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Africa :: Angola
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Angola
  • Introduction :: ANGOLA

  • Angola is still rebuilding its country since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS pushed through a new constitution in 2010; elections held in 2012 saw him installed as president. Angola assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2015-16 term.
  • Geography :: ANGOLA

  • Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
    12 30 S, 18 30 E
    Africa
    total: 1,246,700 sq km
    land: 1,246,700 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 23
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    total: 5,369 km
    border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1,427 km, Zambia 1,065 km
    1,600 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
    narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Moca 2,620 m
    petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
    agricultural land: 47.3%
    arable land 3.8%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 43.3%
    forest: 46.8%
    other: 5.9% (2011 est.)
    855.3 sq km (2005)
    148 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.71 cu km/yr (45%/34%/21%)
    per capita: 40.27 cu m/yr (2005)
    locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
    overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • People and Society :: ANGOLA

  • noun: Angolan(s)
    adjective: Angolan
    Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
    Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
    indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
    19,088,106
    note: preliminary results from Angola's 2014 national census estimate the country's population to be 24.3 million (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    0-14 years: 43.2% (male 4,206,929/female 4,043,618)
    15-24 years: 20.5% (male 1,992,955/female 1,923,932)
    25-54 years: 29.3% (male 2,822,164/female 2,777,147)
    55-64 years: 4% (male 370,181/female 389,885)
    65 years and over: 2.9% (male 259,637/female 301,658) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 98.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 93.9%
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.8%
    potential support ratio: 21% (2014 est.)
    total: 17.9 years
    male: 17.7 years
    female: 18.1 years (2014 est.)
    2.78% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    38.97 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    11.67 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    urban population: 43.3% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 4.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    LUANDA (capital) 5.288 million; Huambo 1.204 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    18 (2008/09 est.)
    460 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    total: 79.99 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 83.74 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 76.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    total population: 55.29 years
    male: 54.16 years
    female: 56.47 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    5.43 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    17.7% (2008/09)
    3.8% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    0.8 beds/1,000 population (2005)
    improved:
    urban: 67.6% of population
    rural: 34.3% of population
    total: 54.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 32.4% of population
    rural: 65.7% of population
    total: 45.7% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 86.8% of population
    rural: 20.1% of population
    total: 60.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 13.2% of population
    rural: 79.9% of population
    total: 39.9% of population (2012 est.)
    2.35% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    252,500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    11,500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    8.5% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    15.6% (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    3.5% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 71.1%
    male: 82%
    female: 60.7% (2015 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 9 years (2011)
    total number: 832,895
    percentage: 24% (2001 est.)
  • Government :: ANGOLA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Angola
    conventional short form: Angola
    local long form: Republica de Angola
    local short form: Angola
    former: People's Republic of Angola
    note: name derived by the Portuguese from the title "ngola" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)
    republic; multiparty presidential regime
    name: Luanda
    geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
    11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
    Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
    previous 1975, 1992; latest adopted 5 February 2010 (2013)
    civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections: president indirectly elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 2010 constitution; note - according to the 2010 constitution, ballots are cast for parties rather than candidates, the head of the party with the most votes during an election is appointed president of the country; following the results of the 2012 legislative elections DOS SANTOS became president (eligible for a second term)
    election results: NA; as leader of the MPLA, Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS became president following legislative elections on 31 August 2012; DOS SANTOS was inaugurated on 26 September 2012 to serve the first of a possible two terms under the 2010 constitution
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 31 August 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
    election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 71.8%, UNITA 18.7%, CASA-CE 6.0%, PRS 1.7%, FNLA 1.1%, other 0.7%; seats by party - MPLA 175, UNITA 32, CASA-CE 8, PRS 3, FNLA 2
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges; Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional - legislative review (consists of 11 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body presided over by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms
    subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts
    Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU]
    National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [Lucas NGONDA]
    National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party)
    Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975)
    Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]
    note: 4 other parties qualified to participate in the national election in August 2012
    Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO]
    note: Flec's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; Several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the Flec-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese soccer team in 2010
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Agostinho Tavares da Silva NETO (since 18 November 2014)
    chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
    FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049
    consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Helen Meagher LA LIME (15 May 2014)
    embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
    mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
    telephone: [244] 946440977
    FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty, black the African continent, the symbols characterize workers and peasants
    Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); red, black, yellow
    name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)
    lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO
    note: adopted 1975
  • Economy :: ANGOLA

  • Angola’s economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country’s exports. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit lines from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them. The global recession that started in 2008 stalled economic growth. In particular, lower prices for oil and diamonds during the global recession slowed GDP growth to 2.4% in 2009, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell in 2008 and 2009. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009, and in November 2009 signed onto an IMF Stand-By Arrangement loan of $1.4 billion to rebuild international reserves. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014. Falling oil prices and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects for 2015. Angola’s has responded by reducing government subsidies and other expenditures and by proposing import quotas and a more restrictive licensing regime. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge.
    $175.5 billion (2014 est.)
    $168.9 billion (2013 est.)
    $158.1 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 65
    $131.4 billion (2014 est.)
    3.9% (2014 est.)
    6.8% (2013 est.)
    5.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    $8,200 (2014 est.)
    $8,100 (2013 est.)
    $7,800 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 140
    18.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    20.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    26.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    household consumption: 49.7%
    government consumption: 20.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 11.9%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 59.5%
    imports of goods and services: -41.7%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 10.2%
    industry: 61.4%
    services: 28.4% (2011 est.)
    bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc, tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
    petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
    3.8% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    9.298 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    agriculture: 85%
    industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
    NA%
    40.5% (2006 est.)
    lowest 10%: 0.6%
    highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
    revenues: $51.51 billion
    expenditures: $57.7 billion (2014 est.)
    39.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    -4.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    13.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    15% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    calendar year
    7.5% (2014 est.)
    8.8% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    9% (31 December 2014)
    25% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    15.2% (31 December 2014 est.)
    15.8% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    $29.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $26.52 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    $51.71 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $45.06 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $24.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $23.33 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    $4.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $8.348 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    $69.46 billion (2014 est.)
    $67.14 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
    China 44.7%, US 12.3%, India 9.5%, South Africa 5.1%, Portugal 4.9%, Spain 4% (2013)
    $28.05 billion (2014 est.)
    $26.09 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
    Portugal 19.5%, China 19.1%, US 7%, South Africa 6.9%, Brazil 6.1%, South Korea 6% (2013)
    $33.59 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $32.78 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    $22.93 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $22.41 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    $8.561 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.137 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    $16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $12.87 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
    98.15 (2014 est.)
    96.5 (2013 est.)
    95.47 (2012 est.)
    93.74 (2011 est.)
    91.91 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: ANGOLA

  • 5.512 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    4.875 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    1.657 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    39.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    60.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    1.89 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    1.928 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    9.06 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    38,760 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    133,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    17,750 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    55,740 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    760 million cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    760 million cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    275 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    31.61 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: ANGOLA

  • 303,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    9.8 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    general assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed-lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to 5; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001
    domestic: about two fixed-lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 50 telephones per 100 persons in 2011
    international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2009)
    state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half dozen private radio stations broadcast locally (2008)
    AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2001)
    6 (2000)
    .ao
    20,703 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    606,700 (2009)
  • Transportation :: ANGOLA

  • 176 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    total: 31
    over 3,047 m: 7
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 145
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
    914 to 1,523 m: 66
    under 914 m:
    43 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 352 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1,065 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2013)
    total: 2,764 km
    narrow gauge: 2,641 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    total: 51,429 km
    paved: 5,349 km
    unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    1,300 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    total: 7
    by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
    foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)
    registered in other countries: 17 (Bahamas 6, Curacao 2, Cyprus 1, Liberia 1, Malta 7) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo
  • Military :: ANGOLA

  • Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army) (2012)
    20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2013)
    males age 16-49: 3,062,438
    females age 16-49: 2,964,262 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,546,781
    females age 16-49: 1,492,308 (2010 est.)
    male: 155,476
    female: 152,054 (2010 est.)
    3.63% of GDP (2012)
    3.5% of GDP (2011)
    3.63% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 13
  • Transnational Issues :: ANGOLA

  • Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments
    refugees (country of origin): 12,944 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (2014)
    current situation: Angola is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor in agriculture, fishing, construction, domestic service, and diamond mining; some Angolan girls are forced into domestic prostitution, while some Angolan boys are taken to Namibia as forced laborers; women and children are also forced into domestic service in South Africa, Namibia, and European countries; Vietnamese, Brazilian, and Chinese women are trafficked to Angola for prostitution, while Chinese, Southeast Asian, Namibian, and possibly Congolese migrants are subjected to forced labor in Angola’s construction industry
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Angola does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has written but not implemented a plan to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for eliminating trafficking and amended the penal code to include prohibitions against human trafficking; authorities investigated two suspected trafficking cases in 2013, leading to one arrest, but have not vigorously prosecuted trafficking offenses and have never convicted a perpetrator; no actions were taken against officials allegedly complicit in human trafficking; the government failed to systematically investigate forced labor in the construction sector, despite years of reported abuses; victim identification efforts remained inadequate, and protective services were not provided (2014)
    used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa
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