km (2011)
    total: 1,257
    by type: bulk carrier 49, cargo 753, carrier 6, chemical tanker 4, container 407, liquefied gas 12, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 17, vehicle carrier 2
    foreign-owned: 1,215 (Albania 1, Colombia 1, Denmark 20, Estonia 10, Germany 1094, Greece 4, Iceland 10, Latvia 16, Lithuania 3, Mexico 1, Netherlands 17, Norway 9, NZ 2, Poland 2, Russia 3, Switzerland 7, Turkey 7, UK 1, US 7) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Saint John's

  • Ministry of National Security, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (includes Antigua and Barbuda Coast Guard) (2012)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Governor-General has powers to call up men for national service and set the age at which they could be called up (2012)
    males age 16-49: 21,141
    females age 16-49: 24,056 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 17,676
    females age 16-49: 19,960 (2010 est.)
    male: 806
    female: 799 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • none
    current situation: Antigua and Barbuda is a destination and transit country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; forced prostitution has been reported in bars, taverns, and brothels, while forced labor occurs in domestic service and the retail sector
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Antigua and Barbuda does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the 2010 law prohibiting human trafficking is flawed because it requires cases to be tried in a lower court that is unable to impose sentences as severe as those provided for other serious crimes; authorities investigated three suspected trafficking cases but no prosecutions, convictions, or punishments were reported; a government department continued to provide high-quality assistance to victims, but only one adult labor trafficking victim and no sex trafficking victims were identified during the reporting period; trafficking prevention activities were sustained
    considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center