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Europe :: BULGARIA
Page last updated on July 18, 2017
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BULGARIA
  • Introduction :: BULGARIA

  • The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
  • Geography :: BULGARIA

  • Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
    43 00 N, 25 00 E
    Europe
    total: 110,879 sq km
    land: 108,489 sq km
    water: 2,390 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 105
    almost identical in size to Virginia; slightly larger than Tennessee
    total: 1,806 km
    border countries (5): Greece 472 km, Macedonia 162 km, Romania 605 km, Serbia 344 km, Turkey 223 km
    354 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
    mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
    mean elevation: 472 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
    highest point: Musala 2,925 m
    bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
    agricultural land: 46.9%
    arable land 29.9%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 15.5%
    forest: 36.7%
    other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
    1,020 sq km (2012)
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger populations
    earthquakes; landslides
    air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
  • People and Society :: BULGARIA

  • 7,144,653 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    noun: Bulgarian(s)
    adjective: Bulgarian
    Bulgarian 76.9%, Turkish 8%, Romani 4.4%, other 0.7% (including Russian, Armenian, and Vlach), other (unknown) 10% (2011 est.)
    note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 9–11% of Bulgaria's population
    Bulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Romani 3.8%, other 0.7%, unspecified 10.5% (2011 est.)
    Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim 7.8%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Jewish) 1.7%, none 3.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2011 est.)
    0-14 years: 14.54% (male 535,131/female 503,540)
    15-24 years: 9.73% (male 362,805/female 332,358)
    25-54 years: 43.33% (male 1,589,183/female 1,506,285)
    55-64 years: 13.38% (male 447,865/female 507,805)
    65 years and over: 19.03% (male 552,217/female 807,464) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 51.9
    youth dependency ratio: 21.5
    elderly dependency ratio: 30.4
    potential support ratio: 3.3 (2015 est.)
    total: 42.4 years
    male: 40.6 years
    female: 44.5 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    -0.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 229
    8.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    14.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger populations
    urban population: 73.9% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    SOFIA (capital) 1.226 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    26.5 years (2013 est.)
    11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    total: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    total population: 74.5 years
    male: 71.2 years
    female: 78 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    1.46 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    69.2%
    note: percent of women age 20-49 (2007)
    8.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    4 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    6.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 99.6% of population
    rural: 99% of population
    total: 99.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.4% of population
    rural: 1% of population
    total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 86.8% of population
    rural: 83.7% of population
    total: 86% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 13.2% of population
    rural: 16.3% of population
    total: 14% of population (2015 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    25.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    4.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.4%
    male: 98.7%
    female: 98.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 15 years (2015)
    total: 23.8%
    male: 23.8%
    female: 23.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
  • Government :: BULGARIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
    conventional short form: Bulgaria
    local long form: Republika Bulgaria
    local short form: Bulgaria
    etymology: named after the Bulgar tribes who settled the lower Balkan region in the 7th century A.D.
    parliamentary republic
    name: Sofia
    geographic coordinates: 42 41 N, 23 19 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Haskovo, Kardzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofia, Sofia-Grad (Sofia City), Stara Zagora, Targovishte, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
    3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)
    Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
    history: several previous; latest drafted between late 1990 and early 1991, adopted 13 July 1991
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; passage requires three-fourths majority vote of National Assembly members in three ballots; signed by the National Assembly chairperson; note - under special circumstances, a "Grand National Assembly" is elected with the authority to write a new constitution and amend certain articles of the constitution, including those affecting basic civil rights and national sovereignty; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in each of several readings; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
    civil law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bulgaria
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Rumen RADEV (since 22 January 2017); Vice President Iliana YOTOVA (since 22 January 2017)
    head of government: Prime Minister Boyko BORISSOV (since 4 May 2017); note - BORISSOV served 2 previous terms as prime minister (27 July 2009-13 March 2013 and 7 November 2014-27 January 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 and 13 November 2016 (next to be held in fall 2021); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
    election results: Rumen RADEV elected president in second round; percent of vote - Rumen RADEV (independent, supported by Bulgarian Socialist Party) 59.4%, Tsetska TSACHEVA (GERB) 36.2%, neither 4.5%; Boyko BORISSOV (GERB) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 133 to 100
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (240 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the National Assembly was dissolved on 27 January 2017 and Bulgaria did not have a legislative body until after a general election on 26 March 2017
    elections: last held on 26 March 2017 (next to be held spring 2021)
    election results: percent of vote by party - GERB 32.7%, BSP 27.2%, United Patriots 9.1%, DPS 9%, Volya 4.2%, other 17.8%; seats by party - GERB 95, BSP 80, United Patriots 27, DPS 26, Volya 12
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of a chairman and approximately 72 judges organized into penal, civil, and commercial colleges); Supreme Administrative Court (organized in 2 colleges with various panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 justices); note - Constitutional Court resides outside the judiciary
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Cassation and Supreme Administrative judges elected by the Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (consists of 25 members with extensive legal experience) and appointed by the president; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices elected by the National Assembly and appointed by the president and the SJC; justices appointed for 9-year terms with renewal of 4 justices every 3 years
    subordinate courts: appeals courts; regional and district courts; administrative courts; courts martial
    Alternative for Bulgarian Revival or ABV [Konstantin PRODANOV]
    Attack (Ataka) [Volen Nikolov SIDEROV]
    Bulgarian Agrarian People’s Union [Nikolay NENCHEV]
    Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Korneliya NINOVA]
    Bulgaria of the Citizens or DBG [Meglena KUNEVA]
    Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISSOV]
    Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Radan KANEV]
    Democrats for Responsibility, Solidarity, and Tolerance or DOST [Lyutvi MESTAN]
    IMRO - Bulgarian National Movement or IMRO-BNM [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]
    Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS [Mustafa KARADAYA]
    National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria or NFSB [Valeri SIMEONOV]
    New Republic (alliance of DSB and other center-right parties) [Radan KANEV]
    Patriotic Front (alliance of IMRO-BNM, NFSB, and other smaller parties, but not including Attack)
    Reformist Bloc or RB (a four-party alliance including DBG and SDS)
    United Patriots Front (alliance of IMRO-BNM, NFSB, and Attack)
    Union of Democratic Forces or SDS [Bozhidar LUKARSKI]
    Yes! Bulgaria [Hristo IVANOV]
    Volya [Veselin MARESHKI]
    Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB
    Podkrepa Labor Confederation
    other: numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
    Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Tihomir Anguelov STOYTCHEV (since 27 June 2016)
    chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174
    FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Eric RUBIN (since February 2016)
    embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1408
    mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
    telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
    FAX: [359] (2) 937-5320
    three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the pan-Slavic white-blue-red colors were modified by substituting a green band (representing freedom) for the blue
    note: the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removed
    lion; national colors: white, green, red
    name: "Mila Rodino" (Dear Homeland)
    lyrics/music: Tsvetan Tsvetkov RADOSLAVOV
    note: adopted 1964; composed in 1885 by a student en route to fight in the Serbo-Bulgarian War
  • Economy :: BULGARIA

  • Bulgaria, a former communist country that entered the EU in 2007, has an open economy that historically has demonstrated strong growth, but its per-capita income remains one of the lowest among EU members and its reliance on energy imports and foreign demand for its exports makes its growth sensitive to external market conditions.
    The government undertook significant structural economic reforms in the 1990s to move the economy from a centralized, planned economy to a more liberal, market-driven economy. These reforms included privatization of state-owned enterprises, liberalization of trade, and strengthening of the tax system - changes that initially caused some economic hardships but later helped to attract investment, spur growth, and make gradual improvements to living conditions. From 2000 through 2008, Bulgaria maintained robust, average annual real GDP growth in excess of 6%, which was followed by a deep recession in 2009 as the financial crisis caused domestic demand, exports, capital inflows and industrial production to contract, prompting the government to rein in spending. Real GDP growth remained slow - less than 2% annually - until 2015, when demand from EU countries for Bulgarian exports, plus an inflow of EU development funds, boosted growth to more than 3%. In recent years, low international energy prices have contributed to Bulgaria’s economic growth and helped to ease inflation; but, in 2017, rising international gas prices could dampen Bulgaria’s growth prospects.
    Bulgaria is heavily reliant on energy imports from Russia, a potential vulnerability, and is a participant in EU-backed efforts to diversify regional natural gas supplies. In late 2016, the Bulgarian Government provided funding to Bulgaria’s National Electric Company to cover the $695 million compensation owed to Russian nuclear equipment manufacturer Atomstroyexport for the cancellation of the Belene Nuclear Power Plant project, which the Bulgarian Government terminated in 2012. In 2016, the Bulgarian Government established the State eGovernment Agency. This new agency is responsible for the implementation of projects related to electronic governance as well as coordination of national policies in this area with the EU requirements and practices, as well as to strengthen cybersecurity.
    Despite a favorable investment regime, including low, flat corporate income taxes, significant challenges remain. Corruption in public administration, a weak judiciary, low productivity, and the presence of organized crime continue to hamper the country's investment climate and economic prospects.
    $143.1 billion (2016 est.)
    $138.9 billion (2015 est.)
    $134.9 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $50.45 billion (2016 est.)
    3% (2016 est.)
    3% (2015 est.)
    1.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    $20,100 (2016 est.)
    $19,400 (2015 est.)
    $18,700 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 87
    22.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    22.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    household consumption: 60.8%
    government consumption: 15.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
    investment in inventories: 0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 69.1%
    imports of goods and services: -66.3% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 5.1%
    industry: 27.5%
    services: 67.5% (2016 est.)
    vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestock
    electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, automotive parts, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel; outsourcing centers
    2.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    3.017 million
    note: number of employed persons (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    agriculture: 6.8%
    industry: 26.6%
    services: 66.6% (2015 est.)
    8% (2016 est.)
    10% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    22% (2015 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.2%
    highest 10%: 28.4% (2015)
    37 (2015)
    35.4 (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    revenues: $18.25 billion
    expenditures: $17.46 billion (2016 est.)
    36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    1.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    26.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    26.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    note:: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
    country comparison to the world: 156
    calendar year
    -0.8% (2016 est.)
    -0.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    0% (31 December 2016)
    0.01% (31 December 2015)
    note: Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) has had no independent monetary policy since the introduction of the Currency Board regime in 1997; this is BNB's base interest rate
    country comparison to the world: 151
    6.58% (31 December 2016 est.)
    6.59% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    $21.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $20.09 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    $42.79 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $41.32 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    $27.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $29.72 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    $5.205 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $4.797 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $5.45 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    $2.201 billion (2016 est.)
    -$67 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    $23.72 billion (2016 est.)
    $23.95 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels, agriculture, tobacco, IT components
    Germany 12.5%, Italy 9.2%, Turkey 8.5%, Romania 8.2%, Greece 6.5%, France 4.2% (2015)
    $25.66 billion (2016 est.)
    $26.81 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials
    Germany 12.9%, Russia 12%, Italy 7.6%, Romania 6.8%, Turkey 5.7%, Greece 4.8%, Spain 4.8% (2015)
    $25.13 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $22.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    $36.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $37.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    $42.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $41.47 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    $2.033 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $1.925 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    leva (BGN) per US dollar -
    1.802 (2016 est.)
    1.7644 (2015 est.)
    1.7644 (2014 est.)
    1.4742 (2013 est.)
    1.52 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: BULGARIA

  • electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    44.35 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    33.91 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    10.94 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    4.566 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    12.13 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    36.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    17.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    30% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    16.4% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    1,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    0 bbl/day (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    129,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    15 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    139,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    84,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    92,350 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    41,320 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    94 million cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    3.209 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    3.093 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    49.92 million Mt (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
  • Communications :: BULGARIA

  • total subscriptions: 1,654,535
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    total: 9.195 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    general assessment: inherited an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network from the Soviet era; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line now connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relay
    domestic: the Bulgaria Telecommunications Company's fixed-line monopoly terminated in 2005 in an effort to upgrade fixed-line services; mobile-cellular teledensity, fostered by multiple service providers, is over 125 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 359; submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraine and Russia; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Italy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intersputnik in the Atlantic Ocean region, 2 Intelsat in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (2015)
    4 national terrestrial TV stations with 1 state-owned and 3 privately owned; a vast array of TV stations are available from cable and satellite TV providers; state-owned national radio broadcasts over 3 networks; large number of private radio stations broadcasting, especially in urban areas (2010)
    .bg
    total: 4.072 million
    percent of population: 56.7% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
  • Transportation :: BULGARIA

  • number of registered air carriers: 8
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 44
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,118,689
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,583,340 mt-km (2015)
    LZ (2016)
    68 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    total: 57
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 17
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
    under 914 m: 26 (2013)
    total: 11
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m: 9 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 2,765 km; oil 346 km; refined products 378 km (2017)
    total: 5,114 km
    standard gauge: 4,989 km 1.435-m gauge (2,880 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 125 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    total: 19,512 km
    paved: 19,235 km (includes 458 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 277 km
    note: does not include Category IV local roads (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    470 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    total: 22
    by type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 8, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
    foreign-owned: 14 (Germany 12, Russia 2)
    registered in other countries: 30 (Belize 1, Comoros 4, Georgia 1, Malta 8, Moldova 1, Panama 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    major seaport(s): Burgas, Varna (Black Sea)
  • Military and Security :: BULGARIA

  • 1.35% of GDP (2016 est.)
    1.29% of GDP (2015)
    1.32% of GDP (2014)
    1.46% of GDP (2013)
    1.35% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Bulgarian Armed Forces: Land Forces (aka Army), Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air Forces (Voennovazdyshni Sily, VVS) (2017)
    18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription ended in January 2008; service obligation 6-9 months (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: BULGARIA

  • none
    refugees (country of origin): 15,027 (Syria) (2016)
    stateless persons: 67 (2016)
    note: 47,538 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)
    current situation: Bulgaria is a source and, to a lesser extent, a transit and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; Bulgaria is one of the main sources of human trafficking in the EU; women and children are increasingly sex trafficked domestically, as well as in Europe, Russia, the Middle East, and the US; adults and children become forced laborers in agriculture, construction, and the service sector in Europe, Israel, and Zambia; Romanian girls are also subjected to sex trafficking in Bulgaria
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Bulgaria does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, authorities prosecuted and convicted fewer traffickers and issued suspended sentences for the majority of those convicted; victim protection efforts declined and were minimal relative to the number of victims identified; funding for the state’s two NGO-operated shelters was significantly cut, forcing them to close; specialized services for child and adult male victims were non-existent; the government took action to combat trafficking-related complicity among public officials and police officers (2015)
    major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; vulnerable to money laundering because of corruption, organized crime; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions (2008)