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Middle East :: Armenia
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Armenia
  • Introduction :: ARMENIA

  • Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, the Ottoman Empire instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in at least 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920.
    Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding regions, approximately 14 percent of Azerbaijan’s territory. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
    Turkey closed the common border with Armenia in 1993 in support of Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas, further hampering Armenian economic growth. In 2009, senior Armenian leaders began pursuing rapprochement with Turkey, aiming to secure an opening of the border, but Turkey has not yet ratified the Protocols normalizing relations between the two countries. In January 2015, Armenia joined Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan as a member of the Eurasian Economic Union.
  • Geography :: ARMENIA

  • Southwestern Asia, between Turkey (to the west) and Azerbaijan
    40 00 N, 45 00 E
    Asia
    total: 29,743 sq km
    land: 28,203 sq km
    water: 1,540 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 143
    slightly smaller than Maryland
    total: 1,570 km
    border countries (4): Azerbaijan 996 km, Georgia 219 km, Iran 44 km, Turkey 311 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
    Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
    mean elevation: 1,792 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Debed River 400 m
    highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
    small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite
    agricultural land: 59.7%
    arable land 15.8%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 42%
    forest: 9.1%
    other: 31.2% (2011 est.)
    2,740 sq km (2012)
    7.77 cu km (2011)
    total: 2.86 cu km/yr (40%/6%/54%)
    per capita: 929.7 cu m/yr (2010)
    occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
    soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
    landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
  • People and Society :: ARMENIA

  • noun: Armenian(s)
    adjective: Armenian
    Armenian 98.1%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.1%, other 0.7% (2011 est.)
    Armenian (official) 97.9%, Kurdish (spoken by Yezidi minority) 1%, other 1% (2011 est.)
    Armenian Apostolic 92.6%, Evangelical 1%, other 2.4%, none 1.1%, unspecified 2.9% (2011 est.)
    3,056,382 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    0-14 years: 19.05% (male 310,893/female 271,479)
    15-24 years: 14.42% (male 225,029/female 215,700)
    25-54 years: 43.47% (male 638,983/female 689,519)
    55-64 years: 12.35% (male 171,584/female 205,751)
    65 years and over: 10.71% (male 130,804/female 196,640) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 41.3%
    youth dependency ratio: 26%
    elderly dependency ratio: 15.3%
    potential support ratio: 6.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 34.2 years
    male: 32.3 years
    female: 36.1 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    -0.15% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    13.61 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    9.34 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    -5.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    urban population: 62.7% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: -0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    YEREVAN (capital) 1,044 (2015)
    at birth: 1.13 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    23.5 (2011 est.)
    25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    total: 13.51 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 14.95 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 11.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    total population: 74.37 years
    male: 71.13 years
    female: 78.03 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    1.64 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    54.9% (2010)
    4.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    2.7 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    3.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 96.2% of population
    rural: 78.2% of population
    total: 89.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 3.8% of population
    rural: 21.8% of population
    total: 10.5% of population (2015 est.)
    0.22% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    4,000 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    200 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    19.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    5.3% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    2.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.7%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 12 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 14 years (2009)
    total number: 19,596
    percentage: 4%
    note: data represent children ages 7-17 (2007 est.)
    total: 36.1%
    male: 31.8%
    female: 41.5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
  • Government :: ARMENIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
    conventional short form: Armenia
    local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
    local short form: Hayastan
    former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic
    etymology: the etymology of the country's name remains obscure; according to tradition, the country is named after Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and the great-great-grandson of Noah; Hayk's descendant, Aram, purportedly is the source of the name Armenia
    semi-presidential republic
    note: a constituional referendum approved in December 2015 will change the government type to a parliamentary system, replacing the semi-presidential system and becoming effective for the 2017-18 electoral cycle
    name: Yerevan
    geographic coordinates: 40 10 N, 44 30 E
    time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
    21 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
    previous 1915, 1978; latest adopted 5 July 1995; amended 2005, 2015; note - the 2015 amendment, approved in December 2015 by a public referendum and effective for the 2017-18 electoral cycle, changes the government type from the current semi-presidential system to a parliamentary system (2016)
    note: the 2015 amendment, approved in December 2015 by a public referendum and effective for the 2017-18 electoral cycle, changes the government type from the current semi-presidential system to a parliamentary system (2016)
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Armenia
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Serzh SARGSIAN (since 9 April 2008)
    head of government: Prime Minister Hovik ABRAHAMYAN (since 13 April 2014)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2018); prime minister appointed by the president based on majority support in the National Congress; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Congress refuses to accept their program
    election results: Serzh SARGSIAN reelected president in one round; percent of vote - Serzh SARGSIAN (RPA) 58.6%, Raffi HOVHANNISIAN (Heritage Party) 36.7%, Hrant BAGRATIAN (ANM) 2.2%, other 2.5%
    note: constitutional changes adopted in December 2015 will transform the government to a parliamentary system by 2018; for the scheduled February 2018 election, the president will be indirectly elected by parliament and will serve a single 7-year term; following the 2018 election, the prime minister will be elected based on majority support of the National Assembly
    description: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; 90 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 41 directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held in the spring of 2017)
    election results: percent of vote by party - RPA 44%, Prosperous Armenia 30.1%, ANC 7.1%, Heritage Party 5.8%, ARF (Dashnak) 5.7%, Rule of Law 5.5%, other 1.8%; seats by party - RPA 69, Prosperous Armenia 37, ANC 7, Rule of Law 6, Heritage Party 5, ARF (Dashnak) 5, independent 2
    highest court(s): Court of Cassation (consists of the court chairman and organized into a criminal chamber and a civil and administrative chamber, each with a court chairman and 2 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body of selected judges and legal scholars; judges appointed by the president; Constitutional Court judges - 4 appointed by the president, and 5 elected by National Assembly; judges of both courts can serve until retirement at age 65
    subordinate courts: 2 Courts of Appeal (for civil cases and for criminal and military cases); district courts; Administrative Court
    Armenian National Congress or ANC (bloc of independent and opposition parties) [Levon TER-PETROSSIAN]
    Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABIAN]
    Armenian Revolutionary Federation or ARF ("Dashnak" Party) [Hrant MARKARIAN]
    Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISIAN]
    People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN]
    Prosperous Armenia [Naira ZOHRABYAN]
    Republican Party of Armenia or RPA [Serzh SARGSIAN]
    Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARIAN]
    Aylentrank (Impeachment Alliance) [Nikol PASHINIAN]
    Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
    ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (observer), EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Grigor HOVHANNISSIAN (since 28 January 2016)
    chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
    FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
    consulate(s) general: Glendale (CA)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Richard MILLS (since 13 February 2015)
    embassy: 1 American Ave., Yerevan 0082
    mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
    telephone: [374](10) 464-700
    FAX: [374](10) 464-742
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange; the color red recalls the blood shed for liberty, blue the Armenian skies as well as hope, and orange the land and the courage of the workers who farm it
    Mount Ararat, eagle, lion; national colors: red, blue, orange
    name: "Mer Hayrenik" (Our Fatherland)
    lyrics/music: Mikael NALBANDIAN/Barsegh KANACHYAN
    note: adopted 1991; based on the anthem of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918-1922) but with different lyrics
  • Economy :: ARMENIA

  • Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics, in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia has since switched to small-scale agriculture and away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. Armenia has only two open trade borders - Iran and Georgia - because its borders with Azerbaijan and Turkey have been closed since 1991 and 1993, respectively, as a result of Armenia's ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region.
    Armenia joined the WTO in January 2003. The government has made some improvements in tax and customs administration in recent years, but anti-corruption measures have been ineffective. Armenia will need to pursue additional economic reforms and strengthen the rule of law in order to regain economic growth and improve economic competitiveness and employment opportunities, especially given its economic isolation from two of its nearest neighbors, Turkey and Azerbaijan.
    Armenia's geographic isolation, a narrow export base, and pervasive monopolies in important business sectors have made it particularly vulnerable to the sharp deterioration in the global economy and the economic downturn in Russia. Armenia is particularly dependent on Russian commercial and governmental support and most key Armenian infrastructure is Russian-owned and/or managed, especially in the energy sector, including electricity and natural gas. Remittances from expatriates working in Russia are equivalent to about 20% of GDP and partly offset the country's severe trade imbalance. Armenia joined Russia in the Eurasian Economic Union upon the bloc's launch in January 2015, even though the ruble's sharp depreciation in December 2014 led to currency instability, inflation, and a significant decrease in exports from Armenia to Russia.
    $25.32 billion (2015 est.)
    $24.58 billion (2014 est.)
    $23.75 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 136
    $10.57 billion (2015 est.)
    3% (2015 est.)
    3.5% (2014 est.)
    3.3% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    $8,500 (2015 est.)
    $8,200 (2014 est.)
    $8,000 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 144
    16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    13.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    14.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    household consumption: 82.8%
    government consumption: 12.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 20%
    investment in inventories: -0.5%
    exports of goods and services: 29.5%
    imports of goods and services: -44.4% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 23.3%
    industry: 30.1%
    services: 46.7% (2015 est.)
    fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock
    diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging and pressing machines, electric motors, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry, software, food processing, brandy, mining
    0.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    1.508 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    agriculture: 39%
    industry: 17%
    services: 44% (2011 est.)
    17.8% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    32% (2013 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.7%
    highest 10%: 24.8% (2012)
    30.3 (2012)
    31.3 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    revenues: $2.541 billion
    expenditures: $2.849 billion (2015 est.)
    24% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    -2.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    47.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    43.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    calendar year
    3.7% (2015 est.)
    3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    10.5% (10 February 2015)
    8% (11 January 2012)
    note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy instrument of the Armenian National Bank
    country comparison to the world: 21
    17.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
    16.41% (31 December 2014 est.)
    note: average lending rate on loans up to one year
    country comparison to the world: 25
    $1.127 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.118 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    $2.038 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.723 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    $6.212 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $5.219 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    $132.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    $139.6 million (31 December 2011)
    $144.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    -$335 million (2015 est.)
    -$849 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    $1.496 billion (2015 est.)
    $1.665 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    pig iron, unwrought copper, nonferrous metals, gold, diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy
    Russia 15.2%, China 11.1%, Germany 9.8%, Iraq 8.8%, Georgia 7.8%, Canada 7.6%, Bulgaria 5.3%, Iran 5.3% (2015)
    $3.117 billion (2015 est.)
    $3.734 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds, pharmaceuticals, cars
    Russia 29.1%, China 9.7%, Germany 6.2%, Iran 6.1%, Italy 4.6%, Turkey 4.2% (2015)
    $1.209 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.489 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    $8.537 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $8.695 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $4.817 billion (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    drams (AMD) per US dollar -
    480.9 (2015 est.)
    415.92 (2014 est.)
    415.92 (2013 est.)
    401.76 (2012 est.)
    372.5 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: ARMENIA

  • 7.622 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    5.043 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    1.696 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    98 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    4.021 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    32.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    34.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    33.5% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    8,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    8,722 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    2.01 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    2.061 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    12.12 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
  • Communications :: ARMENIA

  • total subscriptions: 560,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    total: 3.5 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; mobile-cellular services monopoly terminated in late 2004, and a second and third provider began operations in 2005 and 2009 respectively
    domestic: reliable modern fixed-line and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan and in major cities and towns; significant but ever-shrinking gaps remain in mobile-cellular coverage in rural areas
    international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2008)
    2 public TV networks operating alongside about 40 privately owned TV stations that provide local to near nationwide coverage; major Russian broadcast stations are widely available; subscription cable TV services are available in most regions; Public Radio of Armenia is a national, state-run broadcast network that operates alongside 21 privately owned radio stations; several major international broadcasters are available (2015)
    AM 9, FM 16, shortwave 1 (2006)
    48 (private television stations alongside 2 public networks; major Russian channels widely available) (2006)
    .am
    194,142 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    total: 1.3 million
    percent of population: 43.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
  • Transportation :: ARMENIA

  • 11 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    total: 10
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    gas 2,233 km (2013)
    total: 780 km
    broad gauge: 780 km 1.520-m gauge (780 km electrified)
    note: 726 km operational (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    total: 7,792 km (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 143
  • Military and Security :: ARMENIA

  • Armenian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air Force and Air Defense; "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic": Nagorno-Karabakh Self-Defense Force (NKSDF) (2011)
    18-27 years of age for voluntary or compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; 17 year olds are eligible to become cadets at military higher education institutes, where they are classified as military personnel (2012)
    4.29% of GDP (2014)
    4.1% of GDP (2013)
    3.92% of GDP (2012)
    3.87% of GDP (2011)
    3.92% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 10
  • Transnational Issues :: ARMENIA

  • the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; ethnic Armenian groups in the Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian Government
    refugees (country of origin): 14,994 (Syria - ethnic Armenians) (2014)
    IDPs: 8,400 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2015)
    stateless persons: 311 (2015)
    illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; minor transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
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