Library

 
View Text Low Bandwidth Version
Download Publication
Page last updated on April 21, 2015
 
view 7 photos of
Brunei
  • Introduction :: BRUNEI

  • The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the world.
  • Geography :: BRUNEI

  • Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
    4 30 N, 114 40 E
    Southeast Asia
    total: 5,765 sq km
    land: 5,265 sq km
    water: 500 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 173
    slightly smaller than Delaware
    total: 266 km
    border countries (1): Malaysia 266 km
    161 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
    tropical; hot, humid, rainy
    flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
    lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
    highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
    petroleum, natural gas, timber
    arable land: 0.76%
    permanent crops: 1.14%
    other: 98.1% (2012 est.)
    10 sq km (2003)
    8.5 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.09 cu km/yr (97%/0%/3%)
    per capita: 301.6 cu m/yr (2009)
    typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
    seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia
  • People and Society :: BRUNEI

  • noun: Bruneian(s)
    adjective: Bruneian
    Malay 65.7%, Chinese 10.3%, other indigenous 3.4%, other 20.6% (2011 est.)
    Malay (official), English, Chinese dialects
    Muslim (official) 78.8%, Christian 8.7%, Buddhist 7.8%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 4.7% (2011 est.)
    422,675 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    0-14 years: 24.2% (male 52,753/female 49,548)
    15-24 years: 17.3% (male 36,187/female 36,965)
    25-54 years: 46.9% (male 96,006/female 102,028)
    55-64 years: 7.6% (male 16,542/female 15,589)
    65 years and over: 4% (male 8,301/female 8,756) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 41.8%
    youth dependency ratio: 35.3%
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.5%
    potential support ratio: 15.5% (2014 est.)
    total: 29.3 years
    male: 28.9 years
    female: 29.6 years (2014 est.)
    1.65% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    17.49 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    3.47 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    2.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    urban population: 76.9% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: -1.79% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) 241,000
    note: the boundaries of the capital city were expanded in 2007, greatly increasing the city area; the population of the capital increased tenfold (2011)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    24 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    total: 10.48 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 12.48 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 8.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    total population: 76.77 years
    male: 74.46 years
    female: 79.19 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    1.82 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    2.3% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    1.5 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    2.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    7.5% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    3.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 95.4%
    male: 97.1%
    female: 93.7% (2012 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 15 years (2012)
  • Government :: BRUNEI

  • conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
    conventional short form: Brunei
    local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
    local short form: Brunei
    constitutional sultanate (locally known as Malay Islamic Monarchy or MIB)
    name: Bandar Seri Begawan
    geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E
    time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong
    1 January 1984 (from the UK)
    National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
    drafted 1954 to 1959, signed 29 September 1959; amended 1984, 2004, 2011; note - some constitutional provisions suspended since 1962 under a State of Emergency, others since independence in 1984 (2011)
    mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; note - in May 2014, the first sharia-based penal codes were instituted and apply to Muslims and non-Muslims
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age for village elections; universal
    chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both chief of state (Yang Di-Pertuan Agong) and head of government
    head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)
    cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; membership traditionally changes every five years, with the next change expected in 2015; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
    elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary
    description: Legislative Council or Majlis Mesyuarat Negara Brunei (36 seats; members appointed by the sultan including 3 ex-officio members - the speaker and first and second secretaries; meets annually for approximately two weeks)
    elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)
    highest resident court(s): Supreme Court (consists of Court of Appeal and High Court, each with a chief justice and 2 judges); Sharia Court of Appeal (consists of judges appointed by the monarch); note - Brunei has a dual judicial system of secular and sharia (religious) courts; the Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London serves as the final appellate court for civil cases only
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch to serve until age 65, and older if approved by the monarch; Sharia Court of Appeal judges appointed by the monarch; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Intermediate Court; Magistrate's Courts; Juvenile Court; small claims courts; lower sharia courts
    National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]
    note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity
    NA
    ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Dk Norhashimah PG Mohd HASSAN
    chancery: 3520 International Court NW
    telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
    FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
    consulate(s): New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Craig B. ALLEN (since 9 March 2015)
    embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Datu, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115
    mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
    telephone: [673] 238-4616
    FAX: [673] 238-4604
    yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto "Always render service with God's guidance" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads "Brunei, the Abode of Peace"
    royal parasol; national colors: yellow, white, black
    name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)
    lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap
    note: adopted 1951
  • Economy :: BRUNEI

  • Brunei has a small well-to-do economy that depends on revenue from natural resource extraction but encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for 60% of GDP and more than 90% of exports. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. For Bruneian citizens the government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level. The government of Brunei has been emphasizing through policy and resource investments it strong desire to diversity its economy both within the oil and gas sector and to new sectors. Brunei is a member of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement negotiations and, with the nine other ASEAN members, will form the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015.
    $32.11 billion (2014 est.)
    $30.49 billion (2013 est.)
    $31.03 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 122
    $17.43 billion (2014 est.)
    5.3% (2014 est.)
    -1.8% (2013 est.)
    0.9% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    $77,700 (2014 est.)
    $75,100 (2013 est.)
    $77,600 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 9
    56.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    54.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    47.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    household consumption: 20.6%
    government consumption: 19.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 16.8%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 78.2%
    imports of goods and services: -35.5%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 0.8%
    industry: 66.5%
    services: 32.8% (2014 est.)
    rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs
    petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, transportation
    -3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    205,800 (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    agriculture: 4.2%
    industry: 62.8%
    services: 33% (2008 est.)
    2.6% (2011)
    2.7% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    NA%
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $8.762 billion
    expenditures: $6.27 billion (2014 est.)
    50.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    14.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    1 April - 31 March
    0.2% (2014 est.)
    0.4% (2013 est.)
    5.5% (31 December 2014 est.)
    5.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    $3.531 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.517 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    $11.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $11.41 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    $3.939 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.452 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    $NA
    $6.124 billion (2014 est.)
    $6.283 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    $11.38 billion (2014 est.)
    $11.46 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    crude oil, natural gas, garments
    Japan 41.9%, South Korea 17%, Australia 8.2%, India 6.8%, Indonesia 5.7%, Vietnam 5.7%, Thailand 4.8%, NZ 4.3% (2013)
    $4.308 billion (2014 est.)
    $4.075 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    iron and steel, motor vehicles, machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
    Singapore 28.6%, China 22.1%, UK 18.9%, Malaysia 10.8%, US 7.2% (2013)
    $0 (2005)
    note: public external debt only; private external debt unavailable
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar -
    1.244 (2014 est.)
    1.2512 (2013 est.)
    1.25 (2012 est.)
    1.2579 (2011 est.)
    1.3635 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: BRUNEI

  • 3.5 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    3.233 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    759,000 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    100% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    135,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    13,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    18,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    3,198 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    12.06 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    3.022 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    9.039 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    8.678 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: BRUNEI

  • 70,933 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    469,700 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    general assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US
    domestic: every service available
    international: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network provides new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
    state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite and cable systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2009)
    AM 1, FM 2 (transmitting on 18 different frequencies), shortwave 0 (British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) station transmits two FM signals with English and Nepali service) (2006)
    4 (includes 2 UHF stations broadcasting a subscription service) (2006)
    .bn
    49,457 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    314,900 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 125
  • Transportation :: BRUNEI

  • 1 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    total: 1
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    3 (2013)
    condensate 33 km; condensate/gas 86 km; gas 628 km; oil 492 km (2013)
    total: 3,029 km
    paved: 2,425 km
    unpaved: 604 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong rivers are major transport links) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    total: 9
    by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 8
    foreign-owned: 2 (UK 2) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    major seaport(s): Muara
    oil/gas terminal(s): Lumut, Seria
    LNG terminal (export): Lumut
  • Military :: BRUNEI

  • Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2013)
    17 years of age for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve; recruits from the army, navy, and air force all undergo 43-week initial training (2013)
    males age 16-49: 112,688
    females age 16-49: 117,536 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 95,141
    females age 16-49: 99,386 (2010 est.)
    male: 3,572
    female: 3,465 (2010 est.)
    2.43% of GDP (2012)
    2.54% of GDP (2011)
    2.43% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 30
  • Transnational Issues :: BRUNEI

  • per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa Reef
    stateless persons: 20,524 (2013); note - thousands of stateless persons, often ethnic Chinese, are permanent residents and their families have lived in Brunei for generations; obtaining citizenship is difficult and requires individuals to pass rigorous tests on Malay culture, customs, and language; stateless residents receive an International Certificate of Identity, which enables them to travel overseas; the government is considering changing the law prohibiting non-Bruneians, including stateless permanent residents, from owning land
    drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty
GO TOP