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Middle East :: Armenia Print
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ARMENIA
  • Introduction :: Armenia
  • Background field listing

    Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, the Ottoman Empire instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in at least 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920.

    Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a trilateral cease-fire between Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Nagorno-Karabakh took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding regions - approximately 14 percent of Azerbaijan’s territory. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.

    Turkey closed the common border with Armenia in 1993 in support of Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas, further hampering Armenian economic growth. In 2009, Armenia and Turkey signed Protocols normalizing relations between the two countries, but neither country ratified the Protocols, and Armenia officially withdrew from the Protocols in March 2018. In January 2015, Armenia joined Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan as a member of the Eurasian Economic Union. In November 2017, Armenia signed a Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA) with the EU.

  • Geography :: Armenia
  • Location field listing
    Southwestern Asia, between Turkey (to the west) and Azerbaijan; note - Armenia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    40 00 N, 45 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Asia
    Area field listing
    total: 29,743 sq km
    land: 28,203 sq km
    water: 1,540 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly smaller than Maryland
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 1,570 km
    border countries (4): Azerbaijan 996 km, Georgia 219 km, Iran 44 km, Turkey 311 km
    Coastline field listing
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims field listing
    none (landlocked)
    Climate field listing
    highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
    Terrain field listing
    Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 1,792 m
    elevation extremes: 400 m lowest point: Debed River
    4090 highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat'
    Natural resources field listing
    small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 59.7% (2014 est.)
    arable land: 15.8% (2014 est.) / permanent crops: 1.9% (2014 est.) / permanent pasture: 42% (2014 est.)
    forest: 9.1% (2014 est.)
    other: 31.2% (2014 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    2,740 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    most of the population is located in the northern half of the country; the capital of Yerevan is home to more than five times as many people as Gyumri, the second largest city in the country
    Natural hazards field listing
    occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
    Environment - current issues field listing
    soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; deforestation; pollution of Hrazdan and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
    Geography - note field listing
    landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
  • People and Society :: Armenia
  • Population field listing
    3,038,217 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Armenian(s)
    adjective: Armenian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Armenian 98.1%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.1%, other 0.7% (2011 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Armenian (official) 97.9%, Kurdish (spoken by Yezidi minority) 1%, other 1% (2011 est.)

    note: Russian is widely spoken

    Religions field listing
    Armenian Apostolic 92.6%, Evangelical 1%, other 2.4%, none 1.1%, unspecified 2.9% (2011 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 18.86% (male 303,712 /female 269,279)
    15-24 years: 12.37% (male 195,722 /female 179,970)
    25-54 years: 43.31% (male 640,089 /female 675,643)
    55-64 years: 13.77% (male 192,515 /female 225,882)
    65 years and over: 11.7% (male 142,835 /female 212,570) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 44.4 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 28.7 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 15.8 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 6.3 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 35.6 years
    male: 33.9 years
    female: 37.4 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Population growth rate field listing
    -0.25% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Birth rate field listing
    12.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Death rate field listing
    9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Net migration rate field listing
    -5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Population distribution field listing
    most of the population is located in the northern half of the country; the capital of Yerevan is home to more than five times as many people as Gyumri, the second largest city in the country
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 63.1% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    1.08 million YEREVAN (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.14 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    24.4 years (2015/16 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 10.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 75.1 years (2018 est.)
    male: 71.8 years (2018 est.)
    female: 78.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.64 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    57.1% (2015/16)
    Health expenditures field listing
    4.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Physicians density field listing
    2.8 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    4.2 beds/1,000 population (2015)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 96.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 78.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 89.5% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 21.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 10.5% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    3,400 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <200 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    20.2% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    2.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Education expenditures field listing
    2.8% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 99.7% (2015 est.)
    male: 99.7% (2015 est.)
    female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 13 years (2015)
    male: 13 years (2015)
    female: 13 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 36.3% (2016 est.)
    male: 29.5% (2016 est.)
    female: 45.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
  • Government :: Armenia
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
    conventional short form: Armenia
    local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
    local short form: Hayastan
    former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic
    etymology: the etymology of the country's name remains obscure; according to tradition, the country is named after Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and the great-great-grandson of Noah; Hayk's descendant, Aram, purportedly is the source of the name Armenia
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary democracy; note - constitutional changes adopted in December 2015 transformed the government to a parliamentary system
    Capital field listing
    name: Yerevan
    geographic coordinates: 40 10 N, 44 30 E
    time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: name likely derives from the ancient Urartian fortress of Erebuni established on the current site of Yerevan in 782 B.C. and whose impresive ruins still survive
    Administrative divisions field listing
    11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
    Independence field listing
    21 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1915, 1978; latest adopted 5 July 1995 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires approval by the president, by the National Assembly, and by a referendum with at least 25% registered voter participation and more than 50% of votes; constitutional articles on the form of government and democratic procedures are not amendable; amended 2005, 2007, 2008, last in 2015 (2017)

    note: a 2015 amendment, approved in December 2015 by a public referendum and effective for the 2017-18 electoral cycle, changes the government type from the current semi-presidential system to a parliamentary system

    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Armenia
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Armen SARKISSIAN (since 9 April 2018)
    head of government: Prime Minister Nikol PASHINYAN (since 8 May 2018); First Deputy Prime Minister Ararat MIRZOYAN (since 11 May 2018)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly in 3 rounds if needed for a single 7-year term; election last held on 2 March 2018; prime minister elected by majority vote in 2 rounds if needed by the National Assembly; election last held on 8 May 2018
    election results: Armen SARKISSIAN elected president in first round; note - Armen SARKISSIAN ran unopposed and won the Assembly vote 90-10; Nikol PASHINYAN elected prime minister in second round; note - Nikol PASHINYAN ran unopposed and won the Assembly vote 59-42
    note: Nikol PASHINYAN resigned his post on 16 October 2018 but remains on as Acting Prime Minister until new elections are held on 9 December 2018
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (minimum 101 seats, currently 105; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 2 April 2017 (next elections to be held early on 9 December 2018)
    election results: percent of vote by party - RPA 49.2%, Tsarukyan Alliance 27.4%, Yelk (Way Out) 7.8%, ARF (Dashnak) 6.6%, other 9%; seats by party - RPA 58, Tsarukyan Alliance 31, Yelk (Way Out) 9, ARF (Dashnak) 7; composition - men 87, women 18, percent of women 17.1%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Court of Cassation (consists of the Criminal Chamber with a chairman and 5 judges and the Civil and Administrative Chamber with a chairman and 10 judges – with both civil and administrative specializations); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Supreme Judicial Council, a 10-member body of selected judges and legal scholars; judges appointed by the president; judges can serve until age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 4 appointed by the president, and 5 elected by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: criminal and civil appellate courts; administrative appellate court; first instance courts; specialized administrative and bankruptcy courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Armenian National Congress or ANC (bloc of independent and opposition parties) [Levon TER-PETROSSIAN]
    Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABIAN]
    Armenian Revolutionary Federation or ARF ("Dashnak" Party) [Hrant MARKARIAN]
    Bright Armenia [Edmon MARUKYAN]
    Civil Contract [Nikol PASHINYAN]
    Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISIAN]
    People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN]
    Prosperous Armenia [Gagik TSARUKYAN]
    Republic [Aram SARGSYAN]
    Republican Party of Armenia or RPA [Serzh SARGSIAN]
    Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARIAN]
    Tsarukyan Alliance [Gagik TSARUKYAN]
    Yelk (Way Out) [Edmon MARUKYAN, Nikol PASHINYAN, Aram SARGSIAN] (alliance includes Bright Armenia, Civil Contract, Republic)
    International organization participation field listing
    ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (observer), EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Grigor HOVHANNISSIAN (since 28 January 2016)
    chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
    FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
    consulate(s) general: Glendale (CA)
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Richard MILLS (since 13 February 2015)
    embassy: 1 American Ave., Yerevan 0082
    mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
    telephone: [374](10) 464-700
    FAX: [374](10) 464-742
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange; the color red recalls the blood shed for liberty, blue the Armenian skies as well as hope, and orange the land and the courage of the workers who farm it
    National symbol(s) field listing
    Mount Ararat, eagle, lion; national colors: red, blue, orange
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Mer Hayrenik" (Our Fatherland)
    lyrics/music: Mikael NALBANDIAN/Barsegh KANACHYAN

    note: adopted 1991; based on the anthem of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918-1922) but with different lyrics

  • Economy :: Armenia
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics, in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia has since switched to small-scale agriculture and away from the large agro industrial complexes of the Soviet era. Armenia has only two open trade borders - Iran and Georgia - because its borders with Azerbaijan and Turkey have been closed since 1991 and 1993, respectively, as a result of Armenia's ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region.

    Armenia joined the World Trade Organization in January 2003. The government has made some improvements in tax and customs administration in recent years, but anti-corruption measures have been largely ineffective. Armenia will need to pursue additional economic reforms and strengthen the rule of law in order to raise its economic growth and improve economic competitiveness and employment opportunities, especially given its economic isolation from Turkey and Azerbaijan.

    Armenia's geographic isolation, a narrow export base, and pervasive monopolies in important business sectors have made it particularly vulnerable to volatility in the global commodity markets and the economic challenges in Russia. Armenia is particularly dependent on Russian commercial and governmental support, as most key Armenian infrastructure is Russian-owned and/or managed, especially in the energy sector. Remittances from expatriates working in Russia are equivalent to about 12-14% of GDP. Armenia joined the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union in January 2015, but has remained interested in pursuing closer ties with the EU as well, signing a Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement with the EU in November 2017. Armenia’s rising government debt is leading Yerevan to tighten its fiscal policies – the amount is approaching the debt to GDP ratio threshold set by national legislation.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $28.34 billion (2017 est.)
    $26.37 billion (2016 est.)
    $26.3 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 136
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $11.54 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    7.5% (2017 est.)
    0.3% (2016 est.)
    3.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $9,500 (2017 est.)
    $8,800 (2016 est.)
    $8,800 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 142
    Gross national saving field listing
    17.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    16.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    18.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 76.7% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 14.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 17.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 4.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 38.1% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -50.4% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 16.7% (2017 est.)
    industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)
    services: 54.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    fruit (especially grapes and apricots), vegetables; livestock
    Industries field listing
    brandy, mining, diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging and pressing machines, electric motors, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry, software, food processing
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    5.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Labor force field listing
    1.507 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 36.3%
    industry: 17%
    services: 46.7% (2013 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    18.9% (2017 est.)
    18.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Population below poverty line field listing
    32% (2013 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 25.7% (2014)
    highest 10%: 25.7% (2014)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    31.5 (2014)
    31.5 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 2.644 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 3.192 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    22.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -4.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Public debt field listing
    53.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    51.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    0.9% (2017 est.)
    -1.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    6.5% (14 December 2016)
    10.5% (10 February 2015)

    note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy instrument of the Armenian National Bank

    country comparison to the world: 57
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    14.41% (31 December 2017 est.)
    17.36% (31 December 2016 est.)

    note: average lending rate on loans up to one year

    country comparison to the world: 47
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $1.629 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.355 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $1.629 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.355 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $6.712 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $132.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    $139.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $144.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Current account balance field listing
    -$328 million (2017 est.)
    -$238 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Exports field listing
    $2.361 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.891 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Exports - partners field listing
    Russia 24.2%, Bulgaria 12.8%, Switzerland 12%, Georgia 6.9%, Germany 5.9%, China 5.5%, Iraq 5.4%, UAE 4.6%, Netherlands 4.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    unwrought copper, pig iron, nonferrous metals, gold, diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, brandy, cigarettes, energy
    Imports field listing
    $3.771 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.835 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Imports - commodities field listing
    natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds, pharmaceuticals, cars
    Imports - partners field listing
    Russia 28%, China 11.5%, Turkey 5.5%, Germany 4.9%, Iran 4.3% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $2.314 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.204 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Debt - external field listing
    $10.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $8.987 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $4.169 billion (2015 est.)
    $4.087 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $228 million (2015 est.)
    $215 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Exchange rates field listing
    drams (AMD) per US dollar -
    487.9 (2017 est.)
    480.49 (2016 est.)
    480.49 (2015 est.)
    477.92 (2014 est.)
    415.92 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Armenia
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    7.393 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    5.331 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Electricity - exports field listing
    1.424 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Electricity - imports field listing
    174 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    4.068 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    58.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    9.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    31.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    0.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    8,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    7,736 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    2.05 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    2.05 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    12 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
  • Communications :: Armenia
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 505,190 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 3,488,524 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; 17 per 100 fixed-line, 115 per 100 mobile-cellular (2017)
    domestic: reliable modern fixed-line and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan and in major cities and towns; mobile-cellular coverage available in most rural areas; with small populaton and low GDP - moderate growth in mobile market (2017)
    international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2015)
    Broadcast media field listing
    2 public TV networks operating alongside about 40 privately owned TV stations that provide local to near nationwide coverage; major Russian broadcast stations are widely available; subscription cable TV services are available in most regions; Armenian TV completed conversion from analog to digital broadcasting in late 2016; Public Radio of Armenia is a national, state-run broadcast network that operates alongside 21 privately owned radio stations; several major international broadcasters are available (2017)
    Internet country code field listing
    .am
    Internet users field listing
    total: 1,891,775 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 62% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 315,319 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
  • Transportation :: Armenia
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5 (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    EK (2016)
    Airports field listing
    11 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 10 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    3838 km gas (high and medium pressure) (2017)
    Railways field listing
    total: 780 km (2014)
    broad gauge: 780 km 1.520-m gauge (780 km electrified) (2014)

    note: 726 km operational

    country comparison to the world: 98
    Roadways field listing
    total: 7,792 km (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 142
  • Military and Security :: Armenia
  • Military expenditures field listing
    4.09% of GDP (2016)
    4.25% of GDP (2015)
    3.94% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Military branches field listing
    Armenian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air Force and Air Defense; "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic": Nagorno-Karabakh Self-Defense Force (NKSDF) (2011)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-27 years of age for voluntary or compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; 17 year olds are eligible to become cadets at military higher education institutes, where they are classified as military personnel (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Armenia
  • Disputes - international field listing
    the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instabilityresidents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and AzerbaijanTurkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valleyin 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has falteredlocal border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian bordersethnic Armenian groups in the Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian Government
    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 14,626 (Syria - ethnic Armenians) (2016)
    IDPs: 8,400 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2016)
    stateless persons: 773 (2017)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; minor transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe