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Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Introduction :: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).
    The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multiethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the predominantly Bosniak-Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the predominantly Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently, EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a security assistance and training capacity.
  • Geography :: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

  • Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
    44 00 N, 18 00 E
    Europe
    total: 51,197 sq km
    land: 51,187 sq km
    water: 10 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 129
    slightly smaller than West Virginia
    total: 1,543 km
    border countries (3): Croatia 956 km, Montenegro 242 km, Serbia 345 km
    20 km
    NA
    hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
    mountains and valleys
    mean elevation: 500 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
    coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower
    agricultural land: 42.2%
    arable land 19.7%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 20.5%
    forest: 42.8%
    other: 15% (2011 est.)
    30 sq km (2012)
    37.5 cu km (2011)
    destructive earthquakes
    air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east
  • People and Society :: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

  • noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
    adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
    Bosniak 48.4%, Serb 32.7%, Croat 14.6%, other 4.3%
    note: final 2013 census results are pending; Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam (2013 est.)
    Bosnian (official), Croatian (official), Serbian (official)
    Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%
    3,867,055 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    0-14 years: 13.48% (male 269,086/female 252,189)
    15-24 years: 12.36% (male 246,849/female 231,007)
    25-54 years: 46.48% (male 902,704/female 894,787)
    55-64 years: 14.01% (male 259,579/female 282,371)
    65 years and over: 13.67% (male 206,288/female 322,195) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 40.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 19%
    elderly dependency ratio: 21.7%
    potential support ratio: 4.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 41.2 years
    male: 39.8 years
    female: 42.6 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    -0.13% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    8.87 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    9.75 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    -0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    urban population: 39.8% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    SARAJEVO (capital) 318,000 (2015)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    26.3 (2011 est.)
    11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    total: 5.72 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 5.79 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 5.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    total population: 76.55 years
    male: 73.54 years
    female: 79.77 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    1.27 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    45.8% (2011/12)
    9.6% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    1.93 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    3.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 99.7% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 99.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.3% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 98.9% of population
    rural: 92% of population
    total: 94.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 1.1% of population
    rural: 8% of population
    total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    19.2% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    1.5% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    NA
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.5%
    male: 99.5%
    female: 97.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 14 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 15 years (2014)
    total number: 24,722
    percentage: 5% (2006 est.)
    total: 62.8%
    male: 62.8%
    female: 62.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
  • Government :: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
    local long form: none
    local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
    former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    abbreviation: BiH
    etymology: the larger northern territory is named for the Bosna River; the smaller southern section takes its name from the German word "herzog," meaning "duke," and the ending "-ovina," meaning "land," forming the combination denoting "dukedom"
    parliamentary republic
    name: Sarajevo
    geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally supervised district* - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine) (predominantly Bosniak-Croat), the Republika Srpska (predominately Serb), Brcko District (Brcko Distrikt)*; note - Brcko District is in northeastern Bosnia and is a self-governing administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina and formally held in condominium between the two entities
    1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia); note - referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992
    National Day (Statehood Day), 25 November (1943); Independence Day, 1 March (1992); note - observed only in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Dayton Agreement Day, 21 November (2007); note - observed only in the Republika Srpska
    note: there is no national-level holiday
    14 December 1995 (constitution included as part of the Dayton Peace Accords); amended several times, last in 2009; note - each of the entities has its own constitution (2016)
    civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, provided there is a bilateral agreement with the other state
    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
    18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
    chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (chairman since 17 March 2016, presidency member since 10 November 2010 - Bosniak); Dragan COVIC (presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Croat); Mladen IVANIC (presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Serb)
    head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Denis ZVIZDIC (since 11 February 2015)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman, approved by the state-level House of Representatives
    elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (1 Bosniak and 1 Croat elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 Serb elected from the Republika Srpska) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for 4 years); the presidency chairpersonship rotates every 8 months and resumes where it left off following each general election; election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives
    election results: percent of vote - Mladen IVANIC 48.7% - Serb seat; Dragan COVIC 52.2% - Croat seat; Bakir IZETBEGOVIC 32.9% - Bosniak seat
    note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Marinko CAVARA (since 11 February 2015); Vice Presidents Melika MAHMUTBEGOVIC (since 11 February 2015), Milan DUNOVIC (since 11 February 2015); President of the Republika Srpska Milorad DODIK (since 15 November 2010); Vice Presidents Ramiz SALKIC (since 24 November 2014), Josip JERKOVIC (since 24 November 2014)
    description: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members designated by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve 4-year terms) and the state-level House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats to include 28 seats allocated to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 to the Republika Srpska; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature that consists of the House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other) and the House of Representatives (98 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); Republika Srpska's unicameral legislature is the National Assembly (83 directly elected delegates serve four-year terms)
    elections: House of Peoples - last constituted in 11 February 2015 (next likely to be constituted in 2019); state-level House of Representatives - election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
    election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA; state-level House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - Federation votes: SDA 27.9%, DF 15.3%, SBB BiH 14.4%, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP BiH-HSP HB) 12.2%, SDP 9.5%, HDZ-1990 4.1%, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 3.7%, A-SDA 2.3%, other 10.6%; Republika Srpska votes: SNSD 38.5%, SDS 32.6%, PDP-NDP 7.8%, DNS 5.7%, SDA 4.9%, other 10.5%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 10, SNSD 6, SDS 5, DF 5, SBB BiH 4, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP BiH-HSP HB) 4, SDP 3, PDP-NDP 1, HDZ-1990 1, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 1, DNS 1, A-SDA 1
    highest court(s): BiH Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); Court of BiH (consists of 44 national judges and 7 international judges organized into 3 divisions - Administrative, Appellate, and Criminal, which includes a War Crimes Chamber)
    judge selection and term of office: BiH Constitutional Court judges - 4 selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, 2 selected by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and 3 non-Bosnian judges selected by the president of the European Court of Human Rights; Court of BiH president and national judges appointed by the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council; Court of BiH president appointed for renewable 6-year term; other national judges appointed to serve until age 70; international judges recommended by the president of the Court of BiH and appointed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina; international judges appointed to serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: the Federation has 10 cantonal courts plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has a supreme court, 5 district courts, and a number of municipal courts
    Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB BiH [Fahrudin RADONCIC]
    Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]
    Alternative Party for Democratic Activity or A-SDA [Nermin OGRESEVIC]
    Bosnian-Herzegovinian Patriotic Party-Sefer Halilovic or BPS-Sefer Halilovic [Sefer HALILOVIC]
    Croat Peasants' Party or HSS [Mario KARAMATIC]
    Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivan MUSA]
    Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]
    Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [acting president Ilija CVITANOVIC]
    Croatian Party of Rights or HSP BiH [Stanko PRIMORAC]
    Croatian Party of Rights of Herceg-Bosne or HSP HB [Vesna PINJUH]
    Democratic Front of DF [Zeljko KOMSIC]
    Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]
    Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Bakir IZETBEGOVIC]
    Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Branislav BORENOVIC]
    People's Democratic Movement or NDP [Dragan CAVIC]
    Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC]
    Social Democratic Party or SDP [Nermin NIKSIC]
    other: war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media
    BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Haris HRLE (since 23 October 2015)
    chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
    telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
    FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Maureen CORMACK (since 16 January 2015)
    embassy: 1 Robert C. Frasure Street, 71000 Sarajevo
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [387] (33) 704-000
    FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
    branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
    a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia
    note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Brazil, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
    golden lily; national colors: blue, yellow, white
    name: "Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine" (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
    lyrics/music: none officially; Dusan SESTIC and Benjamin ISOVIC/Dusan SESTIC
    note: music adopted 1999; lyrics accepted 2009 but not yet approved
  • Economy :: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

  • Bosnia has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals, energy, textiles and furniture as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordination and reform, while excessive bureaucracy and a segmented market discourage foreign investment. Foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, now control most of the banking sector. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM) - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the currency and the banking sector has remained stable.
    Interethnic warfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar, but the economy made progress until 2008, when the global economic crisis caused a downturn. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007.
    Bosnia's private sector is growing slowly, but foreign investment has dropped sharply since 2007. Government spending - including transfer payments - remains high, at roughly 40% of GDP, because of redundant government offices at the national, sub-national, and municipal level. High unemployment remains the most serious macroeconomic problem. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a steady source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray-market activity. National-level statistics have also improved over time but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded.
    Bosnia and Herzegovina's top economic priorities are: acceleration of integration into the EU; strengthening the fiscal system; public administration reform; World Trade Organization membership; and securing economic growth by fostering a dynamic, competitive private sector.
    $40.53 billion (2015 est.)
    $39.43 billion (2014 est.)
    $39.01 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 113
    $15.79 billion (2015 est.)
    2.8% (2015 est.)
    1.1% (2014 est.)
    2.4% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $10,500 (2015 est.)
    $10,200 (2014 est.)
    $10,100 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 136
    10.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    10% of GDP (2014 est.)
    11.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    household consumption: 81.2%
    government consumption: 21.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 18.3%
    investment in inventories: 1.3%
    exports of goods and services: 32.8%
    imports of goods and services: -55.1% (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 7.9%
    industry: 26.5%
    services: 65.6% (2015 est.)
    wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
    steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining
    2.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    1.47 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    agriculture: 19%
    industry: 30%
    services: 51% (2013)
    43.9% (2014 est.)
    43.9% (2014 est.)
    note: official rate; actual rate is lower as many technically unemployed persons work in the gray economy
    country comparison to the world: 198
    17.2% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.7%
    highest 10%: 27.3% (2007)
    36.2 (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    revenues: $7.204 billion
    expenditures: $7.565 billion (2015 est.)
    46.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    -2.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    46.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
    44.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 93
    calendar year
    -1% (2015 est.)
    -0.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    5.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
    6.64% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    $3.948 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $4.538 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    $9.223 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $10.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    $8.717 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $10.48 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $NA
    -$1.078 billion (2015 est.)
    -$1.45 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    $3.942 billion (2015 est.)
    $4.49 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    metals, clothing, wood products
    Slovenia 16.4%, Italy 16.1%, Germany 12.8%, Austria 12.3%, Croatia 12% (2014)
    $8.784 billion (2015 est.)
    $9.982 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
    Croatia 20.2%, Germany 12.6%, Slovenia 12.2%, Italy 9.8%, Russia 6.8%, Austria 5.7%, Hungary 5% (2014)
    $4.625 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $4.744 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    $11.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $11.08 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    $7.92 billion (2014 est.)
    $7.721 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    $0 (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar -
    1.823 (2015 est.)
    1.4718 (2014 est.)
    1.4718 (2013 est.)
    1.52 (2012 est.)
    1.407 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

  • 16.3 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    12.56 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    5.097 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    1.353 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    4.3 million kW (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    54.8% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    43.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    1.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    20,040 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    22,690 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    34,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    4,255 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    15,250 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    275 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    275 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    26 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
  • Communications :: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

  • total subscriptions: 850,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    total: 3.5 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 90 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by an internationally sponsored program, resulting in sharp increases in fixed-line telephone availability
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and stands at roughly 80 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2011)
    3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Republika Srpska Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV stations broadcasting; 3 large public radio broadcasters and many private radio stations (2010)
    AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)
    33 (1995)
    .ba
    155,252 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    total: 2.6 million
    percent of population: 67.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
  • Transportation :: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

  • 24 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    total: 7
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 17
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 11 (2013)
    6 (2013)
    gas 147 km; oil 9 km (2013)
    total: 965 km
    standard gauge: 965 km 1.435-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    total: 22,926 km
    paved: 19,426 km (4,652 km of interurban roads)
    unpaved: 3,500 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    (Sava River on northern border; open to shipping but use limited) (2011)
    river port(s): Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, Brcko, Orasje (Sava River)
  • Military and Security :: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

  • Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Oruzanih Snaga Bosne i Hercegovine, OSBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air Force and Air Defense (Brigada Zracnih Snaga i Protuzracne Odbrane, br ZSiPZO), Tactical Support Brigade (Brigada Takticke Podrske, br TP) (2015)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 35 or after 15 years of service for E-1 through E-4, mandatory retirement at age 50 and 30 years of service for E-5 through E-9, mandatory retirement at age 55 and 30 years of service for all officers (2014)
    0.98% of GDP (2014)
    1.04% of GDP (2013)
    1.35% of GDP (2012)
    1.15% of GDP (2011)
    1.35% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 75
  • Transnational Issues :: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

  • Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
    refugees (country of origin): 6,703 (Croatia) (2014)
    IDPs: 84,500 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced by inter-ethnic violence, human rights violations, and armed conflict during the 1992-1995 war) (2015)
    stateless persons: 58 (2015)
    increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption
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