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South America :: Bolivia
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Bolivia
  • Introduction :: BOLIVIA

  • Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and countercoups. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production. In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor, indigenous majority. In December 2009, President MORALES easily won reelection, and his party took control of the legislative branch of the government, which will allow him to continue his process of change. In October 2011, the country held its first judicial elections to select judges for the four highest courts.
  • Geography :: BOLIVIA

  • Central South America, southwest of Brazil
    17 00 S, 65 00 W
    South America
    total: 1,098,581 sq km
    land: 1,083,301 sq km
    water: 15,280 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 28
    slightly less than three times the size of Montana
    total: 7,252 km
    border countries: Argentina 942 km, Brazil 3,403 km, Chile 942 km, Paraguay 753 km, Peru 1,212 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
    rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
    lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
    highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
    tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
    arable land: 3.97%
    permanent crops: 0.2%
    other: 95.83% (2012 est.)
    1,282 sq km (2003)
    622.5 cu km (2011)
    total: 2.64 cu km/yr (25%/14%/61%)
    per capita: 305.8 cu m/yr (2005)
    flooding in the northeast (March to April)
    volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (elev. 5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and Olca-Paruma
    the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
    landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
  • People and Society :: BOLIVIA

  • noun: Bolivian(s)
    adjective: Bolivian
    mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 68%, indigenous 20%, white 5%, cholo/chola 2%, black 1%, other 1%, unspecified 3% ; 44% of respondents indicated feeling part of some indigenous group, predominantly Quechua or Aymara
    note: results among surveys vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices; the 2001 national census did not provide "mestizo" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices; the use of "mestizo" and "cholo" varies among response choices in surveys, with surveys using the terms interchanageably, providing one or the other as a response choice, or providing the two as separate response choices (2009 est.)
    Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, foreign languages 2.4%, Guarani (official) 0.6%, other native languages 0.4%, none 0.1%
    note: Bolivia's 2009 constitution designates Spanish and all indigenous languages as official; 36 indigenous languages are specified, including some that are extinct (2001 est.)
    Roman Catholic 76.8%, Evangelical and Pentecostal 8.1%, Protestant 7.9%, other 1.7%, none 5.5% (2012 est.)
    Bolivia ranks at or near the bottom among Latin American countries in several areas of health and development, including poverty, education, fertility, malnutrition, mortality, and life expectancy. On the positive side, more children are being vaccinated and more pregnant women are getting prenatal care and having skilled health practitioners attend their births. Bolivia's income inequality is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world. Public education is of poor quality, and educational opportunities are among the most unevenly distributed in Latin America, with girls and indigenous and rural children less likely to be literate or to complete primary school. The lack of access to education and family planning services helps to sustain Bolivia's high fertility rate - approximately three children per woman. Bolivia's lack of clean water and basic sanitation, especially in rural areas, contributes to health problems.
    Almost 7% of Bolivia's population lives abroad, primarily to work in Argentina, Brazil, Spain, and the United States. In recent years, more restrictive immigration policies in Europe and the United States have increased the flow of Bolivian emigrants to neighboring Argentina and Brazil.
    10,631,486 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    0-14 years: 33.3% (male 1,805,121/female 1,737,794)
    15-24 years: 19.8% (male 1,063,823/female 1,037,320)
    25-54 years: 36.3% (male 1,878,736/female 1,979,819)
    55-64 years: 5.7% (male 280,809/female 322,057)
    65 years and over: 4.9% (male 232,514/female 293,493) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 65.3%
    youth dependency ratio: 57%
    elderly dependency ratio: 8.2%
    potential support ratio: 12.1% (2014 est.)
    total: 23.4 years
    male: 22.6 years
    female: 24.1 years (2014 est.)
    1.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    23.28 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    6.59 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    -0.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    urban population: 68.1% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 2.26% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Santa Cruz 2.032 million; LA PAZ (capital) 1.8 million; Cochabamba 1.208 million; Sucre (constitutional capital) 358,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    21.2
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
    190 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    total: 38.61 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 42.23 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 34.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    total population: 68.55 years
    male: 65.78 years
    female: 71.45 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    2.8 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    60.5% (2008)
    5.8% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    1.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 96% of population
    rural: 71.9% of population
    total: 88.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 4% of population
    rural: 28.1% of population
    total: 11.9% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 57.5% of population
    rural: 23.7% of population
    total: 46.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 42.5% of population
    rural: 76.3% of population
    total: 53.6% of population (2012 est.)
    0.25% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    15,500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    1,200 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever (2013)
    17.9% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    4.5% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    6.9% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 94.5%
    male: 97.1%
    female: 91.9% (2012 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2007)
    total number: 757,352
    percentage: 26.4%
    note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2008 est.)
    total: 6.2%
    male: 4.8%
    female: 7.8% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
  • Government :: BOLIVIA

  • conventional long form: Plurinational State of Bolivia
    conventional short form: Bolivia
    local long form: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
    local short form: Bolivia
    republic; note - the new constitution defines Bolivia as a "Social Unitarian State"
    name: La Paz (administrative capital); Sucre (constitutional capital)
    geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
    6 August 1825 (from Spain)
    Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
    many previous; latest drafted 6 August 2006 - 9 December 2008, approved by referendum 25 January 2009, effective 7 February 2009; amended 2013 (2013)
    civil law system with influences from Roman, Spanish, canon (religious), French, and indigenous law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age, universal and compulsory
    chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term and are eligible for re-election once; election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 61%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 24.5%; Jorge QUIROGA 9.1%; other 5.4%
    description: bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (36 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; 70 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 53 indirectly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote, and 7 - apportioned to non-contiguous, rural areas in 7 of the 9 states - directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
    election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 26, PPB-CN 10; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 89, PPB-CN 36, UN 3, AS 2; note - as of 15 February 2013, the composition of the Chamber of Deputies was: MAS 88, PPB-CN 37, UN 3, AS 2
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (consists of 12 judges); Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 7 primary and 7 alternate magistrates); Plurinational Electoral Organ (consists of 7 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal judges elected by popular vote from list of candidates pre-selected by Plurinational Legislative Assembly for 6-year terms); Plurinational Electoral Organ members - 6 judges elected by the Assembly and 1 appointed by the president; judges and members serve 6-year terms; note - the 2009 constitution reformed the procedure for selecting judicial officials for the Supreme Court, Constitutional Tribunal, and the Plurinational Electoral Organ by direct national vote, which occurred in October 2011
    subordinate courts: Agro-Environmental Court; Council of the Judiciary; District Courts (in each of the 9 administrative departments)
    Bacada Indigena or BI
    Bolivia-National Convergence or PPB-CN [Adrian OLIVA]
    Fearless Movement or MSM [Juan DE GRANADO Cosio]
    Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]
    National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]
    People or Gente [Roman LOAYZA]
    Social Alliance or AS [Rene JOAQUINO]
    Social Democratic Movement or MDS [Ruben COSTAS]
    Bolivian Workers Central or COB
    Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE
    Landless Movement or MST
    National Coordinator for Change or CONALCAM
    Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB
    other: Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations (including Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN)
    CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Freddy BERSATTI Tudela
    chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
    FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington,DC
    note: as of September 2008, the US has expelled the Bolivian ambassador to the US
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Aruna AMIRTHANAYAGAM (since 28 February 2014)
    embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, Casilla 425, La Paz
    mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
    telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000
    FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111
    note: in September 2008, the Bolivian Government expelled the US Ambassador to Bolivia, and the countries have yet to reinstate ambassadors
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; red stands for bravery and the blood of national heroes, yellow for the nation's mineral resources, and green for the fertility of the land
    note: similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; in 2009, a presidential decree made it mandatory for a so-called wiphala - a square, multi-colored flag representing the country's indigenous peoples - to be used alongside the traditional flag
    llama, Andean condor; national colors: red, yellow, green
    name: "Cancion Patriotica" (Patriotic Song)
    lyrics/music: Jose Ignacio de SANJINES/Leopoldo Benedetto VINCENTI
    note: adopted 1852
  • Economy :: BOLIVIA

  • Bolivia is a resource rich country with strong growth attributed to captive markets for natural gas exports. However, the country remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America because of state-oriented policies that deter investment and growth. Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large Northern Hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company in exchange for a predetermined service fee. The global recession slowed growth, but Bolivia recorded the highest growth rate in South America during 2009. High commodity prices since 2010 sustained rapid growth and large trade surpluses. However, a lack of foreign investment in the key sectors of mining and hydrocarbons, along with conflict among social groups pose challenges for the Bolivian economy. President Evo MORALES passed an investment law and promised not to nationalize additional industries in an effort to improve Bolivia’s investment climate.
    $70.38 billion (2014 est.)
    $66.52 billion (2013 est.)
    $62.3 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 94
    $34.08 billion (2014 est.)
    5.8% (2014 est.)
    6.8% (2013 est.)
    5.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    $6,200 (2014 est.)
    $6,000 (2013 est.)
    $5,800 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 158
    23.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    23.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
    25.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    household consumption: 58.8%
    government consumption: 13.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 20.3%
    investment in inventories: 0.7%
    exports of goods and services: 46%
    imports of goods and services: -39.7%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 13.1%
    industry: 38.9%
    services: 48% (2014 est.)
    soybeans, quinoa, Brazil nuts, sugarcane, coffee, corn, rice, potatoes, coca
    mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry
    6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    4.881 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    agriculture: 32%
    industry: 20%
    services: 47.9% (2009 est.)
    7.3% (2014 est.)
    7.4% (2013 est.)
    note: data are for urban areas; widespread underemployment
    country comparison to the world: 81
    45%
    note: based on percent of population living on less than the international standard of $2/day (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 0.8%
    highest 10%: 33.6% (2012 est.)
    46.6 (2012)
    57.9 (1999)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    revenues: $16.59 billion
    expenditures: $16.76 billion (2014 est.)
    48.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    -0.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    35.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    35.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
    country comparison to the world: 111
    calendar year
    5.4% (2014 est.)
    5.7% (2013 est.)
    4.5% (31 December 2013)
    4% (31 december 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    9.7% (31 December 2014 est.)
    11.05% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    $3.998 billion (31 December 2008)
    $3.032 billion (31 December 2007)
    $6.339 billion (31 December 2008)
    $4.729 billion (31 December 2007)
    $8.362 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $7.26 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    $20.19 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $17.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    $15.51 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $11.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    $9.684 billion (31 December 2013)
    $7.689 billion (31 December 2012)
    $6.089 billion (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    $1.133 billion (2014 est.)
    $1.173 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    $12.34 billion (2014 est.)
    $11.51 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    natural gas, mineral ores, gold, soybeans and soy products, tin
    Brazil 34%, Argentina 20%, US 10%, Colombia 5%, Peru 5% (2013)
    $9.513 billion (2014 est.)
    $9.347 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    machinery, petroleum products, vehicles, iron and steel, plastics
    Brazil 17%, China 13%, US 13%, Argentina 11%, Peru 6%, Japan 5% (2013)
    $15.38 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $14.43 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    $8.073 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $7.734 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    $10.56 billion (31 December 2013)
    $8.809 billion (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    $0 (31 December 2013 est.)
    $0 (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    bolivianos (BOB) per US dollar -
    6.958 (2014 est.)
    6.96 (2013 est.)
    6.94 (2012 est.)
    6.9875 (2011 est.)
    7.0167 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: BOLIVIA

  • 7.375 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    6.944 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    1.365 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    63.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    34.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    63,110 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    209.8 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    40,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    68,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    15,560 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    54.37 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    9.432 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    44.94 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    281.5 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    17.28 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: BOLIVIA

  • 880,600 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    9.494 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    general assessment: Bolivian National Telecommunications Company was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved.
    domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and, in 2011, teledensity reached about 80 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
    large number of radio and TV stations broadcasting with private media outlets dominating; state-owned and private radio and TV stations generally operating freely, although both pro-government and anti-government groups have attacked media outlets in response to their reporting (2010)
    AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)
    48 (1997)
    .bo
    180,988 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    1.103 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 93
  • Transportation :: BOLIVIA

  • 855 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    total: 21
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
    total: 834
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 47
    914 to 1,523 m: 151
    under 914 m:
    631 (2013)
    gas 5,457 km; liquid petroleum gas 51 km; oil 2,511 km; refined products 1,627 km (2013)
    total: 3,652 km
    narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    total: 80,488 km
    paved: 11,993 km
    unpaved: 68,495 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    10,000 km (commercially navigable almost exclusively in the northern and eastern parts of the country) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    total: 18
    by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 14, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
    foreign-owned: 5 (Syria 4, UK 1, (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    river port(s): Puerto Aguirre (Paraguay/Parana)
    note: Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
  • Military :: BOLIVIA

  • Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano, EB), Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, FNB; includes Marines), Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2013)
    18-49 years of age for 12-month compulsory male and female military service; Bolivian citizenship required; 17 years of age for voluntary service; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; 15-19 years of age for voluntary premilitary service, provides exemption from further military service (2013)
    males age 16-49: 2,472,490
    females age 16-49: 2,535,768 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,762,260
    females age 16-49: 2,013,281 (2010 est.)
    male: 108,334
    female: 104,945 (2010 est.)
    1.47% of GDP (2012)
    1.47% of GDP (2011)
    1.47% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 64
  • Transnational Issues :: BOLIVIA

  • Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Argentina
    current situation: Bolivia is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking domestically and abroad; indigenous children are particularly vulnerable; Bolivian adults and children perform forced labor in domestic service, mining, ranching, agriculture, and food processing; Bolivian women and girls are sex trafficked in neighboring countries, while other Bolivians are found in forced labor in neighboring countries, Spain, and the US; a limited number of women from nearby countries are forced into prostitution in Bolivia
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Bolivia does not comply fully with the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government did not demonstrate increasing anti-trafficking efforts during the reporting period; investigations decreased and convictions remained very low compared to the number of potential trafficking victims identified; the government did not offer adequate protective services for trafficking victims, leaving civil society organizations to provide most of the care without government support; trafficking prevention efforts were limited (2014)
    world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 30,000 hectares under cultivation in 2011, a decrease of 13 percent over 2010; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 265 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2011, a 29 percent increase over 2010; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption (2013)
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