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  • Introduction :: BURMA

  • Various ethnic Burmese and ethnic minority city-states or kingdoms occupied the present borders through the 19th century. Over a period of 62 years (1824-1886), Britain conquered Burma and incorporated the country into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a province of India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony; in 1948, Burma attained independence from the British Commonwealth. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to 1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and later as political kingpin. In response to widespread civil unrest, NE WIN resigned in 1988, but within months the military crushed student-led protests and took power.
    Multiparty legislative elections in 1990 resulted in the main opposition party - the National League for Democracy (NLD) - winning a landslide victory. Instead of handing over power, the junta placed NLD leader (and Nobel Peace Prize recipient) AUNG SAN SUU KYI (ASSK) under house arrest from 1989 to 1995, 2000 to 2002, and from May 2003 to November 2010. In late September 2007, the ruling junta brutally suppressed protests over increased fuel prices led by prodemocracy activists and Buddhist monks, killing at least 13 people and arresting thousands for participating in the demonstrations. In early May 2008, Burma was struck by Cyclone Nargis, which left over 138,000 dead and tens of thousands injured and homeless. Despite this tragedy, the junta proceeded with its May constitutional referendum, the first vote in Burma since 1990. Parliamentary elections held in November 2010, considered flawed by many in the international community, saw the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party garner over 75% of the seats.
    Parliament convened in January 2011 and selected former Prime Minister THEIN SEIN as president. Although the vast majority of national-level appointees named by THEIN SEIN are former or current military officers, the government has initiated a series of political and economic reforms leading to a substantial opening of the long-isolated country. These reforms have included releasing hundreds of political prisoners, concluding negotiations on a draft nationwide cease-fire with the country's various ethnic armed groups, pursuing legal reform, and gradually reducing restrictions on freedom of the press, association, and civil society. At least due in part to these reforms, ASSK was elected to parliament in April 2012, and now serves as chair of the Committee for Rule of Law and Tranquility. Most political parties have begun building their institutions in preparation for the next round of general elections, scheduled for late 2015. The country served as chair of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) for 2014.
  • Geography :: BURMA

  • Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand
    22 00 N, 98 00 E
    Southeast Asia
    total: 676,578 sq km
    land: 653,508 sq km
    water: 23,070 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 40
    slightly smaller than Texas
    Area comparison map:
    total: 6,522 km
    border countries (5): Bangladesh 271 km, China 2,129 km, India 1,468 km, Laos 238 km, Thailand 2,416 km
    1,930 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)
    central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
    lowest point: Andaman Sea/Bay of Bengal 0 m
    highest point: Gamlang Razi 5,870 m
    petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower, arable land
    agricultural land: 19.2%
    arable land 16.5%; permanent crops 2.2%; permanent pasture 0.5%
    forest: 48.2%
    other: 32.6% (2011 est.)
    21,100 sq km (2004)
    1,168 cu km (2011)
    total: 33.23 cu km/yr (10%/1%/89%)
    per capita: 728.6 cu m/yr (2005)
    destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts
    deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes
  • People and Society :: BURMA

  • noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Burmese
    Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%
    Burmese (official)
    note: minority ethnic groups have their own languages
    Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, Animist 1%, other 2%
    note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    0-14 years: 26.07% (male 7,485,419/female 7,194,500)
    15-24 years: 18.02% (male 5,138,185/female 5,009,470)
    25-54 years: 43.31% (male 12,132,302/female 12,261,750)
    55-64 years: 7.24% (male 1,919,725/female 2,157,789)
    65 years and over: 5.36% (male 1,313,711/female 1,707,355) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 49.1%
    youth dependency ratio: 41.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 8%
    potential support ratio: 12.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 28.3 years
    male: 27.7 years
    female: 28.9 years (2015 est.)
    1.01% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    18.39 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    7.96 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    -0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    urban population: 34.1% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 2.49% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    RANGOON (Yangon) (capital) 4.802 million; Mandalay 1.167 million; Nay Pyi Taw 1.03 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    178 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    total: 43.55 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 49.84 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 36.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    total population: 66.29 years
    male: 63.89 years
    female: 68.82 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    2.16 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    46% (2009/10)
    1.8% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    0.61 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    0.6 beds/1,000 population (2006)
    urban: 92.7% of population
    rural: 74.4% of population
    total: 80.6% of population
    urban: 7.3% of population
    rural: 25.6% of population
    total: 19.4% of population (2015 est.)
    urban: 84.3% of population
    rural: 73.9% of population
    total: 77.4% of population
    urban: 15.7% of population
    rural: 26.1% of population
    total: 22.6% of population (2012 est.)
    0.69% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    212,600 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    10,100 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis
    water contact disease: leptospirosis
    animal contact disease: rabies
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    2.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    22.6% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    0.8% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 93.1%
    male: 95.2%
    female: 91.2% (2015 est.)
    total: 9 years
    male: NA
    female: NA (2007)
  • Government :: BURMA

  • conventional long form: Union of Burma
    conventional short form: Burma
    local long form: Pyidaungzu Thammada Myanma Naingngandaw (translated as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar)
    local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
    former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma, Union of Myanmar
    note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma and the current parliamentary government have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; the US Government has not adopted the name
    parliamentary government took power in March 2011
    name: Rangoon (Yangon); note - Nay Pyi Taw is the administrative capital
    geographic coordinates: 16 48 N, 96 09 E
    time difference: UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    7 regions (taing-myar, singular - taing), 7 states (pyi ne-myar, singular - pyi ne), 1 union territory
    regions: Ayeyawady (Irrawaddy), Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Taninthayi, Yangon (Rangoon)
    states: Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, Rakhine (Arakan), Shan
    union territory: Nay Pyi Taw
    4 January 1948 (from the UK)
    Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)
    previous 1947, 1974 (suspended until 2008); latest approved by referendum 29 May 2008 (2015)
    mixed legal system of English common law (as introduced in codifications designed for colonial India) and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    birthright citizenship:
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization:
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President THEIN SEIN (since 4 February 2011); Vice Presidents SAI MAUK KHAM (since 3 February 2011), NYAN TUN (since 15 August 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President THEIN SEIN (since 4 February 2011)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointmets shared by the president and the commander-in-chief
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by simple majority vote by House of Representative's Presidential Electoral College from among 3 vice presidential nominees - 1 each from the House of Nationalities, the House of Representatives, and military members of the Assembly of the Union (president elected for a 5-year term)
    election results: THEIN SEIN (USDP) elected president; Presidential Electoral College vote NA
    description: bicameral Assembly of the Union or Pyidaungsu consists of the House of Nationalities or Amyotha Hluttaw (224 seats; 168 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed and 56 appointed by the military; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Pyithu Hluttaw (440 seats; 330 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 appointed by the military; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 8 November 2015 (next to be held on 8 November 2020)
    election results: House of Nationalities - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NLD 135, USDP 12, ANP 10, SNLD 3, ZCD 2, independent 2, other 3, undeclared 1, military appointees 56; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NLD 255, USDP 29, ANP 12, SNLD 12, PNO 3, TNP 3, ZCD 2, independent 1, other 4, canceled due to insurgence 7, undeclared 2, military appointees 110
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Union (consists of the chief justice and 7-11 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges nominated by the president, with approval of the Pythu Hluttaw, and appointed by the president; judges normally serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: High Courts of the Region; High Courts of the State; Court of the Self-Administered Division; Court of the Self-Administered Zone; district and township courts; special courts (for juvenile, municipal, and traffic offenses); courts martial
    All Mon Region Democracy Party or AMRDP [NAING NGWE THEIN]
    Arakan National Party or ANP [Dr. AYE MAUNG] (formed from the 2013 merger of the Rakhine Nationalities Development Party and the Arakan League for Democracy)
    National Democratic Force or NDF [KHIN MAUNG SWE]
    National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SAN SUU KYI]
    National Unity Party or NUP [THAN TIN]
    Pa-O National Organization or PNO [AUNG KHAN HTI]
    Shan Nationalities Democratic Party or SNDP [SAI AIK PAUNG]
    Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [KHUN HTUN OO]
    Ta'ang National Party or TNP [AIK MONE]
    Union Solidarity and Development Party or USDP [HTAY OO]
    Zomi Congress for Democracy or ZCD [PU CIN SIAN THANG]
    numerous smaller parties
    Thai border: Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC
    Federation of Trade Unions-Burma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor advocates)
    National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government in exile)
    National Council-Union of Burma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups)
    United Nationalities Federal Council or UNFC
    inside Burma: Kachin Independence Organization
    Karen National Union or KNU
    Karenni National People's Party or KNPP
    United Wa State Army or UWSA
    88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement)
    several other Chin, Karen, Mon, and Shan factions
    note: freedom of expression has been highly restricted in Burma; the restrictions are being relaxed by the government; a limited number of political groups, other than parties are approved by the government
    ADB, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador KYAW MYO HTUT (since 3 December 2013)
    chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-3344
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-4351
    consulate(s) general: none; Burma has a Mission to the UN in New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Derek J. MITCHELL (since 11 July 2012)
    embassy: 110 University Avenue, Kamayut Township, Rangoon
    mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
    telephone: [95] (1) 536-509, 535-756, 538-038
    FAX: [95] (1) 511-069
    design consists of three equal horizontal stripes of yellow (top), green, and red; centered on the green band is a large white five-pointed star that partially overlaps onto the adjacent colored stripes; the design revives the triband colors used by Burma from 1943-45, during the Japanese occupation
    chinthe (mythical lion); national colors: yellow, green, red, white
    name: "Kaba Ma Kyei" (Till the End of the World, Myanmar)
    lyrics/music: SAYA TIN
    note: adopted 1948; Burma is among a handful of non-European nations that have anthems rooted in indigenous traditions; the beginning portion of the anthem is a traditional Burmese anthem before transitioning into a Western-style orchestrated work
  • Economy :: BURMA

  • Since the transition to a civilian government in 2011, Burma has begun an economic overhaul aimed at attracting foreign investment and reintegrating into the global economy. Economic reforms have included establishing a managed float of the Burmese kyat in 2012, re-writing the Foreign Investment Law in 2012 to allow more foreign investment participation, granting the Central Bank operational independence in July 2013, enacting a new Anti-corruption Law in September 2013, and authorizing a small number of foreign banks to open branch offices for limited operations beginning in 2015. The government’s commitment to reform, and the subsequent easing of most Western sanctions, has begun to pay dividends as growth accelerated in 2013 and 2014. Burma’s abundant natural resources, young labor force, and proximity to Asia’s dynamic economies have attracted foreign investment in the energy sector, garment industry, information technology, and food and beverages. Pledged foreign direct investment grew from US$1.4 billion in FY 2012 to US$4.1 billion in FY 2013. Despite these improvements, living standards have not improved for the majority of the people residing in rural areas. Burma remains one of the poorest countries in Asia – nearly one-third of the country’s 51 million people live in poverty. The previous government’s isolationist policies and economic mismanagement have left Burma with poor infrastructure, endemic corruption, underdeveloped human resources, and inadequate access to capital, which will require a major commitment to reverse. The Burmese government has been slow to address impediments to economic development such as insecure land rights, a restrictive trade licensing system, an opaque revenue collection system, and an antiquated banking system. Key benchmarks of sustained economic progress would include modernizing and opening the financial sector, increasing budget allocations for social services, and accelerating agricultural and land reforms.
    $244.4 billion (2014 est.)
    $225.3 billion (2013 est.)
    $207.8 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 60
    $63.14 billion (2014 est.)
    8.5% (2014 est.)
    8.4% (2013 est.)
    7.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    $4,800 (2014 est.)
    $4,400 (2013 est.)
    $4,000 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 171
    19.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    17.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    13.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    household consumption: 79.6%
    government consumption: 3.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 19.9%
    investment in inventories: 0.4%
    exports of goods and services: 28.2%
    imports of goods and services: -31.9%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 37.1%
    industry: 21.3%
    services: 41.6% (2014 est.)
    rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; fish and fish products; hardwood
    agricultural processing; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; cement, construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; oil and natural gas; garments, jade, gems
    12% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    35.23 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    agriculture: 70%
    industry: 7%
    services: 23% (2001)
    5.1% (2014 est.)
    5.2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    32.7% (2007 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.8%
    highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)
    revenues: $2.675 billion
    expenditures: $4.401 billion (2014 est.)
    4.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    -2.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    1 April - 31 March
    5.9% (2014 est.)
    5.7% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    9.95% (31 December 2010)
    12% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    13% (31 December 2014 est.)
    13% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    $14.07 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $12.38 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    $16.91 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $15.75 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    -$3.851 billion (2014 est.)
    -$2.96 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    $8.962 billion (2014 est.)
    $9.022 billion (2013 est.)
    note: official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh
    country comparison to the world: 99
    natural gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice, clothing, jade and gems
    China 63%, Thailand 15.8%, India 5.7% (2014)
    $12.17 billion (2014 est.)
    $9.462 billion (2013 est.)
    note: import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled in from Thailand, China, Malaysia, and India
    country comparison to the world: 93
    fabric, petroleum products, fertilizer, plastics, machinery, transport equipment; cement, construction materials, crude oil; food products, edible oil
    China 42.4%, Thailand 19%, Singapore 10.9%, Japan 5.4% (2014)
    $8.727 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $8.278 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $6.616 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $7.367 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    kyats (MMK) per US dollar -
    984.35 (2014 est.)
    984.35 (2013 est.)
    853.48 (2012 est.)
    815 (2011 est.)
    5.58 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: BURMA

  • 10.48 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    7.765 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    3.591 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    24.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    75.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    20,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    2,717 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    40 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    50 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    15,780 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    25,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    8,557 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    13.1 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    4.6 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    8.5 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    283.2 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    13.34 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
  • Communications :: BURMA

  • total subscriptions: 530,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    total: 26.6 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 48 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    general assessment: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and government
    domestic: system barely capable of providing basic service; mobile-cellular phone system is grossly underdeveloped
    international: country code - 95; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2, Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and ShinSat (2011)
    government controls all domestic broadcast media; 2 state-controlled TV stations with 1 of the stations controlled by the armed forces; 2 pay-TV stations are joint state-private ventures; access to satellite TV is limited; 1 state-controlled domestic radio station and 9 FM stations that are joint state-private ventures; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in parts of Burma; the Voice of America (VOA), Radio Free Asia (RFA), BBC Burmese service, the Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB), and Radio Australia use shortwave to broadcast in Burma; VOA, RFA, and DVB produce daily TV news programs that are transmitted by satellite to audiences in Burma
    AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 3 (2007)
    4 (2008)
    total: 646,700
    percent of population: 1.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
  • Transportation :: BURMA

  • 64 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    total: 36
    over 3,047 m: 12
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 28
    over 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
    914 to 1,523 m: 10
    under 914 m:
    13 (2013)
    11 (2013)
    gas 3,739 km; oil 551 km (2013)
    total: 5,031 km
    narrow gauge: 5,031 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    total: 34,377 km (includes 358 km of expressways) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    12,800 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    total: 29
    by type: cargo 22, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 3, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1
    foreign-owned: 2 (Germany 1, Japan 1)
    registered in other countries: 3 (Panama 3) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    major seaport(s): Moulmein, Sittwe
    river port(s): Rangoon (Yangon) (Rangoon River)
  • Military :: BURMA

  • Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw): Army (Tatmadaw Kyi), Navy (Tatmadaw Yay), Air Force (Tatmadaw Lay) (2013)
    18-35 years of age (men) and 18-27 years of age (women) for voluntary military service; no conscription (a 2010 law reintroducing conscription has not yet entered into force); 2-year service obligation; male (ages 18-45) and female (ages 18-35) professionals (including doctors, engineers, mechanics) serve up to 3 years; service terms may be stretched to 5 years in an officially declared emergency; Burma signed the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on 15 August 1991; on 27 June 2012, the regime signed a Joint Action Plan on prevention of child recruitment; in February 2013, the military formed a new task force to address forced child conscription; approximately 600 children have been released from military service since the signing of the joint action plan (2015)
    males age 16-49: 14,747,845
    females age 16-49: 14,710,871 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 10,451,515
    females age 16-49: 11,181,537 (2010 est.)
    male: 522,478
    female: 506,388 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: BURMA

  • over half of Burma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups who have substantial numbers of kin in neighboring countries; the Naf River on the border with Bangladesh serves as a smuggling and illegal transit route; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 29,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border with Bangladesh in 2010; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; fencing along the India-Burma international border at Manipur's Moreh town is in progress to check illegal drug trafficking and movement of militants; over 90,000 mostly Karen refugees and asylum seekers fleeing civil strife, political upheaval, and economic stagnation in Burma were living in remote camps in Thailand near the border as of year-end 2013
    IDPs: up to 662,400 (government offensives against armed ethnic minority groups near its borders with China and Thailand) (2015)
    stateless persons: 1.45 million (2014); note - Burma's main group of stateless people is the Rohingya, Muslims living in northern Rakhine State; the Burmese Government does not recognize the Rohingya as a "national race" and stripped them of their citizenship under the 1982 Citizenship law, categorizing them as "non-national" or "foreign residents," under the Rakhine State Action Plan drafted in October 2014, the Rohingya must demonstrate their family has lived in Burman for at least 60 years to qualify for a lesser naturalized citizenship and the classification of Bengali or be put in detention camps and face deportation; native-born but non-indigenous people, such as Indians, are also stateless; the Burmese Government does not grant citizenship to children born outside of the country to Burmese parents who left the country illegally or fled persecution, such as those born in Thailand
    current situation: Burma is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purpose of forced labor, and for women and children subjected to sex trafficking in other countries; poor economic conditions have led to increased legal and illegal migration of Burmese adults and children to East Asia, the Middle East, South Asia, and the US where they are subject to forced labor and sex trafficking; men are forced to work in the fishing, manufacturing, and construction industries, while women and girls are forced into prostitution or domestic servitude; some Burmese economic migrants and Rohingya asylum seekers have become forced laborers in Thailand; military personnel and insurgent militia unlawfully conscript child soldiers and continue to be the leading perpetrators of forced labor inside the country; Burmese children are also forced to work in tea shops, home industries, on plantations, and as beggars
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Burma does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, but it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute a significant effort toward meeting the minimum standards for eliminating human trafficking; in 2013, an anti-trafficking division was created; authorities continued to investigate and prosecute cross-border sex trafficking offenses but did little to address domestic trafficking; forced labor and forced recruitment of child soldiers remain serious problems; the government continued modest efforts to provide temporary shelter and facilitate safe passage to Burmese victims repatriated from abroad, but its overall victim protection efforts were inadequate and left victims vulnerable to being re-trafficked (2014)
    world's third largest producer of illicit opium with an estimated production in 2012 of 690 metric tons, an increase of 13% over 2011, and poppy cultivation in 2012 totaled 51,000 hectares, a 17% increase over 2011; production in the United Wa State Army's areas of greatest control remains low; Shan state is the source of 94.5% of Burma's poppy cultivation; lack of government will to take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug effort; major source of methamphetamine and heroin for regional consumption (2013)