Europe :: ANDORRA
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  • Introduction :: ANDORRA

  • The landlocked Principality of Andorra is one of the smallest states in Europe, nestled high in the Pyrenees between the French and Spanish borders. For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique coprincipality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Bishop of Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the introduction of a modern, constitution; the co-princes remained as titular heads of state, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy.
    Andorra has become a popular tourist destination visited by approximately 8 million people each year drawn by the winter sports, summer climate, and duty-free shopping. Andorra has also become a wealthy international commercial center because of its mature banking sector and low taxes. As part of its effort to modernize its economy, Andorra has opened to foreign investment, and engaged in other reforms, such as advancing tax initiatives aimed at supporting a broader infrastructure. Although not a member of the EU, Andorra enjoys a special relationship with the organization and uses the euro as its national currency.
  • Geography :: ANDORRA

  • Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain
    42 30 N, 1 30 E
    total: 468 sq km
    land: 468 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 196
    2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    total: 118 km
    border countries (2): France 55 km, Spain 63 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
    rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
    mean elevation: 1,996 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
    highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
    hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
    agricultural land: 43.4%
    arable land 5.5%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 37.9%
    forest: 34%
    other: 22.6% (2011 est.)
    0 sq km (2012)
    population is unevenly distributed and is concentrated in the 7 urbanized valleys that make up the country's parishes (political administrative divisions)
    deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
    party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
  • People and Society :: ANDORRA

  • 85,660 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    noun: Andorran(s)
    adjective: Andorran
    Andorran 46.2%, Spanish 26.4%, Portuguese 12.8%, French 5%, other 9.6% (2016 est.)
    Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
    Roman Catholic (predominant)
    0-14 years: 14.74% (male 6,476/female 6,151)
    15-24 years: 9.52% (male 4,236/female 3,915)
    25-54 years: 47.01% (male 20,614/female 19,651)
    55-64 years: 13.59% (male 6,229/female 5,412)
    65 years and over: 15.15% (male 6,566/female 6,410) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total: 43.7 years
    male: 43.8 years
    female: 43.5 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    0.07% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    7.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    population is unevenly distributed and is concentrated in the 7 urbanized valleys that make up the country's parishes (political administrative divisions)
    urban population: 85.1% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) 23,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    total: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    total population: 82.8 years
    male: 80.6 years
    female: 85.1 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    1.39 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    8.1% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    3.69 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    2.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    32.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    3.1% of GDP (2014)
  • Government :: ANDORRA

  • conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
    conventional short form: Andorra
    local long form: Principat d'Andorra
    local short form: Andorra
    etymology: the origin of the country's name is obscure; since the area served as part of the Spanish March (defensive buffer zone) against the invading Moors in the 8th century, the name may derive from the Arabic "ad-darra" meaning "the forest"
    parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains its chiefs of state in the form of a co-principality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain, who are represented in Andorra by the co-princes' representatives
    name: Andorra la Vella
    geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
    1278 (formed under the joint sovereignty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgell)
    Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
    history: drafted 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 28 April 1993
    amendments: proposed by the coprinces jointly or by the General Council; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the General Council, ratification in a referendum, and sanctioning by the coprinces (2016)
    mixed legal system of civil and customary law with the influence of canon law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the mother must be an Andorran citizen or the father must have been born in Andorra and both parents maintain permanent residence in Andorra
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: French Coprince Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Jean-Pierre HUGUES (since 15 June 2016) and Spanish Coprince Archbishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Josep Maria MAUN (since 20 July 2012)
    head of government: Head of Government (or Cap de Govern) Antoni MARTI PETIT (since 12 May 2011)
    cabinet: Executive Council designated by head of government
    elections/appointments: head of government indirectly elected by the General Council (Andorran parliament), formally appointed by the coprinces for a 4-year term; election last held on 31 March 2015 (next to be held in April 2019); the leader of the majority party in the General Council is usually elected head of government
    election results: Antoni MARTI PETIT (DA) elected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 79%
    description: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de les Valls (a minimum of 28 seats; 14 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies (parishes) by simple majority vote and 14 directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - each voter casts two separate ballots - one for a national list and one for a parish list
    elections: last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in April 2019)
    election results: seats by party - percent of vote by party: DA 34.5%, PLA 25.0%, PS-VA-IC-independent coalition 21.3%, SDP 9.6%, invalid votes 9.5%; seats by party: DA 15, PLA 8, PS-VA-IC-independent coalition 3, SDP 2
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de la Justicia d'Andorra (consists of the court president and 8 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 4 magistrates)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Justice, a 5-member judicial policy and administrative body appointed 1 each by the coprinces, 1 by the General Council, 1 by the executive council president, and 1 by the courts; judges serve 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional magistrates appointed 2 by the coprinces and 2 by the General Council; magistrates' appointments limited to 2 consecutive 8-year terms
    subordinate courts: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts
    Citizens' Initiative or IC [Sergi RICART] (including PS, VA, IC, and independents)
    Democrats for Andorra or DA [Antoni MARTI PETIT]
    Greens of Andorra or VA [Isabel LOZANO MUNOZ, Juli FERNANDEZ BLASI]
    Liberal Party or PLA [Jordi GALLARDO]
    Social Democratic Party or PS [Vincenc ALAY FERRER]
    Social Democratic Progress Party or SDP [Victor NAUDI ZAMORA]
    note: there are also several smaller parties at the parish level (one is Lauredian Union)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Elisenda VIVES BALMANA (since 2 March 2016)
    chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017
    telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
    FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
    the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the US Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175
    three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red, with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the latter band is slightly wider than the other two so that the ratio of band widths is 8:9:8; the coat of arms features a quartered shield with the emblems of (starting in the upper left and proceeding clockwise): Urgell, Foix, Bearn, and Catalonia; the motto reads VIRTUS UNITA FORTIOR (Strength United is Stronger); the flag combines the blue and red French colors with the red and yellow of Spain to show Franco-Spanish protection
    note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
    national colors: blue, yellow, red
    name: "El Gran Carlemany" (The Great Charlemagne)
    lyrics/music: Joan BENLLOCH i VIVO/Enric MARFANY BONS
    note: adopted 1921; the anthem provides a brief history of Andorra in a first person narrative
  • Economy :: ANDORRA

  • Andorra has a developed economy and a free market, with per capita income above the European average and above the level of its neighbors, Spain and France. The country has developed a sophisticated infrastructure including a one-of-a-kind micro-fiber-optic network for the entire country. Tourism, retail sales, and finance are the mainstays of Andorra's small economy, accounting for more than three-quarters of GDP. Andorra's duty-free status for some products and its summer and winter resorts attract millions of visitors annually, although the economic downturn in neighboring countries has curtailed the number of tourists. Andorra uses the euro and is effectively subject to the monetary policy of the European Central Bank. Andorra's comparative advantage as a tax haven eroded when the borders of neighboring France and Spain opened; its bank secrecy laws have been relaxed under pressure from the EU and OECD.
    Agricultural production is limited - only about 5% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported, making the economy vulnerable to changes in fuel and food prices. The principal livestock is sheep. Manufacturing output and exports consist mainly of perfumes and cosmetic products, products of the printing industry, electrical machinery and equipment, clothing, tobacco products, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
    Andorra is open to, and actively seeking to attract, foreign investment. The Andorran economy is undergoing a process of diversification centered largely on the sectors of tourism, trade, property, and finance. To provide incentives for growth and diversification in the economy, the Andorran government began sweeping economic reforms in 2006. The Parliament approved three laws to complement the first phase of economic openness: on companies (October 2007), on business accounting (December 2007), and on foreign investment (April 2008 and June 2012). From 2011 to 2015, the Parliament also approved direct taxes in the form taxes on corporations, on individual incomes of residents and non-residents, and on capital gains, savings, and economic activities. These regulations aim to establish a transparent, modern, and internationally comparable regulatory framework.
    The principal objectives of the economic reform are to attract investment and businesses which can contribute most to Andorra’s economic development, offering greater diversification and contributing higher added value. Prior to 2008, when the first law on investment was approved, Andorra offered limited foreign investment opportunities largely due to concerns about the impact of foreign firms on such a small economy. As a consequence, non-citizens were allowed to own no more than 33% of a company. Only after residing in the country for a minimum of 20 years were foreigners entitled to own 100%.
    $3.327 billion (2015 est.)
    $3.363 billion (2014 est.)
    $3.273 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 184
    $2.712 billion (2012 est.)
    -1.1% (2015 est.)
    1.4% (2014 est.)
    -0.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    $49,900 (2015 est.)
    $51,300 (2014 est.)
    $50,300 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    agriculture: 11.9%
    industry: 33.6%
    services: 54.5% (2015 est.)
    small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables, tobacco; sheep, cattle
    tourism (particularly skiing), banking, timber, furniture
    39,750 (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    agriculture: 0.5%
    industry: 4.4%
    services: 95.1% (2015)
    3.7% (2016 est.)
    4.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $1.872 billion
    expenditures: $2.06 billion (2016)
    69% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    -6.9% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    41% of GDP (2014 est.)
    41.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    calendar year
    -0.9% (2015 est.)
    -0.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    $78.71 million (2015 est.)
    $79.57 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    tobacco products, furniture
    Spain 52.6%, France 18.7%, Italy 2.9% (2015)
    $1.257 billion (2015 est.)
    $1.264 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    consumer goods, food, fuel, electricity
    Spain 63.6%, France 15.8%, Germany 3.1%
    $0 (2016)
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.9214 (2016 est.)
    0.885 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.7752 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: ANDORRA

  • electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    99.48 million kWh (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    221.6 million kWh (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    6,000 kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    471.3 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    520,000 kW (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    61.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    23.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    0 bbl/day (2016)
    0 bbl/day (2016)
    0 bbl/day (2016)
    0 bbl (2016) (1 January 2016)
    0 bbl/day (2016)
    0 cu m (2016)
    0 cu m (2016)
    0 cu m (2016)
    0 cu m (2016)
    0 cu m (1 January 2016)
  • Communications :: ANDORRA

  • total subscriptions: 38,850
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    total: 71,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    general assessment: modern automatic telephone system
    domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
    international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain (2016)
    1 public TV station and 2 public radio stations; about 10 commercial radio stations; good reception of radio and TV broadcasts from stations in France and Spain; upgraded to terrestrial digital TV broadcasting in 2007; roughly 25 international TV channels available (2016)
    total: 83,000
    percent of population: 96.9% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
  • Transportation :: ANDORRA

  • C3 (2016)
    total: 320 km (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 205
  • Military and Security :: ANDORRA

  • no regular military forces; Police Corps of Andorra (2017)
    defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
  • Transnational Issues :: ANDORRA

  • none