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East & Southeast Asia :: Cambodia
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  • Introduction :: CAMBODIA

  • Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863, and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war.
    The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a cease-fire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. The most recent local (Commune Council) elections were held in Cambodia in 2012, with little of the preelection violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2013 were disputed, with the opposition - the Cambodian National Rescue Party (CNRP) - boycotting the National Assembly. The political impasse was ended nearly a year later, with the CNRP agreeing to enter parliament in exchange for ruling party commitments to electoral and legislative reforms.
  • Geography :: CAMBODIA

  • Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
    13 00 N, 105 00 E
    Southeast Asia
    total: 181,035 sq km
    land: 176,515 sq km
    water: 4,520 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 90
    slightly smaller than Oklahoma
    total: 2,530 km
    border countries (3): Laos 555 km, Thailand 817 km, Vietnam 1,158 km
    443 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm
    tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
    mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
    lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
    highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
    oil and gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential, arable land
    agricultural land: 32.1%
    arable land 22.7%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 8.5%
    forest: 56.5%
    other: 11.4% (2011 est.)
    3,536 sq km (2006)
    476.1 cu km (2011)
    total: 2.18 cu km/yr (4%/2%/94%)
    per capita: 159.8 cu m/yr (2006)
    monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
    illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap (Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake)
  • People and Society :: CAMBODIA

  • noun: Cambodian(s)
    adjective: Cambodian
    Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
    Khmer (official) 96.3%, other 3.7% (2008 est.)
    Buddhist (official) 96.9%, Muslim 1.9%, Christian 0.4%, other 0.8% (2008 est.)
    note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    0-14 years: 31.43% (male 2,489,964/female 2,447,645)
    15-24 years: 19.71% (male 1,532,016/female 1,564,240)
    25-54 years: 39.61% (male 3,043,676/female 3,178,825)
    55-64 years: 5.2% (male 315,741/female 501,544)
    65 years and over: 4.04% (male 238,840/female 396,265) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 55.6%
    youth dependency ratio: 49.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.4%
    potential support ratio: 15.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 24.5 years
    male: 23.8 years
    female: 25.2 years (2015 est.)
    1.58% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    23.83 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    7.68 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    urban population: 20.7% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 2.65% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    PHNOM PENH (capital) 1.731 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.63 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    161 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    total: 50.04 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 56.69 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 43.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    total population: 64.14 years
    male: 61.69 years
    female: 66.7 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    2.6 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    50.5% (2010/11)
    7.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 69.1% of population
    total: 75.5% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 30.9% of population
    total: 24.5% of population (2015 est.)
    urban: 88.1% of population
    rural: 30.5% of population
    total: 42.4% of population
    urban: 11.9% of population
    rural: 69.5% of population
    total: 57.6% of population (2015 est.)
    0.64% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    74,600 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    2,600 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    2.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    29% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    2.6% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 77.2%
    male: 84.5%
    female: 70.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 10 years (2008)
    total number: 1,345,269
    percentage: 39% (2001 est.)
    total: 0.5%
    male: 0.7%
    female: 0.4% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
  • Government :: CAMBODIA

  • conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
    conventional short form: Cambodia
    local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation)
    local short form: Kampuchea
    former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
    etymology: the English name Cambodia is an anglicization of the French Cambodge, which is the French trasliteration of the native name Kampuchea
    multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy
    name: Phnom Penh
    geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E
    time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    24 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 1 municipality (krong, singular and plural)
    provinces: Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Speu, Kampong Thom, Kampot, Kandal, Kep, Koh Kong, Kratie, Mondolkiri, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Pursat, Ratanakiri, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, Stung Treng, Svay Rieng, Takeo, Tbong Khmum
    municipalities: Phnom Penh (Phnum Penh)
    9 November 1953 (from France)
    Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
    previous 1947; latest promulgated 21 September 1993; amended 1999, 2008, last in 2014 (2015)
    civil law system (influenced by the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia) customary law, Communist legal theory, and common law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cambodia
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
    head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985); Permanent Deputy Prime Minister MEN SAM AN (since 25 September 2008); Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992), SOK AN, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG (all since 16 July 2004), BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007), KEAT CHHON, YIM CHHAI LY (since 24 September 2008), KE KIMYAN (since 12 March 2009)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
    elections/appointments: monarch chosen by the 9-member, Royal Council of the Throne from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the monarch
    description: bicameral Parliament of Cambodia consists of the Senate (61 seats; 57 indirectly elected by parliamentarians and commune councils, 2 indirectly elected by the National Assembly, and 2 appointed by the monarch; members serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly (123 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    note: two seats will be added to the National Assembly in 2018, for a total of 125
    elections: Senate - last held on 4 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); National Assembly - last held on 28 July 2013 (next to be held in July 2018)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 77.8%, SRP 22.2%; seats by party - CPP 46, SRP 11; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 48.8%, CNRP 44.5%, FUNCINPEC 3.7%, other 3.1%; seats by party - CPP 68, CNRP 55
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into 5- and 9-judge panels and includes a court chief and deputy chief); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); note - in 1997, the Cambodian Government requested UN assistance in establishing trials to prosecute former Khmer Rouge senior leaders for crimes against humanity committed during the 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge regime; the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts in Cambodia were established and began hearings for the first case in 2009
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judge candidates recommended by the Supreme Council of Magistracy, a 9-member body chaired by the monarch and includes other high-level judicial officers; judges of both courts appointed by the monarch; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of the court renewed every 3 years
    subordinate courts: municipal and provincial courts; appellate courts; military court
    Cambodian National Rescue Party or CNRP [SAM RANGSI, also spelled SAM RAINSY] (a July 2012 merger between the Sam Rangsi Party or SRP and the former Human Rights Party or HRP [KHEM SOKHA, also spelled KEM SOKHA])
    Cambodian People's Party or CPP [HUN SEN]
    National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [NORODOM RANARIDDH]
    Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization)
    Students Movement for Democracy
    The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel
    other: human rights organizations; vendors
    chief of mission: Ambassador CHUM Bun Rong (since 3 August 2015)
    chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
    telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
    FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
    chief of mission: Ambassador William A. HEIDT (since 2 December 2015)
    mailing address: Unit 8166, Box P, APO AP 96546
    telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
    FAX: [855] (23) 728-600
    three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band; red and blue are traditional Cambodian colors
    note: only national flag to incorporate an actual building into its design
    Angkor Wat temple, kouprey (wild ox); national colors: red, blue
    name: "Nokoreach" (Royal Kingdom)
    lyrics/music: CHUON NAT/F. PERRUCHOT and J. JEKYLL
    note: adopted 1941, restored 1993; the anthem, based on a Cambodian folk tune, was restored after the defeat of the Communist regime
  • Economy :: CAMBODIA

  • Cambodia has experienced strong economic growth over the last decade. Cambodian GDP grew at an average annual rate of over 8% between 2000 and 2010 and over 7% since 2011. The tourism, garment, construction and real estate, and agriculture sectors accounted for the bulk of growth. Around 600,000 people, the majority of whom are women, are employed in the garment and footwear sector. An additional 500,000 Cambodians are employed in the tourism sector, and a further 50,000 people in construction. The tourism industry has continued to grow rapidly with foreign arrivals exceeding 2 million per year since 2007 and reaching around 4.5 million visitors in 2014.
    In 2005, exploitable oil deposits were found beneath Cambodia's territorial waters, representing a potential revenue stream for the government, if commercial extraction becomes feasible. Some of the deposits are located within the so-called overlapping claimed areas with Thailand. However, an unresolved border dispute with Thailand has so far prevented development in those areas. Mining also is attracting some investor interest and the government has touted opportunities for mining bauxite, gold, iron and gems.
    Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in Asia and long-term economic development remains a daunting challenge, inhibited by endemic corruption, limited educational opportunities, high income inequality, and poor job prospects. As of 2012, approximately 2.66 million people live on less than $1.20 per day, and 37% of Cambodian children under the age of 5 suffer from chronic malnutrition. More than 50% of the population is less than 25 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the impoverished countryside, which also lacks basic infrastructure.
    The Cambodian Government has been working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs; more than 30% of the government budget comes from donor assistance. A major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance. Following the 2013 national elections, the government announced a variety of economic and business reforms. The government is also moving forward with new legislation to meet the 2015 deadline for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community.
    $50.16 billion (2014 est.)
    $46.88 billion (2013 est.)
    $43.64 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 109
    $16.55 billion (2014 est.)
    7% (2014 est.)
    7.4% (2013 est.)
    7.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    $3,300 (2014 est.)
    $3,100 (2013 est.)
    $2,800 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 183
    11% of GDP (2014 est.)
    11.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    12.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    household consumption: 79%
    government consumption: 5.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 22.1%
    investment in inventories: 1%
    exports of goods and services: 68.4%
    imports of goods and services: -75.8%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 29.8%
    industry: 27.3%
    services: 42.9% (2014 est.)
    rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, cassava (manioc, tapioca), silk
    tourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
    10.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    7.974 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    agriculture: 48.7%
    industry: 19.9%
    services: 31.5% (2013 est.)
    0.3% (2013 est.)
    0.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    17.7% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2%
    highest 10%: 28% (2013 est.)
    37.9 (2008 est.)
    41.9 (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    revenues: $2.673 billion
    expenditures: $3.386 billion (2014 est.)
    16.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    -4.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    33.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    33.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    calendar year
    3.9% (2014 est.)
    3% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    NA% (31 December 2012)
    5.25% (31 December 2007)
    12.31% (31 December 2014 est.)
    12.8% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    $1.482 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.194 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    $10.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $8.236 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $7.842 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.184 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    -$2.027 billion (2014 est.)
    -$1.88 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    $7.407 billion (2014 est.)
    $6.53 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
    US 24.1%, UK 8.7%, Germany 8.1%, Canada 7%, Japan 6.5%, Vietnam 5.3%, Thailand 5%, Netherlands 4.6%, China 4.1% (2014)
    $10.62 billion (2014 est.)
    $9.489 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
    Thailand 28.1%, China 20.6%, Vietnam 16.8%, Singapore 7%, Hong Kong 5.7%, South Korea 4.1% (2014)
    $7.091 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $6.106 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    $7.222 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.427 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    $29.17 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    riels (KHR) per US dollar -
    4,037.5 (2014 est.)
    4,037.5 (2013 est.)
    4,033 (2012 est.)
    4,058.5 (2011 est.)
    4,184.9 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: CAMBODIA

  • 1.77 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    3.553 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    2.282 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    949,000 kW (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    32.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    57.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    10% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    28,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    28,890 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
  • Communications :: CAMBODIA

  • total subscriptions: 440,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    total: 23.9 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    general assessment: adequate fixed-line and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas
    domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 4 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by competition among service providers, is increasing rapidly and stands at 92 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2011)
    mixture of state-owned, joint public-private, and privately owned broadcast media; 9 TV broadcast stations with most operating on multiple channels, including 1 state-operated station broadcasting from multiple locations, 6 stations either jointly operated or privately owned with some broadcasting from several locations, and 2 TV relay stations - one relaying a French TV station and the other relaying a Vietnamese TV station; multi-channel cable and satellite systems are available; roughly 50 radio broadcast stations - 1 state-owned broadcaster with multiple stations and a large mixture of public and private broadcasters; several international broadcasters are available (2009)
    AM 1, FM 50, shortwave NA (2008)
    9 (2009)
    total: 831,700
    percent of population: 5.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
  • Transportation :: CAMBODIA

  • 16 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    total: 6
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 10
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 7
    under 914 m:
    1 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    total: 642 km
    narrow gauge: 642 km 1.000-m gauge
    note: under restoration (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    total: 44,709 km
    paved: 3,607 km
    unpaved: 41,102 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    3,700 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    total: 544
    by type: bulk carrier 38, cargo 459, carrier 7, chemical tanker 4, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 1
    foreign-owned: 352 (Belgium 1, Canada 2, China 177, Cyprus 4, Egypt 4, Estonia 1, French Polynesia 1, Gabon 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Japan 1, Lebanon 5, Russia 50, Singapore 3, South Korea 10, Syria 22, Taiwan 1, Turkey 15, UAE 2, UK 1, Ukraine 35, Vietnam 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    major seaport(s): Sihanoukville (Kampong Saom)
    river port(s): Phnom Penh (Mekong)
  • Military and Security :: CAMBODIA

  • Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force (2013)
    18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)
    males age 16-49: 3,883,724
    females age 16-49: 4,003,585 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 2,638,167
    females age 16-49: 2,965,328 (2010 est.)
    male: 151,143
    female: 154,542 (2010 est.)
    2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    1.8% of GDP (2014)
    1.58% of GDP (2013)
    1.54% of GDP (2012)
    1.5% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 60
  • Transnational Issues :: CAMBODIA

  • Cambodia is concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear Temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a UN World Heritage site; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Vietnam is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands
    current situation: Cambodia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Cambodian men, women, and children migrate to countries within the region and, increasingly, the Middle East for legitimate work but are subjected to sex trafficking, domestic servitude, or forced labor in fishing, agriculture, construction, and factories; Cambodian men recruited to work on Thai-owned fishing vessels are subsequently subjected to forced labor in international waters and are kept at sea for years; poor Cambodian children are vulnerable and, often with the families’ complicity, are subject to forced labor, including domestic servitude and forced begging, in Thailand and Vietnam; Cambodian and ethnic Vietnamese women and girls are trafficked from rural areas to urban centers and tourist spots for sexual exploitation; Cambodian men are the main exploiters of child prostitutes, but men from other Asian countries, and the West travel to Cambodia for child sex tourism
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Cambodia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; authorities made modest progress in prosecutions and convictions of traffickers in 2014 but did not provide comprehensive data; endemic corruption continued to impede law enforcement efforts, and no complicit officials were prosecuted or convicted; the government sustained efforts to identify victims and refer them to NGOs for care, but victim protection remained inadequate, particularly for assisting male victims and victims identified abroad; a new national action plan was adopted, but guidelines for victim identification and guidance on undercover investigation techniques are still pending after several years (2015)
    narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; limited methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders