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Middle East :: Bahrain
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Bahrain
  • Introduction :: BAHRAIN

  • In 1783, the Sunni Al-Khalifa family took power in Bahrain. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has become an international banking center. Bahrain's small size and central location among Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. The Sunni-led government has struggled to manage relations with its large Shia-majority population. In early 2011, amid Arab uprisings elsewhere in the region, the Bahraini Government confronted similar protests at home with police and military action, including deploying Gulf Cooperation Council security forces to Bahrain. Ongoing dissatisfaction with the political status quo has led to sporadic clashes between demonstrators and security forces.
  • Geography :: BAHRAIN

  • Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
    26 00 N, 50 33 E
    Middle East
    total: 760 sq km
    land: 760 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 188
    3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    0 km
    161 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
    mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
    lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
    highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m
    oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
    agricultural land: 11.3%
    arable land 2.1%; permanent crops 3.9%; permanent pasture 5.3%
    forest: 0.7%
    other: 88% (2011 est.)
    40.15 sq km (2003)
    0.12 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.36 cu km/yr (50%/6%/45%)
    per capita: 386 cu m/yr (2003)
    periodic droughts; dust storms
    desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources (groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs)
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
  • People and Society :: BAHRAIN

  • noun: Bahraini(s)
    adjective: Bahraini
    Bahraini 46%, Asian 45.5%, other Arabs 4.7%, African 1.6%, European 1%, other 1.2% (includes Gulf Co-operative country nationals, North and South Americans, and Oceanians) (2010 est.)
    Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu
    Muslim 70.3%, Christian 14.5%, Hindu 9.8%, Buddhist 2.5%, Jewish 0.6%, folk religion <.1, unaffiliated 1.9%, other 0.2% (2010 est.)
    1,314,089
    note: immigrants make up almost 55% of the total population, according to UN data (2013) (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    0-14 years: 19.7% (male 131,698/female 127,663)
    15-24 years: 15.9% (male 117,156/female 91,477)
    25-54 years: 56.2% (male 483,449/female 254,627)
    55-64 years: 5.5% (male 47,172/female 25,354)
    65 years and over: 2.7% (male 17,106/female 18,387) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 30.9%
    youth dependency ratio: 27.9%
    elderly dependency ratio: 3%
    potential support ratio: 33.3% (2014 est.)
    total: 31.6 years
    male: 33 years
    female: 28.8 years (2014 est.)
    2.49% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    13.92 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    2.67 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    13.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    urban population: 88.7% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 1.71% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    MANAMA (capital) 398,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.28 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.9 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.54 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.54 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    22 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    total: 9.68 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 10.69 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 8.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    total population: 78.58 years
    male: 76.4 years
    female: 80.81 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    1.81 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    4.9% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    0.92 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 99.2% of population
    rural: 99.2% of population
    total: 99.2% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.8% of population
    rural: 0.8% of population
    total 0.8% of population (2012 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    34.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    2.7% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 95.7%
    male: 96.9%
    female: 93.5% (2015 est.)
    total number: 5,530
    percentage: 5% (2000 est.)
    total: 5%
    male: 2.5%
    female: 11.6% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
  • Government :: BAHRAIN

  • conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
    conventional short form: Bahrain
    local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
    local short form: Al Bahrayn
    former: Dilmun, State of Bahrain
    note: the name means "The Two Seas" in Arabic and refers to the water bodies surrounding the archipelago
    constitutional monarchy
    name: Manama
    geographic coordinates: 26 14 N, 50 34 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    4 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Asimah (Capital), Janubiyah (Southern), Muharraq, Shamaliyah (Northern)
    note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor
    15 August 1971 (from the UK)
    National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection
    adopted 14 February 2002; amended 2012 (2012)
    mixed legal system of Islamic law, English common law, Egyptian civil, criminal, and commercial codes; customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    20 years of age; universal; note - Bahraini Cabinet in May 2011 endorsed a draft law lowering eligibility to 18 years
    chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)
    head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 1971); First Deputy Prime Minister SALMAN bin Hamad Al Khalifa (since 11 March 2013); Deputy Prime Ministers ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa, Jawad bin Salim al-ARAIDH, KHALID bin Abdallah Al Khalifa, MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
    elections: the monarchy is hereditary primogeniture; prime minister appointed by the monarch
    description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Consultative Council or Majlis al Shura (40 seats; members appointed by the king) and the Council of Representatives or Majlis al Nuwab (40 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 4-year renewable terms)
    elections: Council of Representatives - last held in two rounds on 23 and 29 November 2014 (next in November 2018)
    election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by society - NA; seats by society - Al-Asalah (Sunni Salafi) 2, Islmaic Minbar (Sunni Muslim Brotherhood) 1, independent 36, other 1; note - Bahrain has societies rather than parties
    highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chairman and 3 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the president and 6 members); High Sharia Court of Appeal
    note: the judiciary of Bahrain is divided into civil law courts and sharia law courts
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by royal decree and serve for a specified tenure; Constitutional Court president and members appointed by the Higher Judicial Council, a body chaired by the monarch and includes judges from the Court of Cassation, sharia law courts, and Civil High Courts of Appeal; members serve 9-year terms; High Sharia Court of Appeal member appointment and tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Civil High Courts of Appeal; middle and lower civil courts; High Sharia Court of Appeal; Senior Sharia Court
    note: political parties are prohibited but political societies were legalized per a July 2005 law
    Al Watan
    Arab Islamic Center Society [Abdulrahman AL-BAKER]
    Constitutional Gathering Society [Abdulrahman AL-BAKER]
    Islamic Asalah [Abd al-Halim MURAD]
    Islamic Saff Society [Abdullah Khalil BU GHAMAR]
    Islamic Shura Society
    Movement of National Justice Society [Muhi al-Din KHAN]
    National Action Charter Society [Muhammad AL-BUAYNAYN]
    National Democratic Action Society [Radhi AL-MOUSAWI]
    National Democratic Assembly [Hasan AL-ALI]
    National Dialogue Society
    National Fraternity Society [Musa AL-ANSARI]
    National Islamic Minbar [Ali AHMAD]
    National Progressive Tribune [Abd al-Nabi SALMAN]
    National Unity Gathering
    Unitary National Democratic Assemblage [Fadhil ABBAS]
    Wifaq National Islamic Society [Ali SALMAN]
    none
    ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador ABDALLAH bin Muhammad bin Rashid Al Khalifa (since 3 December 2013)
    chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador William ROEBUCK (since 13 January 2015)
    embassy: Building
    mailing address: PSC 451, Box 660, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama
    telephone: [973] 1724-2700
    FAX: [973] 1727-0547
    red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam
    note: until 2002 the flag had eight white points, but this was reduced to five to avoid confusion with the Qatari flag
    a red field surmounted by a white serrated band with five white points; national colors: red, white
    name: "Bahrainona" (Our Bahrain)
    lyrics/music: unknown
    note: adopted 1971; although Mohamed Sudqi AYYASH wrote the original lyrics, they were changed in 2002 following the transformation of Bahrain from an emirate to a kingdom
  • Economy :: BAHRAIN

  • Bahrain has made great efforts to diversify its economy; its highly developed communication and transport facilities make Bahrain home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. As part of its diversification plans, Bahrain implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in August 2006, the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state. Bahrain's economy, however, continues to depend heavily on oil. In 2013, petroleum production and refining accounted for 73% of Bahrain's export receipts, 88% of government revenues, and 21% of GDP. Other major economic activities are production of aluminum - Bahrain's second biggest export after oil - finance, and construction. Bahrain continues to seek new natural gas supplies as feedstock to support its expanding petrochemical and aluminum industries. In 2011 Bahrain experienced economic setbacks as a result of domestic unrest, however, the economy recovered in 2012-14, partly as a result of improved tourism. Lower oil prices in 2015 will likely exacerbate Bahrain’s budget deficit.
    $61.56 billion (2014 est.)
    $59.26 billion (2013 est.)
    $56.26 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 102
    $34.05 billion (2014 est.)
    3.9% (2014 est.)
    5.3% (2013 est.)
    3.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $51,400 (2014 est.)
    $50,500 (2013 est.)
    $48,900 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 21
    25.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    24.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    27.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    household consumption: 41.8%
    government consumption: 16.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 21.7%
    investment in inventories: 0.8%
    exports of goods and services: 76.6%
    imports of goods and services: -57.3%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 0.3%
    industry: 47.1%
    services: 52.6% (2014 est.)
    fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
    petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism
    4.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    705,000
    note: excludes unemployed; 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    agriculture: 1%
    industry: 32%
    services: 67% (2004 est.)
    3.8% (2014 est.)
    note: (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    NA%
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $7.808 billion
    expenditures: $8.896 billion (2013 est.)
    22.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    -3.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    43.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    41.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    calendar year
    2.5% (2014 est.)
    3.3% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    6.8% (31 December 2014 est.)
    5.93% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    $7.996 billion (30 September 2014 est.)
    $7.416 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    $25.91 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $24.36 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    $28.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $25.77 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    $22.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $18.57 billion (31 December 2013)
    $15.65 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    $2.546 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.56 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    $22 billion (2014 est.)
    $20.93 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
    Saudi Arabia 3.2%, UAE 2.1%, Qatar 1.8% (2013)
    $14.28 billion (2014 est.)
    $13.66 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    crude oil, machinery, chemicals
    Saudi Arabia 28%, China 10.1%, US 8.3%, Japan 6.2%, India 5.5%, Australia 5.2% (2013)
    $6.011 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.354 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    $18.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $17.56 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    $18.89 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $17.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    $11.81 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $10.75 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar -
    0.38 (2014 est.)
    0.38 (2013 est.)
    0.38 (2012 est.)
    0.38 (2011 est.)
    0.38 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: BAHRAIN

  • 13 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    12.12 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    190 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    35 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    3.169 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    100% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    58,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    152,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    256,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    124.6 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    270,800 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    49,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    226,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    13.63 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    13.63 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    92.03 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    32.2 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: BAHRAIN

  • 290,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    2.125 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    general assessment: modern system
    domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones
    international: country code - 973; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth station - 1 (2007)
    state-run Bahrain Radio and Television Corporation (BRTC) operates 5 terrestrial TV networks and several radio stations; satellite TV systems provide access to international broadcasts; 1 private FM station directs broadcasts to Indian listeners; radio and TV broadcasts from countries in the region are available (2007)
    AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
    4 (1997)
    .bh
    47,727 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    419,500 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 119
  • Transportation :: BAHRAIN

  • 4 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    total: 4
    over 3,047 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 20 km; oil 54 km (2013)
    total: 4,122 km
    paved: 3,392 km
    unpaved: 730 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    total: 8
    by type: bulk carrier 2, container 4, petroleum tanker 2
    foreign-owned: 5 (Kuwait 5)
    registered in other countries: 5 (Honduras 5) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    major seaport(s): Mina' Salman, Sitrah
  • Military :: BAHRAIN

  • Bahrain Defense Force (BDF): Royal Bahraini Army (RBA), Royal Bahraini Navy (RBN), Royal Bahraini Air Force (RBAF), Royal Bahraini Air Defense Force (RBADF) (2013)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for NCOs, technicians, and cadets; no conscription (2012)
    males age 16-49: 508,863
    females age 16-49: 290,801 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 423,757
    females age 16-49: 245,302 (2010 est.)
    male: 8,988
    female: 8,117 (2010 est.)
    4.2% of GDP (2014)
    4.1% of GDP (2013)
    3.9% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 19
  • Transnational Issues :: BAHRAIN

  • none
    current situation: Bahrain is a destination country for men and women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; unskilled and domestic workers from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Eritrea, Uzbekistan, and other countries migrate willingly to Bahrain, but some face conditions of forced labor through the withholding of passports, restrictions on movement, nonpayment, threats, and abuse; many Bahraini labor recruitment agencies and some employers charge foreign workers exorbitant fees that make them vulnerable to forced labor and debt bondage; domestic workers are particularly at risk of experiencing forced labor and sexual exploitation because they are not protected under labor laws; women from Thailand, the Philippines, China, Vietnam, Morocco, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Russia, Ukraine, and other Eastern European countries are forced into prostitution in Bahrain
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Bahrain does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute a significant effort toward meeting the minimum standards for eliminating human trafficking; an increased number of trafficking offenders were investigated, prosecuted, and convicted in 2013; the government did not prosecute or convict any forced labor perpetrators and often treated these cases as labor violations rather than serious crimes; some progress was made in identifying victims and referring them to protection services, but trafficking victims continued to be punished for crimes committed as a direct result of being trafficked (2014)
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