Library

 
Central America and Caribbean :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
Page last updated on September 28, 2016
View 3 photos of
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
  • Introduction :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • The Siboney were the first people to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early Spanish and French settlements were succeeded by an English colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
  • Geography :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
    17 03 N, 61 48 W
    Central America and the Caribbean
    total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
    land: 442.6 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 201
    2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    0 km
    153 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
    mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
    mean elevation: NA
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mount Obama 402 m
    NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
    agricultural land: 20.5%
    arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 9.1%
    forest: 22.3%
    other: 57.2% (2011 est.)
    1.3 sq km (2012)
    the island of Antigua is home to approximately 97% of the population; nearly the entire population of Barbuda lives in Codrington
    0.05 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.01 cu km/yr (63%/21%/15%)
    per capita: 97.67 cu m/yr (2005)
    hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
    water management - a major concern because of limited natural freshwater resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor
  • People and Society :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • 93,581 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
    adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
    black 87.3%, mixed 4.7%, hispanic 2.7%, white 1.6%, other 2.7%, unspecified 0.9% (2011 est.)
    English (official), Antiguan creole
    Protestant 68.3% (Anglican 17.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.4%, Pentecostal 12.2%, Moravian 8.3%, Methodist 5.6%, Wesleyan Holiness 4.5%, Church of God 4.1%, Baptist 3.6%), Roman Catholic 8.2%, other 12.2%, unspecified 5.5%, none 5.9% (2011 est.)
    0-14 years: 23.36% (male 11,107/female 10,754)
    15-24 years: 17% (male 7,918/female 7,992)
    25-54 years: 42.31% (male 18,085/female 21,509)
    55-64 years: 9.53% (male 4,021/female 4,894)
    65 years and over: 7.8% (male 3,136/female 4,165) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 45.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 35.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.4%
    potential support ratio: 9.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 31.6 years
    male: 29.8 years
    female: 33.2 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    1.23% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    15.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    5.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    the island of Antigua is home to approximately 97% of the population; nearly the entire population of Barbuda lives in Codrington
    urban population: 23.8% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: -0.95% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    SAINT JOHN'S (capital) 22,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.75 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    total: 12.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 10.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    total population: 76.5 years
    male: 74.4 years
    female: 78.8 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    2.01 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    5.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 97.9% of population
    rural: 97.9% of population
    total: 97.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2.1% of population
    rural: 2.1% of population
    total: 2.1% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 91.4% of population
    rural: 91.4% of population
    total: 91.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 8.6% of population
    rural: 8.6% of population
    total: 8.6% of population (2011 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
    31% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    2.6% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
    total population: 99%
    male: 98.4%
    female: 99.4% (2012 est.)
    total: 14 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 15 years (2012)
  • Government :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
    etymology: "antiguo" is Spanish for "ancient" or "old"; the island was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1493 and, according to tradition, named by him after the church of Santa Maria la Antigua (Old Saint Mary's) in Seville; "barbuda" is Spanish for "bearded" and the adjective may refer to the alleged beards of the indigenous people or to the island's bearded-fig trees
    parliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
    name: Saint John's
    geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
    1 November 1981 (from the UK)
    Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
    several previous; latest presented 31 July 1981, effective 31 October 1981 (Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional Order 1981); amended 2009, 2011 (2016)
    common law based on the English model
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Rodney WILLIAMS (since 14 August 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Gaston BROWNE (since 13 June 2014)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: House of Representatives - last held on 12 June 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - ALP 56.4% UPP 42%; seats by party - ALP 14, UPP 3
    highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Antigua and Barbuda; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 19 judges; 2 High Court judges reside on Antigua and Barbuda
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
    subordinate courts: Industrial Court; Magistrates' Courts
    Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Gaston BROWNE]
    Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Trevor WALKER]
    Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]
    Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]
    United Progressive Party or UPP [W. Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
    Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [Wigley GEORGE]
    People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
    ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Sir Ronald SANDERS (since 17 September 2015)
    chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
    telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-5525
    consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
    the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
    red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band; the sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era, black represents the African heritage of most of the population, blue is for hope, and red is for the dynamism of the people; the "V" stands for victory; the successive yellow, blue, and white coloring is also meant to evoke the country's tourist attractions of sun, sea, and sand
    fallow deer; national colors: red, white, blue, black, yellow
    name: "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"
    lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS
    note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)
  • Economy :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components.
    After taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program and was successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from approximately 130% in 2010 to 89% in 2012. In 2009, the country's economy was severely hit by the global economic crisis and suffered from the collapse of its largest private sector employer, a steep decline in tourism, a rise in debt, and a sharp economic contraction between 2009 and 2011. The country has not yet returned to its pre-crisis growth levels.
    Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters.
    $2.097 billion (2015 est.)
    $2.053 billion (2014 est.)
    $1.97 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 194
    $1.287 billion (2015 est.)
    2.2% (2015 est.)
    4.2% (2014 est.)
    1.5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    $23,600 (2015 est.)
    $23,300 (2014 est.)
    $22,600 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 79
    12.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    10.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    8.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    household consumption: 51.1%
    government consumption: 10.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 21.3%
    investment in inventories: 0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 47.5%
    imports of goods and services: -30.2% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 2.4%
    industry: 17.9%
    services: 79.7% (2015 est.)
    cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
    tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
    2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    30,000 (1991)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    agriculture: 7%
    industry: 11%
    services: 82% (1983)
    11% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    NA%
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $255.9 million
    expenditures: $217 million (2015 est.)
    19.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    89% of GDP (2012 est.)
    130% of GDP (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    1 April - 31 March
    1% (2015 est.)
    1.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    6.5% (31 December 2010)
    6.5% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    10% (31 December 2015 est.)
    10.1% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    $240.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $234.1 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    $1.127 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.116 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    $1.037 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.037 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    -$129 million (2015 est.)
    -$181 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    $61 million (2015 est.)
    $59.8 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals
    $482.5 million (2015 est.)
    $469.5 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
    $441.2 million (31 December 2012)
    $458 million (June 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
    2.7 (2015 est.)
    2.7 (2014 est.)
    2.7 (2013 est.)
    2.7 (2012 est.)
    2.7 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • population without electricity: 9,358
    electrification - total population: 91 %
    electrification - urban areas: 100 %
    electrification - rural areas: 80 % (2012)
    315 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    293 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    55,000 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    4,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    175 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    5,077 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    586,400 Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
  • Communications :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • total subscriptions: 12,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    total: 126,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 136 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    general assessment: good automatic telephone system
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 15 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 135 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France) (2015)
    state-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; ABS operates 1 radio station; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies (2007)
    AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 0 (2008)
    2 (1997)
    .ag
    11,532 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    total: 60,000
    percent of population: 65.2% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
  • Transportation :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • 3 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    total: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 1,170 km
    paved: 386 km
    unpaved: 784 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    total: 1,257
    by type: bulk carrier 49, cargo 753, carrier 6, chemical tanker 4, container 407, liquefied gas 12, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 17, vehicle carrier 2
    foreign-owned: 1,215 (Albania 1, Colombia 1, Denmark 20, Estonia 10, Germany 1094, Greece 4, Iceland 10, Latvia 16, Lithuania 3, Mexico 1, Netherlands 17, Norway 9, NZ 2, Poland 2, Russia 3, Switzerland 7, Turkey 7, UK 1, US 7) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    major seaport(s): Saint John's
  • Military and Security :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • Ministry of National Security, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (includes Antigua and Barbuda Coast Guard) (2012)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Governor-General has powers to call up men for national service and set the age at which they could be called up (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

  • none
    current situation: Antigua and Barbuda is a destination and transit country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; forced prostitution has been reported in bars, taverns, and brothels, while forced labor occurs in domestic service and the retail sector
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Antigua and Barbuda does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government made no discernible progress in convicting traffickers in 2014 but charged two individuals in separate cases; efforts to convict traffickers have been impeded by a 2014 ruling that found the 2010 anti-trafficking act was unconstitutional because jurisdiction rests with the Magistrate’s Court rather than the High Court; no new prosecutions, convictions, or punishments were recorded in 2014; credible sources have raised concerns about trafficking-related complicity among some off-duty police officers, which could hinder investigations or victims willingness to report offenses; prevention efforts were sustained, but progress in protecting victims was uneven; seven victims were assisted, which was an increase over 2013 (2015)
    considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center