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Africa :: Chad
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Chad
  • Introduction :: CHAD

  • Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before peace was restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and insurgents. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. In January 2014, Chad began a two-year rotation on the UN Security Council.
  • Geography :: CHAD

  • Central Africa, south of Libya
    15 00 N, 19 00 E
    Africa
    total: 1.284 million sq km
    land: 1,259,200 sq km
    water: 24,800 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 21
    slightly more than three times the size of California
    total: 6,406 km
    border countries (6): Cameroon 1,116 km, Central African Republic 1,556 km, Libya 1,050 km, Niger 1,196 km, Nigeria 85 km, Sudan 1,403 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    tropical in south, desert in north
    broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
    lowest point: Djourab 160 m
    highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
    petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
    agricultural land: 39.6%
    arable land 3.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 35.7%
    forest: 9.1%
    other: 51.3% (2011 est.)
    302.7 sq km (2003)
    43 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.88 cu km/yr (12%/12%/76%)
    per capita: 84.81 cu m/yr (2005)
    hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
    inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
    note 1: Chad is the largest of Africa's 16 landlocked countries
    note 2: not long ago - geologically speaking - what is today the Sahara was green savannah teeming with wildlife; during the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope lived there; the last remnant of the "Green Sahara" exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site
    note 3: Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad; at its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period; it covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), roughly the size of today's Caspian Sea
  • People and Society :: CHAD

  • noun: Chadian(s)
    adjective: Chadian
    Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)
    French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
    Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)
    11,631,456 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    0-14 years: 44.2% (male 2,607,314/female 2,534,163)
    15-24 years: 20.9% (male 1,183,962/female 1,247,130)
    25-54 years: 28.05% (male 1,479,285/female 1,783,014)
    55-64 years: 3.87% (male 197,673/female 252,379)
    65 years and over: 2.98% (male 143,712/female 202,824) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 102.2%
    youth dependency ratio: 97.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.8%
    potential support ratio: 20.7% (2014 est.)
    total: 17.2 years
    male: 16.1 years
    female: 18.2 years (2014 est.)
    1.89% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    36.6 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    14.28 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    -3.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    urban population: 22.5% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 3.42% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    N'DJAMENA (capital) 1.212 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 88.69 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 94.23 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 82.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    total population: 49.81 years
    male: 48.64 years
    female: 51.03 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 224
    4.55 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    4.8% (2010)
    3.6% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
    0.4 beds/1,000 population (2005)
    improved:
    urban: 71.8% of population
    rural: 44.8% of population
    total: 50.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 28.2% of population
    rural: 55.2% of population
    total: 49.3% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 31.4% of population
    rural: 6.5% of population
    total: 11.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 68.6% of population
    rural: 93.5% of population
    total: 88.1% of population (2012 est.)
    2.48% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    205,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    14,700 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    6.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    30.3% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    2.3% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
    total population: 40.2%
    male: 48.5%
    female: 31.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 7 years
    male: 9 years
    female: 6 years (2011)
    total number: 1,475,960
    percentage: 48% (2010 est.)
  • Government :: CHAD

  • conventional long form: Republic of Chad
    conventional short form: Chad
    local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
    local short form: Tchad/Tshad
    republic
    name: N'Djamena
    geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
    11 August 1960 (from France)
    Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
    several previous; latest passed by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996; amended 2005 (2010)
    mixed legal system of civil and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)
    head of government: Prime Minister KALZEUBET Pahimi Deubet (since 21 November 2013)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers; members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 8.6%, Nadji MADOU 7.8%
    description: unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 118 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 70 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February 2011 (next to be held on 30 September 2015)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ART 133, UNDR 11, other 44
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judge term NA
    subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
    Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP
    Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
    National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
    National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
    Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Jean-Baptiste LAOKOLE]
    Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]
    Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]
    Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Sande NGARYIMBE]
    NA
    ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Nasser HASSANE (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 652-1312
    FAX: [1] (202) 758-0431
    chief of mission: Ambassador James KNIGHT (since 6 September 2013)
    embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
    mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
    telephone: [235] 2251-70-09
    FAX: [235] 2251-56-54
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
    note: similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
    goat (north), lion (south); national colors: blue, yellow, red
    name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
    lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
    note: adopted 1960
  • Economy :: CHAD

  • Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for much public and private sector investment. The services sector contributes about one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking. Chad’s fiscal position is encumbered by declining oil prices, though high oil prices and strong local harvests supported the economy in recent years. Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shut-downs occasionally result in shortages. The country regulates the price of domestic fuel, providing an incentive for black market sales. Chad's investment climate remains challenging due to limited infrastructure, a lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. Chad obtained a three-year extended credit facility from the IMF in 2014 and was granted debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative in April 2015.
    $29.53 billion (2014 est.)
    $27.63 billion (2013 est.)
    $26.14 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 126
    $13.95 billion (2014 est.)
    6.9% (2014 est.)
    5.7% (2013 est.)
    8.9% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    $2,600 (2014 est.)
    $2,400 (2013 est.)
    $2,300 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 194
    -6.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    18.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    22.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    household consumption: 76.1%
    government consumption: 6.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 29.3%
    investment in inventories: 0.3%
    exports of goods and services: 27.1%
    imports of goods and services: -39%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 54.3%
    industry: 13.2%
    services: 32.4% (2014 est.)
    cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, sesame, corn, rice, potatoes, onions, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cattle, sheep, goats, camels
    oil, cotton textiles, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
    6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    4.919 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    agriculture: 80%
    industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
    NA%
    46.7% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.6%
    highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
    43.3 (2011 est.)
    revenues: $2.884 billion
    expenditures: $3.713 billion (2014 est.)
    18.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    -5.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    34.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    31.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    calendar year
    1.7% (2014 est.)
    0.1% (2013 est.)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    4.75% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    15.5% (31 December 2014 est.)
    15.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    $1.746 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.606 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    $1.976 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.751 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    $895.3 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $757.6 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    $NA
    -$1.219 billion (2014 est.)
    -$1.225 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    $4.912 billion (2014 est.)
    $3.926 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    oil, livestock, cotton, sesame, gum arabic, shea butter
    US 80.7%, Japan 5.9%, India 4.6% (2013)
    $3.481 billion (2014 est.)
    $3.193 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
    China 31%, Cameroon 13.2%, France 11.6%, Belgium 5.4%, India 4.3% (2013)
    $1.389 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.196 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    $3.222 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.878 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    $NA (31 December 2010)
    $4.5 billion (2006 est.)
    $NA
    Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
    491.2 (2014 est.)
    494.04 (2013 est.)
    510.53 (2012 est.)
    471.87 (2011 est.)
    495.28 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: CHAD

  • 200 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    186 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    31,000 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    100% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    97,910 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    125,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    1,870 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    1,754 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    264,300 Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
  • Communications :: CHAD

  • 29,900 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    4.2 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high maintenance costs and low telephone density
    domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 35 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
    1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007)
    AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2001)
    1 (2001)
    .td
    6 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 229
    168,100 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 141
  • Transportation :: CHAD

  • 59 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    total: 9
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 50
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
    914 to 1,523 m: 22
    under 914 m:
    11 (2013)
    oil 582 km (2013)
    total: 40,000 km
    note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    (Chari and Legone Rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)
  • Military :: CHAD

  • Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)
    20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age 21; while provisions for military service have not been repealed, they have never been fully implemented (2015)
    males age 16-49: 2,090,244
    females age 16-49: 2,441,321 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,183,242
    females age 16-49: 1,395,811 (2010 est.)
    male: 128,723
    female: 128,244 (2010 est.)
    NA% (2012)
    2.28% of GDP (2011)
    NA% (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: CHAD

  • since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
    refugees (country of origin): 367,229 (Sudan); 91,211 (Central African Republic); 18,131 (Nigeria) (2015)
    IDPs: 85,500 (majority are in the east) (2015)
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