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Middle East :: AZERBAIJAN
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AZERBAIJAN
  • Introduction :: AZERBAIJAN

  • Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily ethnic Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous republic within Soviet Azerbaijan after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the territory's status. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. The OSCE Minsk Group, co-chaired by the US, France, and Russia, is the framework established to mediate a peaceful resolution of the conflict.
    Corruption in the country is widespread, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum, has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced and infrastructure investment has increased substantially in recent years due to revenue from oil and gas production, reforms have not adequately addressed weaknesses in most government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors, as well as the court system.
  • Geography :: AZERBAIJAN

  • Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
    40 30 N, 47 30 E
    Asia
    total: 86,600 sq km
    land: 82,629 sq km
    water: 3,971 sq km
    note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
    country comparison to the world: 113
    slightly smaller than Maine
    total: 2,468 km
    border countries (5): Armenia 996 km, Georgia 428 km, Iran 689 km, Russia 338 km, Turkey 17 km
    0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
    none (landlocked)
    dry, semiarid steppe
    large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) to the west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
    mean elevation: 384 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
    highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
    petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
    agricultural land: 57.6%
    arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 2.7%; permanent pasture 32.1%
    forest: 11.3%
    other: 31.1% (2011 est.)
    14,277 sq km (2012)
    34.68 cu km (2011)
    total: 12.21 cu km/yr (4%/18%/78%)
    per capita: 1,384 cu m/yr (2010)
    droughts
    local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
  • People and Society :: AZERBAIJAN

  • 9,872,765 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    noun: Azerbaijani(s)
    adjective: Azerbaijani
    Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezgian 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4%
    note: the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region is populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians (2009 est.)
    Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)
    Muslim 96.9% (predominantly Shia), Christian 3%, other <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1 (2010 est.)
    note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
    0-14 years: 22.82% (male 1,204,976/female 1,047,737)
    15-24 years: 15.77% (male 812,537/female 744,538)
    25-54 years: 45.28% (male 2,188,683/female 2,281,242)
    55-64 years: 9.64% (male 439,566/female 512,118)
    65 years and over: 6.5% (male 245,144/female 396,224) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 38%
    youth dependency ratio: 30.3%
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.8%
    potential support ratio: 12.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 30.9 years
    male: 29.3 years
    female: 32.6 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    0.92% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    16.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    urban population: 54.6% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 1.56% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BAKU (capital) 2.374 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.62 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    23.5 (2013 est.)
    25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    total: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 25.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 23.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    total population: 72.5 years
    male: 69.5 years
    female: 75.8 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    1.9 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    51.1% (2006)
    6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    3.4 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    4.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 94.7% of population
    rural: 77.8% of population
    total: 87% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 5.3% of population
    rural: 22.2% of population
    total: 13% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 91.6% of population
    rural: 86.6% of population
    total: 89.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 8.4% of population
    rural: 13.4% of population
    total: 10.7% of population (2015 est.)
    0.17% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    10,700 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    300 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    22.2% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    4.9% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    2.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.9%
    female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2014)
    total number: 144,397
    percentage: 7%
    note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2005 est.)
    total: 13.8%
    male: 12%
    female: 15.6% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
  • Government :: AZERBAIJAN

  • conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
    conventional short form: Azerbaijan
    local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
    local short form: Azarbaycan
    former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: the name translates as "Land of fire" and refers to naturally occurring surface fires on ancient oil pools or from natural gas discharges
    presidential republic
    name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
    geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
    time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular);
    rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab
    cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax
    30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
    Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, 28 May (1918)
    several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995; amended 2002, 2009 (2016)
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
    head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006); note - RASIZADE was previously prime minister from 20 July 1996 to 4 August 2003
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 9 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
    election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 84.5%, Jamil HASANLI (National Council of Democratic Forces) 5.5%, other 10%
    note: OSCE observers concluded that the election did not meet international standards
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 1 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - YAP 72, CSP 2, Democratic Reforms 1, Social Democratic Party 1, Social Prosperity 1, Unity Party 1, Democratic Enlightenment 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, Motherland 1, Civil Unity 1, Great Undertaking Party 1, independent 42
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judges appointed for 10 years; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts;
    Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]
    Civil Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV]
    Democratic Enlightenment [Elshan MUSAYEV]
    Democratic Reforms Party [Asim MOLLAZADE]
    Great Undertaking [Fazil MUSTAFA]
    Musavat [Arif HAJILI]
    Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI]
    Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI]
    Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
    Social Prosperity Party [Khanhusein KAZIMLI]
    Unity Party [Tahir KARIMLI]
    Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]
    Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]
    Club-125 [Ilhamia RZAYEVA]
    Ireli Youth Movement [MirHasan SEYIDOV]
    National Council of Democratic Forces [Jamil HASANLI]
    NIDA Youth Movement [Turgut GAMBAR, Zaur GURBANLI]
    Positive Change Youth Movement [Bakhtiyar HAJIYEV]
    Republican Alternative or REAL [Ilgar MAMMADOV (in jail)]
    ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV (since 5 December 2011)
    chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
    FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robert CEKUTA (since 16 February 2015)
    embassy: 111 Azadlig Prospecti, Baku AZ1007
    mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
    telephone: [994] (12) 488-3300
    FAX: [994] (12) 488-3320
    three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in the red band; the blue band recalls Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, red stands for modernization and progress, and green refers to Islam; the crescent moon and star are a Turkic insignia; the eight star points represent the eight Turkic peoples of the world
    flames of fire; national colors: blue, red, green
    name: "Azerbaijan Marsi" (March of Azerbaijan)
    lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV
    note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, "Azerbaijan Marsi" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
  • Economy :: AZERBAIJAN

  • Azerbaijan's high economic growth has been attributable to large and growing oil and gas exports, but some non-export sectors also featured double-digit growth, including construction, banking, and real estate. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa pipelines remain the main economic driver, but efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway. The eventual completion of the geopolitically important Southern Gas Corridor between Azerbaijan and Europe will open up another, albeit, smaller source of revenue from gas exports.
    Azerbaijan has made only limited progress on instituting market-based economic reforms. Pervasive public and private sector corruption and structural economic inefficiencies remain a drag on long-term growth, particularly in non-energy sectors. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress, including the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector and the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance, while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe.
    Long-term prospects depend on world oil prices, Azerbaijan's ability to negotiate export routes for its growing gas production, and its ability to use its energy wealth to promote growth and spur employment in non-energy sectors of the economy.
    $169.4 billion (2015 est.)
    $167.6 billion (2014 est.)
    $163 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 68
    $54.05 billion (2015 est.)
    1.1% (2015 est.)
    2.8% (2014 est.)
    5.8% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    $18,000 (2015 est.)
    $17,900 (2014 est.)
    $17,600 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 92
    26.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    37.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    39.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    household consumption: 50.5%
    government consumption: 11.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 30.4%
    investment in inventories: 0.2%
    exports of goods and services: 38.2%
    imports of goods and services: -31.2% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 6%
    industry: 58%
    services: 36.1% (2015 est.)
    fruit, vegetables, grain, rice, grapes, tea, cotton, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
    petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
    1.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    4.899 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    agriculture: 38.3%
    industry: 12.1%
    services: 49.6% (2008)
    5.3% (2015 est.)
    5.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    6% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.4%
    highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)
    33.7 (2008)
    36.5 (2001)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    revenues: $16.15 billion
    expenditures: $17.88 billion (2015 est.)
    25.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    -2.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    11.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    8.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    calendar year
    4% (2015 est.)
    1.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    5% (31 December 2012)
    5.25% (31 December 2011)
    note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key policy rate for the National Bank of Azerbaijan
    country comparison to the world: 78
    14% (31 December 2015 est.)
    14.19% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    $9.519 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $16.36 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    $24.18 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $20.95 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    $24.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $25.38 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    $NA
    $125 million (2015 est.)
    $10.43 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $16.38 billion (2015 est.)
    $28.26 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    oil and gas 90%, machinery, foodstuffs, cotton
    Italy 26.3%, Germany 13.2%, Indonesia 7%, France 6.8%, Czech Republic 6% (2015)
    $8.414 billion (2015 est.)
    $9.332 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
    Russia 19.9%, Turkey 16.5%, UK 8.6%, Germany 6.6%, Italy 6.3%, US 4.1% (2015)
    $8.513 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $15.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    $9.833 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $9.219 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $66.14 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $59.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    $14.17 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $11.22 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar -
    1.009 (2015 est.)
    0.7844 (2014 est.)
    0.7844 (2013 est.)
    0.79 (2012 est.)
    0.7897 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: AZERBAIJAN

  • electrification - total population: 100 % (2016)
    22.99 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    17.79 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    680 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    141 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    7.114 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    85% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    14.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    845,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    811,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    7 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    131,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    99,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    36,700 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    807.1 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    18.2 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    10.91 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    7.29 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    991.1 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    35.14 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
  • Communications :: AZERBAIJAN

  • total subscriptions: 1,796,027
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    total: 10.697 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    general assessment: requires considerable expansion and modernization; fixed-line telephone and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecommunications monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market with four providers in 2009
    domestic: teledensity of 18 fixed lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to 109 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhichevan)
    international: country code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2015)
    3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting; local FM relays of Baku commercial stations are available in many localities; local relays of several international broadcasters had been available until late 2008 when their broadcasts were banned from FM frequencies (2010)
    AM 10, FM 11, shortwave 1 (2010)
    10 (2010)
    .az
    46,856 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    total: 7.531 million
    percent of population: 77% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
  • Transportation :: AZERBAIJAN

  • 37 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    total: 30
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    total: 7
    under 914 m: 7 (2013)
    1 (2012)
    condensate 89 km; gas 3,890 km; oil 2,446 km (2013)
    total: 2,068 km
    broad gauge: 2,068 km 1.520-m gauge (1,240 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    total: 52,942 km
    paved: 26,789 km
    unpaved: 26,153 km (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    total: 90
    by type: cargo 27, chemical tanker 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 47, roll on/roll off 3, specialized tanker 2
    foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)
    registered in other countries: 2 (Malta 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    major seaport(s): Baku (Baki) located on the Caspian Sea
  • Military and Security :: AZERBAIJAN

  • Army, Navy, Air, and Air Defense Forces (2010)
    18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; service obligation 18 months or 12 months for university graduates; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 17 year olds are considered to be on active service at cadet military schools (2012)
    5.1% of GDP (2014)
    4.7% of GDP (2013)
    4.64% of GDP (2012)
    4.67% of GDP (2011)
    4.64% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 6
  • Transnational Issues :: AZERBAIJAN

  • Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian
    IDPs: 618,220 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh; IDPs are mainly ethnic Azerbaijanis but also include ethnic Kurds, Russians, and Turks predominantly from occupied territories around Nagorno-Karabakh; includes IDPs' descendants, returned IDPs, and people living in insecure areas and excludes people displaced by natural disasters; around half the IDPs live in the capital Baku) (2015)
    stateless persons: 3,585 (2015)
    limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe