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North America :: Bermuda Print
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BERMUDA
  • Introduction :: Bermuda
  • Background field listing
    Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists heading for Virginia. Self-governing since 1620, Bermuda is the oldest and most populous of the British overseas territories. Vacationing to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has also developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995.
  • Geography :: Bermuda
  • Location field listing
    North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    32 20 N, 64 45 W
    Map references field listing
    North America
    Area field listing
    total: 54 sq km
    land: 54 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 232
    Area - comparative field listing
    about one-third the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries field listing
    0 km
    Coastline field listing
    103 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
    Climate field listing
    subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
    Terrain field listing
    low hills separated by fertile depressions
    Elevation field listing
    0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    79 highest point: Town Hill
    Natural resources field listing
    limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 14.8% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 14.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.)
    forest: 20% (2011 est.)
    other: 65.2% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    NA
    Population distribution field listing
    relatively even population distribution throughout
    Natural hazards field listing
    hurricanes (June to November)
    Environment - current issues field listing
    dense population and heavy vehicle traffic create serious congestion and air pollution problems; water resources scarce (most obtained as rainwater or from wells); solid waste disposal; hazardous waste disposal; sewage disposal; overfishing; oil spills
    Geography - note field listing
    consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by the US Government from 1941 to 1995
  • People and Society :: Bermuda
  • Population field listing
    71,176 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Bermudian(s)
    adjective: Bermudian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    black 53.8%, white 31%, mixed 7.5%, other 7.1%, unspecified 0.6% (2010 est.)
    Languages field listing
    English (official), Portuguese
    Religions field listing
    Protestant 46.2% (includes Anglican 15.8%, African Methodist Episcopal 8.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 6.7, Pentecostal 3.5%, Methodist 2.7%, Presbyterian 2.0%, Church of God 1.6%, Baptist 1.2%, Salvation Army 1.1%, Brethren 1.0%, other Protestant 2.0%), Roman Catholic 14.5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, other Christian 9.1%, Muslim 1%, other 3.9%, none 17.8%, unspecified 6.2% (2010 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 16.92% (male 6,088 /female 5,957)
    15-24 years: 11.95% (male 4,306 /female 4,197)
    25-54 years: 36.56% (male 13,049 /female 12,972)
    55-64 years: 16.04% (male 5,383 /female 6,034)
    65 years and over: 18.53% (male 5,596 /female 7,594) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Median age field listing
    total: 43.5 years
    male: 41.5 years
    female: 45.4 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.43% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Birth rate field listing
    11.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Death rate field listing
    8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Net migration rate field listing
    1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Population distribution field listing
    relatively even population distribution throughout
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 100% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: -0.44% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    10,000 HAMILTON (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 81.5 years (2018 est.)
    male: 78.3 years (2018 est.)
    female: 84.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.92 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    NA
    Education expenditures field listing
    1.5% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 12 years (2015)
    male: 11 years (2015)
    female: 12 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 29.3% (2014 est.)
    male: 29.7% (2014 est.)
    female: 29% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
  • Government :: Bermuda
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Bermuda
    former: Somers Islands
    etymology: the islands making up Bermuda are named after Juan de BERMUDEZ, an early 16th century Spanish sea captain and the first European explorer of the archipelago
    Dependency status field listing
    overseas territory of the UK
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary democracy (Parliament); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
    Capital field listing
    name: Hamilton
    geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 47 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
    Administrative divisions field listing
    9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick
    Independence field listing
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    National holiday field listing
    Bermuda Day, 24 May; note - formerly known as Victoria Day, Empire Day, and Commonwealth Day
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous (dating to 1684); latest entered into force 8 June 1968 (Bermuda Constitution Order 1968) (2018)
    amendments: proposal procedure - NA; passage by an Order in Council in the UK; amended several times, last in 2012 (2018)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the UK
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor John RANKIN (since 5 December 2016)
    head of government: Premier David BURT (since 19 July 2017)
    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
    Senate (11 seats; 3 members appointed by the governor, 5 by the premier, and 3 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (36 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve up to 5-year terms)
    House of Assembly (36 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve up to 5-year terms)
    elections:
    House of Assembly - last held on 18 July 2017 (next to be held not later than 2022)
    election results:
    percent of vote by party - PLP 58.9%, OBA 40.6%, other 0.5%; seats by party - PLP 24, OBA 12
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and at least 2 justices); Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 4 puisne judges, and 1 associate justice); note - the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London is the court of final appeal
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal justice appointed by the governor; justice tenure by individual appointment; Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission and appointed by the governor; judge tenure based on terms of appointment
    subordinate courts: commercial court (began in 2006); magistrates' courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    One Bermuda Alliance or OBA (vacant)
    Progressive Labor Party or PLP [E. David BURT]
    International organization participation field listing
    Caricom (associate), ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC (NGOs), UPU, WCO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Consul General Mary Ellen KOENIG (since 28 November 2015)
    mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, US Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300
    telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
    FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, 296-9233
    consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3
    Flag description field listing
    red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (a white shield with a red lion standing on a green grassy field holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag; it was the shipwreck of the vessel, filled with English colonists originally bound for Virginia, that led to the settling of Bermuda

    note: the flag is unusual in that it is only British overseas territory that uses a red ensign, all others use blue

    National symbol(s) field listing
    red lion
    National anthem field listing
    name: Hail to Bermuda
    lyrics/music: Bette JOHNS

    note: serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)

  • Economy :: Bermuda
  • Economy - overview field listing

    International business, which consists primarily of insurance and other financial services, is the real bedrock of Bermuda's economy, consistently accounting for about 85% of the island's GDP. Tourism is the country’s second largest industry, accounting for about 5% of Bermuda's GDP but a much larger share of employment. Over 80% of visitors come from the US and the sector struggled in the wake of the global recession of 2008-09. Even the financial sector has lost roughly 5,000 high-paying expatriate jobs since 2008, weighing heavily on household consumption and retail sales. Bermuda must import almost everything. Agriculture and industry are limited due to the small size of the island.

    Bermuda's economy returned to negative growth in 2016, reporting a contraction of 0.1% GDP, after growing by 0.6% in 2015. Unemployment reached 7% in 2016 and 2017, public debt is growing and exceeds $2.4 billion, and the government continues to work on attracting foreign investment. Still, Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $6.127 billion (2016 est.)
    $6.133 billion (2015 est.)
    $6.097 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $6.127 billion (2016 est.) (2016 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    -0.1% (2016 est.)
    0.6% (2015 est.)
    -0.3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $99,400 (2016 est.)
    $95,500 (2015 est.)
    $87,500 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 51.3% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 15.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 13.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 49.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -30.4% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 0.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 5.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 93.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey
    Industries field listing
    international business, tourism, light manufacturing
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Labor force field listing
    33,480 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 85% (2016 est.)
    industry: 13% (2016 est.)
    services: 85% (2016 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    7% (2017 est.)
    7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Population below poverty line field listing
    11% (2008 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 999.2 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 1.176 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    16.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -2.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Public debt field listing
    43% of GDP (FY14/15)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Fiscal year field listing
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.9% (2017 est.)
    1.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $3.374 billion (30 September 2014 est.)
    $3.422 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

    note: figures do not include US dollars, which also circulate freely

    country comparison to the world: 118
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $22.1 billion (30 September 2014 est.)
    $25.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Stock of domestic credit field listing

    NA

    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $1.85 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.601 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.467 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Current account balance field listing
    $818.6 million (2017 est.)
    $763 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Exports field listing
    $19 million (2017 est.)
    $19 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    Exports - commodities field listing
    reexports of pharmaceuticals
    Exports - partners field listing
    Jamaica 49.1%, Luxembourg 36.1%, US 4.9% (2017)
    Imports field listing
    $1.094 billion (2017 est.)
    $951 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Imports - commodities field listing
    clothing, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals
    Imports - partners field listing
    US 72.1%, South Korea 9.7%, Canada 4.2% (2017)
    Debt - external field listing
    $2.515 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.435 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $2.641 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.664 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $889 million (2014 est.)
    $835 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Exchange rates field listing
    Bermudian dollars (BMD) per US dollar -
    1 (2017 est.)
    1 (2016 est.)
    1 (2015 est.)
    1 (2014 est.)
    1 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Bermuda
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    662 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    615.7 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    171,000 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    100% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)

    note: the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility turns waste to electric energy

    country comparison to the world: 170
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    3,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    2,968 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    600,000 Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
  • Communications :: Bermuda
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 21,883 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 64,997 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: a good, fully automatic digital telephone system with fiber-optic trunk lines; telecom sector provides a relatively high contribution to overall GDP; numerous competitors licensed, but small and localized (2017)
    domestic: the system has a high fixed-line teledensity 31 per 100, coupled with a mobile-cellular teledensity of roughly 92 per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 1-441; landing points for the GlobeNet, Gemini Bermuda, CBUS, and the Challenger Bermuda-1 (CB-1) submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 (2015)
    Broadcast media field listing
    3 TV stations; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; roughly 13 radio stations operating (2012)
    Internet country code field listing
    .bm
    Internet users field listing
    total: 69,126 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 98% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
  • Transportation :: Bermuda
  • Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    VP-B (2016)
    Airports field listing
    1 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    Roadways field listing
    total: 447 km (2010)
    paved: 447 km (2010)

    note: 225 km public roads; 222 km private roads

    country comparison to the world: 198
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 160 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 10, container ship 8, general cargo 1, oil tanker 18, other 123 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Hamilton, Ireland Island, Saint George
  • Military and Security :: Bermuda
  • Military branches field listing
    Bermuda Regiment (2012)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-45 years of age for voluntary male or female enlistment in the Bermuda Regiment; males must register at age 18 and may be subject to conscription; term of service is 38 months for volunteers or conscripts (2012)
    Military - note field listing
    defense is the responsibility of the UK
  • Transnational Issues :: Bermuda
  • Disputes - international field listing
    none