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Africa :: Burundi
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Burundi
  • Introduction :: BURUNDI

  • Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. More than 200,000 Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a transition process that integrated defense forces, and established a new constitution and elected a majority Hutu government in 2005. The government of President Pierre NKURUNZIZA, who was reelected in 2010 and again in a disputed election in 2015, continues to face many political and economic challenges.
  • Geography :: BURUNDI

  • Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Tanzania
    3 30 S, 30 00 E
    Africa
    total: 27,830 sq km
    land: 25,680 sq km
    water: 2,150 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 147
    slightly smaller than Maryland
    total: 1,140 km
    border countries (3): Democratic Republic of the Congo 236 km, Rwanda 315 km, Tanzania 589 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees Celsius but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
    hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
    mean elevation: 1,504 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
    highest point: Heha 2,670 m
    nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
    agricultural land: 73.3%
    arable land 38.9%; permanent crops 15.6%; permanent pasture 18.8%
    forest: 6.6%
    other: 20.1% (2011 est.)
    230 sq km (2012)
    12.54 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.29 cu km/yr (15%/5%/79%)
    per capita: 43.27 cu m/yr (2005)
    flooding; landslides; drought
    soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
  • People and Society :: BURUNDI

  • noun: Burundian(s)
    adjective: Burundian
    Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
    Kirundi 29.7% (official), Kirundi and other language 9.1%, French (official) and French and other language 0.3%, Swahili and Swahili and other language 0.2% (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area), English and English and other language 0.06%, more than 2 languages 3.7%, unspecified 56.9% (2008 est.)
    Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%, other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008 est.)
    10,742,276
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    0-14 years: 45.64% (male 2,464,695/female 2,437,923)
    15-24 years: 19.23% (male 1,030,773/female 1,035,478)
    25-54 years: 28.67% (male 1,536,089/female 1,543,356)
    55-64 years: 3.94% (male 198,384/female 224,563)
    65 years and over: 2.52% (male 115,187/female 155,828) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 89.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 85%
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.7%
    potential support ratio: 21.3% (2015 est.)
    total: 17 years
    male: 16.8 years
    female: 17.2 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    3.28% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    42.01 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    9.27 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    urban population: 12.1% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 5.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BUJUMBURA (capital) 751,000 (2015)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    21.3
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
    712 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    total: 61.89 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 68.55 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 55.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    total population: 60.09 years
    male: 58.45 years
    female: 61.78 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    6.09 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    21.9% (2010/11)
    8% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    1.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 91.1% of population
    rural: 73.8% of population
    total: 75.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 8.9% of population
    rural: 26.2% of population
    total: 24.1% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 43.8% of population
    rural: 48.6% of population
    total: 48% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 56.2% of population
    rural: 51.4% of population
    total: 52% of population (2015 est.)
    1.11% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    84,700 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    3,900 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    2.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    29.1% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    5.8% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 85.6%
    male: 88.2%
    female: 83.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 10 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 10 years (2010)
    total number: 433,187
    percentage: 19% (2005 est.)
  • Government :: BURUNDI

  • conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
    conventional short form: Burundi
    local long form: Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
    local short form: Burundi
    former: Urundi
    etymology: name derived from the pre-colonial Kingdom of Burundi (17th-19th century)
    presidential republic
    name: Bujumbura
    geographic coordinates: 3 22 S, 29 21 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    18 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rumonge, Rutana, Ruyigi
    1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
    Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
    several previous; latest ratified by popular referendum 28 February 2005 (2016)
    mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Burundi
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 25 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 25 August 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Prosper BAZOMBAZA (since 13 February 2014); Second Vice President Gervais RUFYIKIRI (since 29 August 2010)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 July 2015(next to be held in 2020); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by Parliament
    election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA reelected president; percent of vote - Pierre NKURUNZIZA (CNDD-FDD) 69.4%, Agathon RWASA (National Liberation Forces) 19%, other 11.6%
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Inama Nkenguzamateka (43 seats in the July 2015 election; 36 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of provincial councils using a three-round voting system which requires a two-thirds majority vote in the first two rounds and a simple majority vote for the two leading candidates in the final round; 3 seats reserved for Twas, and 4 seats reserved for former heads of state; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Inama Nshingamateka (121 seats in the June 2015 election; 100 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 21 co-opted members – 3 Twas and 18 women; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 24 July 2015 (next to be hld onin 2019); National Assembly - last held on 29 June 2015 (next to be held on NA 2020)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CBDD-FDD 30, UPRONA 2, FNL 1, and 4 seats reserved for heads of state, 3 seats for Twas, and 8 seats for women; National Assembly - percent of vote by party (preliminary results) - CNDD-FDD 60.3%, Burundians' Hope Independent 11.2% UPRONA 2.5%, other 26%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 77, Burundians' Hope Independent 21, UPRONA 2, co-opted members 18, seats reserved for Twas 3
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and cassation chambers)
    judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Judicial Service Commission, a 15-member independent body of judicial and legal profession officials); judges appointed by the president with the approval of the Senate; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; County Courts; Courts of Residence
    Burundians' Hope Independent (also called Hope for Burundians)
    Democratic Alliance for Change or ADC [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA]
    National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Pascal NYABENDA]
    National Liberation Forces or FNL [Agathon RWASA]
    National Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]
    Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]
    Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progress Nationale) or UPRONA [Pierre BUYOYA]
    Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC [Pacifique NININAHAZWE] (civil society umbrella organization)
    Observatoire de lutte contre la corruption et les malversations economiques or OLUCOME [Gabriel RUFYIRI] (anti-corruption pressure group)
    other: Hutu and Tutsi militias (loosely organized)
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, CICA, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ernest NDABASHINZE (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 408, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
    FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
    chief of mission: Ambassador Dawn M. LIBERI (since 10 July 2012)
    embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
    mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
    telephone: [257] 22-207-000
    FAX: [257] 22-222-926
    divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below); green symbolizes hope and optimism, white purity and peace, and red the blood shed in the struggle for independence; the three stars in the disk represent the three major ethnic groups: Hutu, Twa, Tutsi, as well as the three elements in the national motto: unity, work, progress
    lion; national colors: red, white, green
    name: "Burundi Bwacu" (Our Beloved Burundi)
    lyrics/music: Jean-Baptiste NTAHOKAJA/Marc BARENGAYABO
    note: adopted 1962
  • Economy :: BURUNDI

  • Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. Agriculture accounts for over 40% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. Thus, Burundi's export earnings - and its ability to pay for imports - rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices, although exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Burundi is heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors - foreign aid in 2014 represented 42% of Burundi's national income, the second highest rate in Sub-Saharan Africa. Burundi joined the East African Community (EAC) in 2009.
    An ethnic-based war that ended in 2005 resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally. Political stability, aid flows, and economic activity improved following the end of the civil war, but underlying weaknesses - a high poverty rate, poor education rates, a weak legal system, a poor transportation network, overburdened utilities, and low administrative capacity – have prevented the government from implementing planned economic reforms. Government corruption has also hindered the development of a private sector as companies have to deal with ever changing rules. The purchasing power of most Burundians has decreased as wage increases have not kept up with inflation.
    In 2015 Burundi’s economy suffered from political turmoil over President NKURUNZIZA’s controversial third term. Blocked transportation routes disrupted the flow of agricultural goods. And donors withdrew aid, increasing Burundi’s budget deficit. When the unrest ends, regional infrastructure improvements driven by the EAC and funded by the World Bank may help improve Burundi’s transport connections and lower transportation costs.
    $7.883 billion (2015 est.)
    $8.491 billion (2014 est.)
    $8.107 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 163
    $2.97 billion (2015 est.)
    -7.2% (2015 est.)
    4.7% (2014 est.)
    4.5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    $900 (2015 est.)
    $900 (2014 est.)
    $900 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 225
    3.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    2.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    1.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    household consumption: 71.9%
    government consumption: 21.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 27.2%
    investment in inventories: -2.7%
    exports of goods and services: 5.5%
    imports of goods and services: -23.3%
    (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 39.2%
    industry: 18.1%
    services: 42.7% (2015 est.)
    coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, cassava (manioc, tapioca); beef, milk, hides
    light consumer goods (blankets, shoes, soap, beer); assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
    5.2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    4.95 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    agriculture: 93.6%
    industry: 2.3%
    services: 4.1% (2002 est.)
    NA%
    68% (2002 est.)
    lowest 10%: 4.1%
    highest 10%: 28% (2006)
    42.4 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    revenues: $852 million
    expenditures: $1.003 billion (2015 est.)
    28.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    -5.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    37.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    36.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    calendar year
    5.3% (2015 est.)
    4.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    11.25% (31 December 2010)
    10% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    16% (31 December 2015 est.)
    15.7% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    $437.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $412.4 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    $594.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $568.6 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    $767.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $721.9 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    $NA
    -$336 million (2015 est.)
    -$545 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    $96.6 million (2015 est.)
    $122.4 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
    Pakistan 12.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 12.6%, Uganda 9.6%, Germany 6.5%, Belgium 5.9%, France 5.6%, Rwanda 5.4%, Sweden 5.1%, US 4.6%, China 4.3%, Sudan 4.2% (2014)
    $815.1 million (2015 est.)
    $923 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
    Saudi Arabia 12.9%, Kenya 11%, Belgium 10.4%, China 8.4%, Tanzania 7.9%, Uganda 6.9%, India 5% (2014)
    $315.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $317.1 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    $700.8 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $682.7 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Burundi francs (BIF) per US dollar -
    1,578.2 (2015 est.)
    1,546.7 (2014 est.)
    1,546.7 (2013 est.)
    1,442.51 (2012 est.)
    1,261.07 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: BURUNDI

  • 202 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    282.9 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    95 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    55,000 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    1.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    98.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    1,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    1,456 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    315,100 Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
  • Communications :: BURUNDI

  • total subscriptions: 21,700
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    total: 3.2 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    general assessment: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relays
    domestic: telephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is increasing but remains at roughly 20 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)
    state-controlled La Radiodiffusion et Television Nationale de Burundi (RTNB) operates the lone TV station and the only national radio network; about 10 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in Bujumbura (2007)
    AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)
    1 (2001)
    .bi
    229 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    total: 144,500
    percent of population: 1.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
  • Transportation :: BURUNDI

  • 7 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    total: 1
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    1 (2012)
    total: 12,322 km
    paved: 1,286 km
    unpaved: 11,036 km (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    (mainly on Lake Tanganyika between Bujumbura, Burundi's principal port, and lake ports in Tanzania, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2011)
    lake port(s): Bujumbura (Lake Tanganyika)
  • Military and Security :: BURUNDI

  • National Defense Forces (Forces de Defense Nationale, FDN): Army (includes maritime wing, Air Wing), National Gendarmerie (2013)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; the armed forces law of 31 December 2004 did not specify a minimum age for enlistment, but the government claimed that no one younger than 18 was being recruited; mandatory retirement age 45 (enlisted), 50 (NCOs), and 55 (officers) (2012)
    2.39% of GDP (2012)
    NA% (2011)
    2.39% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 32
  • Transnational Issues :: BURUNDI

  • Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region
    refugees (country of origin): 53,977 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2015)
    IDPs: undetermined (some ethnic Tutsis remain displaced from intercommunal violence that broke out after the 1993 coup and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; violence since April 2015 has caused internal displacement, but exact figures are unknown because of insecurity and fear of reprisal attacks for self-identification as an IDP) (2015)
    stateless persons: 1,302 (2014)
    current situation: Burundi is a source country for children and possibly women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; business people recruit Burundian girls for prostitution domestically, as well as in Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda, and the Middle East, and recruit boys and girls for forced labor in Burundi and Tanzania; children and young adults are coerced into forced labor in farming, mining, informal commerce, fishing, or collecting river stones for construction; sometimes family, friends, and neighbors are complicit in exploiting children, at times luring them in with offers of educational or job opportunities
    tier rating: Tier 3 – Burundi does not comply fully with the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; corruption, a lack of political will, and limited resources continue to hamper efforts to combat human trafficking; in 2014, the government did not inform judicial and law enforcement officials of the enactment of an anti-trafficking law or how to implement it and approved – but did not fund – its national anti-trafficking action plan; authorities again failed to identify trafficking victims or to provide them with adequate protective services; the government has focused on transnational child trafficking but gave little attention to its domestic child trafficking problem and adult trafficking victims (2015)
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