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Africa :: Algeria
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  • Introduction :: ALGERIA

  • After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), was established in 1954 as part of the struggle for independence and has largely dominated politics since. The Government of Algeria in 1988 instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting led the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. Fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense violence from 1992-98, resulting in over 100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s, and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000. Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent. He was reelected to a second term in 2004 and overwhelmingly won a third term in 2009, after the government amended the constitution in 2008 to remove presidential term limits. Longstanding problems continue to face BOUTEFLIKA, including large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, unreliable electrical and water supplies, government inefficiencies and corruption, and the continuing activities of extremist militants.
  • Geography :: ALGERIA

  • Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
    28 00 N, 3 00 E
    total: 2,381,741 sq km
    land: 2,381,741 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
    total: 6,734 km
    border countries (7): Libya 989 km, Mali 1,359 km, Mauritania 460 km, Morocco 1,900 km, Niger 951 km, Tunisia 1,034 km, Western Sahara 41 km
    998 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
    arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
    mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
    lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
    highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
    petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
    agricultural land: 17.3%
    arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 13.8%
    forest: 0.6%
    other: 82% (2011 est.)
    5,694 sq km (2003)
    11.67 cu km (2011)
    total: 5.72 cu km/yr (26%/16%/58%)
    per capita: 182 cu m/yr (2005)
    mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
    soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    largest country in Africa
  • People and Society :: ALGERIA

  • noun: Algerian(s)
    adjective: Algerian
    Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
    note: although almost all Algerians are Berber in origin (not Arab), only a minority identify themselves as Berber, about 15% of the total population; these people live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools
    Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber dialects: Kabylie Berber (Tamazight), Chaouia Berber (Tachawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq)
    Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian and Jewish) <1% (2012 est.)
    38,813,722 (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 28.4% (male 5,641,148/female 5,378,207)
    15-24 years: 17.4% (male 3,451,069/female 3,291,166)
    25-54 years: 42.8% (male 8,398,770/female 8,209,634)
    55-64 years: 6.2% (male 1,230,865/female 1,186,832)
    65 years and over: 5.2% (male 931,769/female 1,094,262) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 48.5%
    youth dependency ratio: 41.6%
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.8%
    potential support ratio: 14.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 27.3 years
    male: 27 years
    female: 27.5 years (2014 est.)
    1.88% (2014 est.)
    23.99 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    4.31 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    -0.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 70.1% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ALGIERS (capital) 2.559 million; Oran 850,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    89 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 21.76 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 23.54 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 19.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 76.39 years
    male: 75.12 years
    female: 77.72 years (2014 est.)
    2.78 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    61.4% (2006)
    6.6% of GDP (2013)
    1.21 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
    1.7 beds/1,000 population (2004)
    urban: 85.5% of population
    rural: 79.5% of population
    total: 83.9% of population
    urban: 14.5% of population
    rural: 20.5% of population
    total: 16.1% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 97.6% of population
    rural: 88.4% of population
    total: 95.2% of population
    urban: 2.4% of population
    rural: 11.6% of population
    total: 4.8% of population (2012 est.)
    0.1% (2013 est.)
    25,200 (2013 est.)
    1,400 (2013 est.)
    23.6% (2014)
    3.7% (2005)
    4.3% of GDP (2008)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 80.2%
    male: 87.2%
    female: 73.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 14 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 14 years (2011)
    total number: 304,358
    percentage: 5% (2006 est.)
    total: 22.4%
    male: 19.1%
    female: 38.2% (2011 est.)
  • Government :: ALGERIA

  • conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
    conventional short form: Algeria
    local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
    local short form: Al Jaza'ir
    note: the country name derives from the city of Algiers
    name: Algiers
    geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
    5 July 1962 (from France)
    Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
    adopted 8 September 1963; amended several times, last in 2008 to remove presidential term limits (2013)
    mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
    head of government: Prime Minister Abdelmalek SELLAL (since 28 April 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president; note - on 5 May 2014, a new cabinet was announced
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 17 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2019)
    election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS 12.2%, Abdelaziz ELAID 3.4%, other 2.9%; voter turnout - 51.7%
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of the Nation (144 seats; one-third of members appointed by the president, two-thirds indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local council members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National People's Assembly (462 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: Council of the Nation - last held on 29 December 2012 (next to be held in December 2017); National People's Assembly - last held on 10 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
    election results: Council of the Nation election of 29 December 2009 - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; National People's Assembly election of 10 May 2012 - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 221, RND 70, AAV 47, FFS 21, PT 17, FNA 9, El Adala 7, MPA 6, PFJ 5, FC 4, PNSD 4, other 32, independent 19
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 150 judges organized into four divisions: civil and commercial; social security and labor; criminal; and administrative; Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members including the court president); note - Algeria's judicial system does not include sharia courts
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members - 3 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the two houses of the Parliament, 1 by the Supreme Court, and 1 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half of the membership renewed every 3 years
    subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals
    Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara BENYOUNES]; Algerian Rally [Ali ZAGHDOUD]; Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ [Amar GHOUL]; Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed BENHAMOU]; Front for Change or FC [Abdelmadjid MENASRA]; Front for Justice and Development or El Adala [Abdallah DJABALLAH]; Future Front or El Mostakbel [Abdelaziz BELAID]; Green Algeria Alliance or AAV (includes Movement for National Reform, Islamic Renaissance Movement, and Movement of the Society of Peace or Hamas); Islamic Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Mohamed DHOUIBI]; Movement of the Society of Peace or MSP [Abderrazak MOKRI]; National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Bensalah ABDELKADER]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Amar SAIDANI]; National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD; National Reform Movement or Islah [Djahid YOUNSI] (see Green Algeria Alliance); New Dawn Party or PFJ; New Generation or Jil Jadid [Soufiane DJILALI]; New Light Party [Bedreddine BELBAZ]; Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi REBAINE]; Party of Justice and Liberty [Mohammed SAID]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Mohcine BELABBAS]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Mustafa BOUCHACHI]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]
    note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
    The Algerian Human Rights League or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD]
    SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]
    Youth Action Rally or RAJ
    chief of mission: Ambassador Madjid BOUGUERRA (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
    FAX: [1] (202) 986-5906
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Joan A. POLASCHIK (since 15 August 2014)
    embassy: 05 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, El-Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16030 Algiers
    mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
    telephone: [213] (0) 770-08-2000
    FAX: [213] (0) 770-08-2064
    two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the colors represent Islam (green), purity and peace (white), and liberty (red); the crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than those of other Muslim countries because the Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness
    star and crescent, fennec fox; national colors: green, white, red
    name: "Kassaman" (We Pledge)
    lyrics/music: Mufdi ZAKARIAH/Mohamed FAWZI
    note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote "Kassaman" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces
  • Economy :: ALGERIA

  • Algeria's economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country's socialist postindependence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Strong revenues from hydrocarbon exports have brought Algeria relative macroeconomic stability, with foreign currency reserves approaching $200 billion and a large budget stabilization fund available for tapping. In addition, Algeria's external debt is extremely low at about 2% of GDP. However, Algeria has struggled to develop non-hydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state-driven growth. The government's efforts have done little to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian Government to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases, moves which continue to weigh on public finances. Long-term economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports, bolstering the private sector, attracting foreign investment, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.
    $552.6 billion (2014 est.)
    $531.3 billion (2013 est.)
    $516.8 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $227.8 billion (2014 est.)
    4% (2014 est.)
    2.8% (2013 est.)
    3.3% (2012 est.)
    $14,300 (2014 est.)
    $14,000 (2013 est.)
    $13,800 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 107
    53.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    53.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    54.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 35.8%
    government consumption: 19.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 34.5%
    investment in inventories: 9.4%
    exports of goods and services: 30.1%
    imports of goods and services: -29.1%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 8.6%
    industry: 48.3%
    services: 43.1% (2014 est.)
    wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
    petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
    2.8% (2014 est.)
    12.19 million (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 14%
    industry: 13.4%
    construction and public works: 10%
    trade: 14.6%
    government: 32%
    other: 16% (2003 est.)
    9.7% (2014 est.)
    9.8% (2013 est.)
    23% (2006 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.8%
    highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
    35.3 (1995)
    revenues: $79.53 billion
    expenditures: $89.21 billion (2014 est.)
    34.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -4.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    7.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    7.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover central government debt; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt
    calendar year
    2.5% (2014 est.)
    3.2% (2013 est.)
    4% (31 December 2010)
    4% (31 December 2009)
    8% (31 December 2014 est.)
    8% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $115.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $105.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $164.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $152.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $27.92 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.398 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $-2.117 billion (2014 est.)
    $542.8 million (2013 est.)
    $62.1 billion (2014 est.)
    $64.38 billion (2013 est.)
    petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97% (2009 est.)
    Spain 20.2%, France 9.3%, UK 8.8%, US 8.1%, Netherlands 6.9%, Canada 6%, Brazil 5.6%, Germany 4.3%, Italy 4.2% (2013)
    $55.36 billion (2014 est.)
    $55.37 billion (2013 est.)
    capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
    France 15.1%, China 11.6%, Italy 10.8%, Spain 9.9%, Germany 4.6% (2013)
    $193.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $195 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $4.872 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.285 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $27.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $24.97 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $1.955 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.865 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar -
    79.6 (2014 est.)
    79.37 (2013 est.)
    77.54 (2012 est.)
    72.94 (2011 est.)
    74.39 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: ALGERIA

  • 48.05 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    44 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    985 million kWh (2012 est.)
    936 million kWh (2012 est.)
    15.2 million kW (2013 est.)
    98% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    2.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    1.762 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    1.097 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
    6,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    12.2 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    571,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    380,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    471,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    17,270 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    78.6 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    32.3 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    49 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    4.505 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    133.9 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: ALGERIA

  • 3.2 million (2012)
    37.692 million (2012)
    general assessment: privatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, in 2005, a consortium led by Egypt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network in Algeria; the license will allow Orascom to develop high-speed data and other specialized services and contribute to meeting the large unfulfilled demand for basic residential telephony; Internet broadband services began in 2003
    domestic: a limited network of fixed lines with a teledensity of less than 10 telephones per 100 persons has been offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; in 2011, mobile-cellular teledensity was roughly 100 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 213; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 51 (Intelsat, Intersputnik, and Arabsat) (2011)
    state-run Radio-Television Algerienne operates the broadcast media and carries programming in Arabic, Berber dialects, and French; use of satellite dishes is widespread, providing easy access to European and Arab satellite stations; state-run radio operates several national networks and roughly 40 regional radio stations (2007)
    AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)
    46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)
    676 (2012)
    4.7 million (2009)
  • Transportation :: ALGERIA

  • 157 (2013)
    total: 64
    over 3,047 m: 12
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 93
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
    914 to 1,523 m: 39
    under 914 m:
    34 (2013)
    3 (2013)
    condensate 2,600 km; gas 16,415 km; liquid petroleum gas 3,447 km; oil 7,036 km; refined products 144 km (2013)
    total: 3,973 km
    standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2008)
    total: 113,655 km
    paved: 87,605 km (includes 645 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 26,050 km (2010)
    total: 38
    by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 8, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 11, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 3
    foreign-owned: 15 (UK, 15) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Arzew, Bethioua, Skikida
  • Military :: ALGERIA

  • People's National Army (Armee Nationale Populaire, ANP), Land Forces (Forces Terrestres, FT), Navy of the Republic of Algeria (Marine de la Republique Algerienne, MRA), Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jaza'eriya, QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force (2009)
    17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 19-30 years of age for compulsory service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months civil projects) (2012)
    males age 16-49: 10,273,129
    females age 16-49: 10,114,552 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 8,622,897
    females age 16-49: 8,626,222 (2010 est.)
    male: 342,895
    female: 330,098 (2010 est.)
    4.48% of GDP (2012)
    4.36% of GDP (2011)
    4.48% of GDP (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: ALGERIA

  • Algeria and many other states reject Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; the Polisario Front, exiled in Algeria, represents the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the National Liberation Front's (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco
    refugees (country of origin): 90,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi, mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern Algerian town of Tindouf)(2014)
    IDPs: undetermined (civil war during 1990s) (2013)
    current situation: Algeria is a transit and, to a lesser extent, a destination and source country for women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking and, to a lesser extent, men subjected to forced labor; criminal networks, sometimes extending to sub-Saharan Africa and to Europe, are involved in human smuggling and trafficking in Algeria; sub-Saharan adults enter Algeria voluntarily but illegally, often with the aid of smugglers, for onward travel to Europe, but some of the women are forced into prostitution, domestic service, and begging; some sub-Saharan men, mostly from Mali, are forced into domestic servitude; some Algerian women and children are also forced into prostitution domestically
    tier rating: Tier 3 - Algeria does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so: some officials denied human trafficking despite evidence; no efforts were made to investigate, prosecute, or convict perpetrators of human trafficking or forced labor; victim identification remained weak, and no system existed to provide victims with protection and assistance; no anti-trafficking public awareness or educational campaigns were conducted (2014)