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Europe :: Bulgaria Print
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BULGARIA
  • Introduction :: Bulgaria
  • Background field listing
    The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
  • Geography :: Bulgaria
  • Location field listing
    Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    43 00 N, 25 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Europe
    Area field listing
    total: 110,879 sq km
    land: 108,489 sq km
    water: 2,390 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Area - comparative field listing
    almost identical in size to Virginia; slightly larger than Tennessee
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 1,806 km
    border countries (5): Greece 472 km, Macedonia 162 km, Romania 605 km, Serbia 344 km, Turkey 223 km
    Coastline field listing
    354 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    Climate field listing
    temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
    Terrain field listing
    mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 472 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Black Sea
    2925 highest point: Musala
    Natural resources field listing
    bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 46.9% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 29.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.5% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 15.5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 36.7% (2011 est.)
    other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    1,020 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger populations
    Natural hazards field listing
    earthquakes; landslides
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
  • People and Society :: Bulgaria
  • Population field listing
    7,057,504 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Bulgarian(s)
    adjective: Bulgarian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Bulgarian 76.9%, Turkish 8%, Romani 4.4%, other 0.7% (including Russian, Armenian, and Vlach), other (unknown) 10% (2011 est.)

    note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 9–11% of Bulgaria's population

    Languages field listing
    Bulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Romani 3.8%, other 0.7%, unspecified 10.5% (2011 est.)
    Religions field listing
    Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim 7.8%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Jewish) 1.7%, none 3.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2011 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 14.6% (male 530,219 /female 500,398)
    15-24 years: 9.43% (male 346,588 /female 318,645)
    25-54 years: 43.12% (male 1,565,770 /female 1,477,719)
    55-64 years: 13.3% (male 442,083 /female 496,888)
    65 years and over: 19.54% (male 557,237 /female 821,957) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 51.7 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 21.2 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 30.5 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 3.3 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 43 years
    male: 41.2 years
    female: 44.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Population growth rate field listing
    -0.63% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 225
    Birth rate field listing
    8.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Death rate field listing
    14.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Net migration rate field listing
    -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Population distribution field listing
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger populations
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 75% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: -0.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    1.272 million SOFIA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    26.7 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 9.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 74.8 years (2018 est.)
    male: 71.5 years (2018 est.)
    female: 78.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.47 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Health expenditures field listing
    8.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Physicians density field listing
    4 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    6.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 99% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.4% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 86.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 83.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 86% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 13.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 16.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 14% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    <.1% (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    2,800 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    25% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Education expenditures field listing
    4.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 98.4% (2015 est.)
    male: 98.7% (2015 est.)
    female: 98.1% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 15 years (2015)
    male: 15 years (2015)
    female: 15 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 17.2% (2016 est.)
    male: 17.4% (2016 est.)
    female: 16.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
  • Government :: Bulgaria
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
    conventional short form: Bulgaria
    local long form: Republika Bulgaria
    local short form: Bulgaria
    former: Kingdom of Bulgaria, People's Repulic of Bulgaria
    etymology: named after the Bulgar tribes who settled the lower Balkan region in the 7th century A.D.
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Sofia
    geographic coordinates: 42 41 N, 23 19 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions field listing
    28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Haskovo, Kardzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofia, Sofia-Grad (Sofia City), Stara Zagora, Targovishte, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
    Independence field listing
    3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)
    National holiday field listing
    Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest drafted between late 1990 and early 1991, adopted 13 July 1991 (2016)
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; passage requires three-fourths majority vote of National Assembly members in three ballots; signed by the National Assembly chairperson; note - under special circumstances, a "Grand National Assembly" is elected with the authority to write a new constitution and amend certain articles of the constitution, including those affecting basic civil rights and national sovereignty; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in each of several readings; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bulgaria
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Rumen RADEV (since 22 January 2017); Vice President Iliana IOTOVA (since 22 January 2017)
    head of government: Prime Minister Boyko BORISSOV (since 4 May 2017); note - BORISSOV served 2 previous terms as prime minister (27 July 2009-13 March 2013 and 7 November 2014-27 January 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 and 13 November 2016 (next to be held in fall 2021); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
    election results: Rumen RADEV elected president in second round; percent of vote - Rumen RADEV (independent, supported by Bulgarian Socialist Party) 59.4%, Tsetska TSACHEVA (GERB) 36.2%, neither 4.5%; Boyko BORISSOV (GERB) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 133 to 100
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (240 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 26 March 2017 (next to be held spring 2021)
    election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - GERB 32.7%, BSP 27.2%, United Patriots 9.1%, DPS 9%, Volya 4.2%, other 17.8%; seats by party/coalition - GERB 95, BSP 80, United Patriots 27, DPS 26, Volya 12; composition - men 183, women 57, percent of women 23.8%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of a chairman and approximately 72 judges organized into penal, civil, and commercial colleges); Supreme Administrative Court (organized in 2 colleges with various panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 justices); note - Constitutional Court resides outside the judiciary
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Cassation and Supreme Administrative judges elected by the Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (consists of 25 members with extensive legal experience) and appointed by the president; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices elected by the National Assembly and appointed by the president and the SJC; justices appointed for 9-year terms with renewal of 4 justices every 3 years
    subordinate courts: appeals courts; regional and district courts; administrative courts; courts martial
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Alternative for Bulgarian Revival or ABV [Rumen PETKOV]
    Attack (Ataka) [Volen Nikolov SIDEROV]
    Bulgarian Agrarian People’s Union [Nikolay NENCHEV]
    Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Korneliya NINOVA]
    Bulgaria of the Citizens or DBG [Dimiter DELCHEV]]
    Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISSOV]
    Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Atanas ATANASOV]
    Democrats for Responsibility, Solidarity, and Tolerance or DOST [Lyutvi MESTAN]
    IMRO - Bulgarian National Movement or IMRO-BNM [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]
    Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS [Mustafa KARADAYI]
    National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria or NFSB [Valeri SIMEONOV]
    Reformist Bloc or RB (a four-party alliance including DBG and SDS)
    United Patriots (alliance of IMRO-BNM, NFSB, and Attack)
    Union of Democratic Forces or SDS [Bozhidar LUKARSKI]
    Yes! Bulgaria [Hristo IVANOV]
    Volya [Veselin MARESHKI]
    International organization participation field listing
    Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Tihomir Anguelov STOYTCHEV (since 27 June 2016)
    chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174
    FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Eric Seth RUBIN (since 24 February 2016)
    embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1408
    mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
    telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
    FAX: [359] (2) 937-5320
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the pan-Slavic white-blue-red colors were modified by substituting a green band (representing freedom) for the blue

    note: the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removed

    National symbol(s) field listing
    lion; national colors: white, green, red
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Mila Rodino" (Dear Homeland)
    lyrics/music: Tsvetan Tsvetkov RADOSLAVOV

    note: adopted 1964; composed in 1885 by a student en route to fight in the Serbo-Bulgarian War

  • Economy :: Bulgaria
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Bulgaria, a former communist country that entered the EU in 2007, has an open economy that historically has demonstrated strong growth, but its per-capita income remains the lowest among EU members and its reliance on energy imports and foreign demand for its exports makes its growth sensitive to external market conditions.

    The government undertook significant structural economic reforms in the 1990s to move the economy from a centralized, planned economy to a more liberal, market-driven economy. These reforms included privatization of state-owned enterprises, liberalization of trade, and strengthening of the tax system - changes that initially caused some economic hardships but later helped to attract investment, spur growth, and make gradual improvements to living conditions. From 2000 through 2008, Bulgaria maintained robust, average annual real GDP growth in excess of 6%, which was followed by a deep recession in 2009 as the financial crisis caused domestic demand, exports, capital inflows and industrial production to contract, prompting the government to rein in spending. Real GDP growth remained slow - less than 2% annually - until 2015, when demand from EU countries for Bulgarian exports, plus an inflow of EU development funds, boosted growth to more than 3%. In recent years, strong domestic demand combined with low international energy prices have contributed to Bulgaria’s economic growth approaching 4% and have also helped to ease inflation. Bulgaria’s prudent public financial management contributed to budget surpluses both in 2016 and 2017.

    Bulgaria is heavily reliant on energy imports from Russia, a potential vulnerability, and is a participant in EU-backed efforts to diversify regional natural gas supplies. In late 2016, the Bulgarian Government provided funding to Bulgaria’s National Electric Company to cover the $695 million compensation owed to Russian nuclear equipment manufacturer Atomstroyexport for the cancellation of the Belene Nuclear Power Plant project, which the Bulgarian Government terminated in 2012. As of early 2018, the government was floating the possibility of resurrecting the Belene project. The natural gas market, dominated by state-owned Bulgargaz, is also almost entirely supplied by Russia. Infrastructure projects such as the Inter-Connector Greece-Bulgaria and Inter-Connector Bulgaria-Serbia, which would enable Bulgaria to have access to non-Russian gas, have either stalled or made limited progress. In 2016, the Bulgarian Government established the State eGovernment Agency. This new agency is responsible for the electronic governance, coordinating national policies with the EU, and strengthening cybersecurity.

    Despite a favorable investment regime, including low, flat corporate income taxes, significant challenges remain. Corruption in public administration, a weak judiciary, low productivity, lack of transparency in public procurements, and the presence of organized crime continue to hamper the country's investment climate and economic prospects.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $153.5 billion (2017 est.)
    $148.2 billion (2016 est.)
    $142.6 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 76
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $56.94 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    3.6% (2017 est.)
    3.9% (2016 est.)
    3.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $21,800 (2017 est.)
    $20,900 (2016 est.)
    $19,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 87
    Gross national saving field listing
    25.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    21.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 61.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 16% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 19.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.7% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 66.3% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -64.8% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 4.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 28% (2017 est.)
    services: 67.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestock
    Industries field listing
    electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, automotive parts, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel; outsourcing centers
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    3.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Labor force field listing
    3.357 million (2017 est.)

    note: number of employed persons

    country comparison to the world: 102
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 66.6% (2015 est.)
    industry: 26.6% (2016 est.)
    services: 66.6% (2016 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    6.2% (2017 est.)
    7.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Population below poverty line field listing
    23.4% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 31.2% (2017)
    highest 10%: 31.2% (2017)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    40.2 (2017)
    38.3 (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 20.35 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 19.35 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    35.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Public debt field listing
    23.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    27.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

    country comparison to the world: 181
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.2% (2017 est.)
    -1.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    0% (31 December 2017)
    0.01% (31 December 2015)

    note: Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) has had no independent monetary policy since the introduction of the Currency Board regime in 1997; this is BNB's base interest rate

    country comparison to the world: 149
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    5.41% (31 December 2017 est.)
    6.39% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $29.27 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $22.01 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $29.27 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $22.01 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $33.44 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $27.57 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $14.49 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.205 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $4.797 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Current account balance field listing
    $2.562 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.207 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Exports field listing
    $29.08 billion (2017 est.)
    $25.37 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Exports - commodities field listing
    clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels, agriculture, tobacco, IT components
    Exports - partners field listing
    Germany 13.5%, Italy 8.3%, Romania 8.2%, Turkey 7.7%, Greece 6.5%, Belgium 4.2%, France 4.1% (2017)
    Imports field listing
    $31.43 billion (2017 est.)
    $27.53 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $28.38 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $25.13 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Imports - partners field listing
    Germany 12.3%, Russia 10.3%, Italy 7.3%, Romania 7.1%, Turkey 6.2%, Spain 5.3%, Greece 4.4% (2017)
    Debt - external field listing
    $42.06 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $35.98 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $46.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $45.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $5.868 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.988 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Exchange rates field listing
    leva (BGN) per US dollar -
    1.63 (2017 est.)
    1.86 (2016 est.)
    1.768 (2015 est.)
    1.7644 (2014 est.)
    1.4742 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Bulgaria
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    45.04 billion kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    35.24 billion kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Electricity - exports field listing
    9.187 billion kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Electricity - imports field listing
    3.706 billion kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    12.7 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    45% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    16% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    25% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    14% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Crude oil - production field listing
    1,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    122,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    15 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    132,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    89,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    83,450 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    44,600 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Natural gas - production field listing
    79 million cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    3.059 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    3.153 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    42.98 million Mt (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
  • Communications :: Bulgaria
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 1,302,316 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 8,532,908 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: inherited an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network from the Soviet era; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line now connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relay; Bulgaria has a mature mobile market with effective competition (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line 18 per 100 persons,  mobile-cellular teledensity, fostered by multiple service providers, is over 120 telephones per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 359; submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraine and Russia; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Italy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intersputnik in the Atlantic Ocean region, 2 Intelsat in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (2016)
    Broadcast media field listing
    4 national terrestrial TV stations with 1 state-owned and 3 privately owned; a vast array of TV stations are available from cable and satellite TV providers; state-owned national radio broadcasts over 3 networks; large number of private radio stations broadcasting, especially in urban areas (2010)
    Internet country code field listing
    .bg
    Internet users field listing
    total: 4,274,328 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 59.8% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 1,764,782 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
  • Transportation :: Bulgaria
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 8 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 44 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,118,689 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,583,340 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    LZ (2016)
    Airports field listing
    68 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 57 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 17 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2017)
    under 914 m: 26 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 11 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 9 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    2765 km gas, 346 km oil, 378 km refined products (2017)
    Railways field listing
    total: 5,114 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 4,989 km 1.435-m gauge (2,880 km electrified) (2014)
    narrow gauge: 125 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Roadways field listing
    total: 19,512 km (2011)
    paved: 19,235 km (includes 458 km of expressways) (2011)
    unpaved: 277 km (2011)

    note: does not include Category IV local roads

    country comparison to the world: 112
    Waterways field listing
    470 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 80 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 2, general cargo 18, oil tanker 8, other 52 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Burgas, Varna (Black Sea)
  • Military and Security :: Bulgaria
  • Military expenditures field listing
    1.53% of GDP (2017)
    1.44% of GDP (2016)
    1.32% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Military branches field listing
    Bulgarian Armed Forces: Land Forces (aka Army), Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air Forces (Voennovazdushni Sili, VVS) (2018)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription ended in January 2008; service obligation 6-9 months (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Bulgaria
  • Disputes - international field listing
    none
    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 15,027 (Syria) (2016)
    stateless persons: 48 (2017)

    note: 52,749 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-October 2018); Bulgaria is predominantly a transit country and hosts approximately 992 migrants and asylum seekers as of the end of September 2018; 2,562 migrant arrivals in 2017

    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: Bulgaria is a source and, to a lesser extent, a transit and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; Bulgaria is one of the main sources of human trafficking in the EU; women and children are increasingly sex trafficked domestically, as well as in Europe, Russia, the Middle East, and the US; adults and children become forced laborers in agriculture, construction, and the service sector in Europe, Israel, and Zambia; Romanian girls are also subjected to sex trafficking in Bulgaria
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Bulgaria does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, authorities prosecuted and convicted fewer traffickers and issued suspended sentences for the majority of those convicted; victim protection efforts declined and were minimal relative to the number of victims identified; funding for the state’s two NGO-operated shelters was significantly cut, forcing them to close; specialized services for child and adult male victims were non-existent; the government took action to combat trafficking-related complicity among public officials and police officers (2015)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; vulnerable to money laundering because of corruption, organized crime; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions