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Africa :: Botswana Print
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BOTSWANA
  • Introduction :: Botswana
  • Background field listing
    Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name at independence in 1966. More than five decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. The ruling Botswana Democratic Party has won every election since independence; President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI assumed the presidency in April 2018 following the retirement of former President Ian KHAMA due to constitutional term limits. MASISI is Botswana’s fifth president since independence. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.
  • Geography :: Botswana
  • Location field listing
    Southern Africa, north of South Africa
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    22 00 S, 24 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Africa
    Area field listing
    total: 581,730 sq km
    land: 566,730 sq km
    water: 15,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly smaller than Texas
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 4,347.15 km
    border countries (4): Namibia 1544 km, South Africa 1969 km, Zambia 0.15 km, Zimbabwe 834 km
    Coastline field listing
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims field listing
    none (landlocked)
    Climate field listing
    semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
    Terrain field listing
    predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 1,013 m
    elevation extremes: 513 m lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers
    1489 highest point: Tsodilo Hills
    Natural resources field listing
    diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 45.8% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 0.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 45.2% (2011 est.)
    forest: 19.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 34.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    20 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    the population is primarily concentrated in the east with a focus in and around the captial of Gaborone, and the far central-eastern city of Francistown; population density remains low in other areas in the country, especially in the Kalahari to the west
    Natural hazards field listing
    periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
    Environment - current issues field listing
    overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources; air pollution
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
  • People and Society :: Botswana
  • Population field listing
    2,249,104 (July 2018 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 144
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
    adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
    Languages field listing
    Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)
    Religions field listing
    Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, other 1.4% (includes Baha'i, Hindu, Muslim, Rastafarian), none 15.2%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)
    Demographic profile field listing

    Botswana has experienced one of the most rapid declines in fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. The total fertility rate has fallen from more than 5 children per woman in the mid 1980s to approximately 2.4 in 2013. The fertility reduction has been attributed to a host of factors, including higher educational attainment among women, greater participation of women in the workforce, increased contraceptive use, later first births, and a strong national family planning program. Botswana was making significant progress in several health indicators, including life expectancy and infant and child mortality rates, until being devastated by the HIV/AIDs epidemic in the 1990s.

    Today Botswana has the third highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in the world at approximately 22%, however comprehensive and effective treatment programs have reduced HIV/AIDS-related deaths. The combination of declining fertility and increasing mortality rates because of HIV/AIDS is slowing the population aging process, with a narrowing of the youngest age groups and little expansion of the oldest age groups. Nevertheless, having the bulk of its population (about 60%) of working age will only yield economic benefits if the labor force is healthy, educated, and productively employed.

    Batswana have been working as contract miners in South Africa since the 19th century. Although Botswana’s economy improved shortly after independence in 1966 with the discovery of diamonds and other minerals, its lingering high poverty rate and lack of job opportunities continued to push workers to seek mining work in southern African countries. In the early 1970s, about a third of Botswana’s male labor force worked in South Africa (lesser numbers went to Namibia and Zimbabwe). Not until the 1980s and 1990s, when South African mining companies had reduced their recruitment of foreign workers and Botswana’s economic prospects had improved, were Batswana increasingly able to find job opportunities at home.

    Most Batswana prefer life in their home country and choose cross-border migration on a temporary basis only for work, shopping, visiting family, or tourism. Since the 1970s, Botswana has pursued an open migration policy enabling it to recruit thousands of foreign workers to fill skilled labor shortages. In the late 1990s, Botswana’s prosperity and political stability attracted not only skilled workers but small numbers of refugees from neighboring Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe.

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 31.48% (male 357,175 /female 350,775)
    15-24 years: 18.7% (male 207,611 /female 212,874)
    25-54 years: 38.88% (male 412,475 /female 462,013)
    55-64 years: 5.61% (male 53,653 /female 72,617)
    65 years and over: 5.33% (male 51,304 /female 68,607) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 55.1 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 49.3 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.8 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 17.3 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 24.9 years
    male: 23.8 years
    female: 26 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Population growth rate field listing
    1.52% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Birth rate field listing
    21.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Death rate field listing
    9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Net migration rate field listing
    3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Population distribution field listing
    the population is primarily concentrated in the east with a focus in and around the captial of Gaborone, and the far central-eastern city of Francistown; population density remains low in other areas in the country, especially in the Kalahari to the west
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 69.4% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 2.87% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    269,000 GABORONE (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.15 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 28.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 31.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 63.8 years (2018 est.)
    male: 61.8 years (2018 est.)
    female: 66 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Total fertility rate field listing
    2.53 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Health expenditures field listing
    5.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Physicians density field listing
    0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 92.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 96.2% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 7.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 78.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 43.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 63.4% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 56.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 36.6% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    22.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    380,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    4,100 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    18.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Education expenditures field listing
    9.6% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 88.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 88% (2015 est.)
    female: 88.9% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 13 years (2013)
    male: 13 years (2013)
    female: 13 years (2013)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 36% (2010 est.)
    male: 29.6% (2010 est.)
    female: 43.5% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
  • Government :: Botswana
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
    conventional short form: Botswana
    local long form: Republic of Botswana
    local short form: Botswana
    former: Bechuanaland
    etymology: the name Botswana means "Land of the Tswana" - referring to the country's major ethnic group
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Gaborone
    geographic coordinates: 24 38 S, 25 54 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions field listing
    10 districts and 6 town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Phikwe*, South East, Southern, Sowa Town*
    Independence field listing
    30 September 1966 (from the UK)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1960 (preindependence); latest adopted March 1965, effective 30 September 1966 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires approval in two successive Assembly votes with at least two-thirds majority in the final vote; proposals to amend constitutional provisions on fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure and branches of government, and public services also requires approval by majority vote in a referendum and assent by the president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2006 (2017)
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Botswana
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); vice president appointed by the president
    election results: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008) stepped down on 1 April 2018 having completed the constitutionally mandated 10-year term limit; upon his retirement, then Vice President MASISI became president
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (63 seats; 57 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 4 nominated by the president and indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the rest of the National Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members - the president and attorney general; elected members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Chiefs (Ntlo ya Dikgosi), an advisory body to the National Assembly, consists of 35 members - 8 hereditary chiefs from Botswana's principal tribes, 22 indirectly elected by the chiefs, and 5 appointed by the president; the House of Chiefs consults on issues including powers of chiefs, customary courts, customary law, tribal property, and constitutional amendments
    elections: last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 46.5%, UDC 30.0%, BCP 20.4%, independent 3.1%; seats by party - BDP 37, UDC 17, BCP 3
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Court of Appeal, High Court (each consists of a chief justice and a number of other judges as prescribed by the Parliament)
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and in 3 districts); Magistrates Courts (1 in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief's Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief's Representative Court; Chief's Representative’s Court; Headman's Court
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
    Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO]
    Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Ian KHAMA]
    Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Sidney PILANE]
    Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO]
    Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Motlatsi MOLAPISI]
    Real Alternative Party or RAP [Gaontebale MOKGOSI]
    Umbrella for Democratic Change or UDC [Duma BOKO] (coalition includes BMD, BPP, BCP and BNF)
    International organization participation field listing
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador David John NEWMAN (since 3 August 2015)
    chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
    FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Earl R. MILLER (since 30 January 2015)
    embassy: Embassy Drive, Government Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaborone
    mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
    telephone: [267] 395-3982
    FAX: [267] 318-0232
    Flag description field listing
    light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center; the blue symbolizes water in the form of rain, while the black and white bands represent racial harmony
    National symbol(s) field listing
    zebra; national colors: blue, white, black
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Fatshe leno la rona" (Our Land)
    lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETE

    note: adopted 1966

  • Economy :: Botswana
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Until the beginning of the global recession in 2008, Botswana maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since its independence in 1966. Botswana recovered from the global recession in 2010, but only grew modestly until 2017, primarily due to a downturn in the global diamond market, though water and power shortages also played a role. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world five decades ago into a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of approximately $18,100 in 2017. Botswana also ranks as one of the least corrupt and best places to do business in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Because of its heavy reliance on diamond exports, Botswana’s economy closely follows global price trends for that one commodity. Diamond mining fueled much of Botswana’s past economic expansion and currently accounts for one-quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. In 2017, Diamond exports increased to the highest levels since 2013 at about 22 million carats of output, driving Botswana’s economic growth to about 4.5% and increasing foreign exchange reserves to about 45% of GDP. De Beers, a major international diamond company, signed a 10-year deal with Botswana in 2012 and moved its rough stone sorting and trading division from London to Gaborone in 2013. The move was geared to support the development of Botswana's nascent downstream diamond industry.

    Tourism is a secondary earner of foreign exchange and many Batswana engage in tourism-related services, subsistence farming, and cattle rearing. According to official government statistics, unemployment is around 20%, but unofficial estimates run much higher. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens the country's impressive economic gains.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $39.01 billion (2017 est.)
    $38.11 billion (2016 est.)
    $36.54 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 121
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $17.38 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    2.4% (2017 est.)
    4.3% (2016 est.)
    -1.7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $17,000 (2017 est.)
    $16,900 (2016 est.)
    $16,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 101
    Gross national saving field listing
    40.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    38.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    41.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 48.5% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 29% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: -1.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 39.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -33.9% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 27.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 70.6% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
    Industries field listing
    diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; beef processing; textiles
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    -4.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Labor force field listing
    1.177 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: NA
    industry: NA
    services: NA
    Unemployment rate field listing
    20% (2013 est.)
    17.8% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Population below poverty line field listing
    19.3% (2009 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    60.5 (2009)
    63 (1993)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 5.305 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 5.478 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    30.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Public debt field listing
    14% of GDP (2017 est.)
    15.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Fiscal year field listing
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    3.3% (2017 est.)
    2.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    5.5% (31 December 2016)
    6% (31 December 2015)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    6.88% (31 December 2017 est.)
    7.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $1.645 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.494 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $1.645 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.494 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $3.002 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.579 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $4.588 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $4.107 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $4.076 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Current account balance field listing
    $2.146 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.147 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Exports field listing
    $5.934 billion (2017 est.)
    $7.226 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Exports - commodities field listing
    diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, beef, textiles
    Exports - partners field listing
    Belgium 20.3%, India 12.6%, UAE 12.4%, South Africa 11.9%, Singapore 8.7%, Israel 7%, Hong Kong 4.1%, Namibia 4.1% (2017)
    Imports field listing
    $5.005 billion (2017 est.)
    $5.906 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Imports - commodities field listing
    foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $7.491 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.189 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Imports - partners field listing
    South Africa 66.1%, Canada 8.3%, Israel 5.3% (2017)
    Debt - external field listing
    $2.187 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.421 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $5.319 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.699 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $1.973 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.312 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Exchange rates field listing
    pulas (BWP) per US dollar -
    10.19 (2017 est.)
    10.9022 (2016 est.)
    10.9022 (2015 est.)
    10.1263 (2014 est.)
    8.9761 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Botswana
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 700,000 (2013)
    electrification - total population: 66% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 75% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 54% (2013)
    Electricity - production field listing
    2.789 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    3.722 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Electricity - imports field listing
    1.468 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    134,000 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    98.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    1.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    21,290 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    4.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
  • Communications :: Botswana
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 141,207 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 3,240,589 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 146 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment:

    effective regulatory reform has turned the Botswana’s telecom market into one of the most liberalised in the region; Botswana has one of the highest mobile penetration rates in Africa; 3 MNOs have entered the underdeveloped broadband sector by adopting of 3G, LTE and WiMAX technologies; mobile internet remains the preferred choice

    (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 6 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity now pushing 150 telephones per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
    Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stations; the Botswana Telecommunications Corporation is rolling out 4G service to over 95 sites in the country that will improve network connectivity
    Broadcast media field listing
    2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; privately owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast locally (2007)
    Internet country code field listing
    .bw
    Internet users field listing
    total: 869,610 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 39.4% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 48,901 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
  • Transportation :: Botswana
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 194,005 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 94,729 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    A2 (2016)
    Airports field listing
    74 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 10 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 64 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 46 (2013)
    under 914 m: 13 (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 888 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Roadways field listing
    total: 17,916 km (2011)

    note: includes 8,916 km of Public Highway Network roads (6,116 km paved and 2,800 km unpaved) and 9,000 km of District Council roads

    country comparison to the world: 118
  • Military and Security :: Botswana
  • Military expenditures field listing
    3.37% of GDP (2016)
    2.66% of GDP (2015)
    2.13% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Military branches field listing
    Botswana Defence Force (BDF): Ground Forces Command, Air Arm Command, Defense Logistics Command (2017)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Botswana
  • Disputes - international field listing
    none
    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: Botswana is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; young Batswana serving as domestic workers, sometimes sent by their parents, may be denied education and basic necessities or experience confinement and abuse indicative of forced labor; Batswana girls and women also are forced into prostitution domestically; adults and children of San ethnicity were reported to be in forced labor on farms and at cattle posts in the country’s rural west
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Botswana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; an anti-trafficking act was passed at the beginning of 2014, but authorities did not investigate, prosecute, or convict any offenders or government officials complicit in trafficking or operationalize victim identification and referral procedures based on the new law; the government sponsored a radio campaign to familiarize the public with the issue of human trafficking (2015)