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Africa :: Congo, Republic of the
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Congo, Republic of the
  • Introduction :: CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

  • Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government took office in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso, and ushered in a period of ethnic and political unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003. The Republic of Congo is one of Africa's largest petroleum producers, but with declining production it will need new offshore oil finds to sustain its oil earnings over the long term.
  • Geography :: CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

  • Central Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon
    1 00 S, 15 00 E
    Africa
    total: 342,000 sq km
    land: 341,500 sq km
    water: 500 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 64
    slightly smaller than Montana
    total: 5,008 km
    border countries (5): Angola 231 km, Cameroon 494 km, Central African Republic 487 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,229 km, Gabon 2,567 km
    169 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
    coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m
    petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, gold, magnesium, natural gas, hydropower
    agricultural land: 31.1%
    arable land 1.6%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 29.3%
    forest: 65.6%
    other: 3.3% (2011 est.)
    20 sq km (2003)
    832 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.05 cu km/yr (69%/26%/4%)
    per capita: 13.99 cu m/yr (2005)
    seasonal flooding
    air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them
  • People and Society :: CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

  • noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Congolese or Congo
    Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%
    French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread)
    Roman Catholic 33.1%, Awakening Churches/Christian Revival 22.3%, Protestant 19.9%, Salutiste 2.2%, Muslim 1.6%, Kimbanguiste 1.5%, other 8.1%, none 11.3% (2010 est.)
    4,755,097
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    0-14 years: 41.33% (male 991,327/female 973,745)
    15-24 years: 17.48% (male 415,282/female 415,817)
    25-54 years: 34.12% (male 819,204/female 803,062)
    55-64 years: 4.08% (male 95,755/female 98,295)
    65 years and over: 3% (male 62,332/female 80,278) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 85%
    youth dependency ratio: 78.7%
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.3%
    potential support ratio: 16% (2014 est.)
    total: 19.8 years
    male: 19.7 years
    female: 20 years (2014 est.)
    2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    35.85 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    10 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    -5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    urban population: 65.4% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 3.22% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BRAZZAVILLE (capital) 1.827 million; Pointe-Noire 939,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 57.92 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 62.97 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 52.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    total population: 58.79 years
    male: 57.64 years
    female: 59.98 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    4.68 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    44.7% (2011/12)
    4.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
    1.6 beds/1,000 population (2005)
    improved:
    urban: 95.7% of population
    rural: 38.8% of population
    total: 75.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 4.3% of population
    rural: 61.2% of population
    total: 24.7% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 19.6% of population
    rural: 5.6% of population
    total: 14.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 80.4% of population
    rural: 94.4% of population
    total: 85.4% of population (2012 est.)
    2.49% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    68,900 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    5,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria and dengue fever
    animal contact disease: rabies
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2013)
    9.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    11.8% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    6.2% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 79.3%
    male: 86.4%
    female: 72.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 11 years (2012)
    total number: 252,171
    percentage: 25% (2005 est.)
  • Government :: CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

  • conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
    conventional short form: Congo (Brazzaville)
    local long form: Republique du Congo
    local short form: Congo
    former: French Congo, Middle Congo, People's Republic of the Congo, Congo/Brazzaville
    republic
    name: Brazzaville
    geographic coordinates: 4 15 S, 15 17 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    12 departments (departments, singular - department); Bouenza, Brazzaville, Cuvette, Cuvette-Ouest, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pointe-Noire, Pool, Sangha
    15 August 1960 (from France)
    Independence Day, 15 August (1960)
    previous 1992; latest approved by referendum 20 January 2002 (2002)
    mixed legal system of French civil law and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (since 25 October 1997); note - the position of prime minister was abolished in September 2009
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 July 2009 (next to be held in 2016)
    election results: Denis SASSOU-Nguesso reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-Nguesso 78.6%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 7.5%, Nicephore Fylla de SAINT-EUDES 7%, other 6.9%
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate (72 seats; members indirectly elected by regional councils by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (139 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 5 August 2008 (next to be held in July 2014); National Assembly - last held on 15 July and 5 August 2012 (next to be held in 2018)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RMP 33, FDU 23, UPADS 2, other 7, independent 7; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PCT (and allies) 117, UPADS 7, independent 12, vacant 3
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of NA judges); note - the High Court of Justice, outside the judicial authority, tries cases involving treason by the president of the republic
    judge selection and term of office: judges elected by parliament and serve until retirement age
    subordinate courts: courts of appeal; regional and district courts; employment tribunals; juvenile courts
    Action Movement for Renewal or MAR
    Congolese Labour Party or PCT
    Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]
    Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD
    Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]
    Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO]
    Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]
    Rally of the Presidential Majority or RMP
    Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR
    United Democratic Forces or FDU [Sebastian EBAO]
    many smaller parties
    Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC
    General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC
    Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC
    Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
    ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Serge MOMBOULI (since 31 July 2001)
    chancery: 1720 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
    FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860
    chief of mission: Ambassador Stephanie S. SULLIVAN (since 12 August 2013)
    embassy: 70-83 Section D, Maya-Maya Boulevard, Brazzaville
    mailing address: B.P. 1015, Brazzaville
    telephone: [242] 06 612-2000
    divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; green symbolizes agriculture and forests, yellow the friendship and nobility of the people, red is unexplained but has been associated with the struggle for independence
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
    lion, elephant; national colors: green, yellow, red
    name: "La Congolaise" (The Congolese)
    lyrics/music: Jacques TONDRA and Georges KIBANGHI/Jean ROYER and Joseph SPADILIERE
    note: originally adopted 1959, restored 1991
  • Economy :: CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

  • The economy is a mixture of subsistence farming and hunting, an industrial sector based largely on oil and support services, and government spending. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. Natural gas is increasingly being converted to electricity rather than being flared, greatly improving energy prospects. New mining projects, particularly iron ore, which entered production in late 2013 may add as much as $1 billion to annual government revenue. Economic reform efforts have been undertaken with the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF, including recently concluded Article IV consultations. The current administration faces difficult economic challenges of stimulating recovery and reducing poverty. The recent drop in oil prices has constrained government spending; lower oil prices forced the government to cut more than $1 billion in planned spending. Officially the country became a net external creditor as of 2011, with external debt representing only about 16% of GDP and debt servicing less than 3% of government revenue.
    $28.09 billion (2014 est.)
    $26.5 billion (2013 est.)
    $25.65 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 129
    $14.11 billion (2014 est.)
    6% (2014 est.)
    3.3% (2013 est.)
    3.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    $6,600 (2014 est.)
    $6,300 (2013 est.)
    $6,300 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 156
    33.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    27.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    24.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    household consumption: 25.3%
    government consumption: 14%
    investment in fixed capital: 54%
    investment in inventories: 7.1%
    exports of goods and services: 81.1%
    imports of goods and services: -81.5%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 3.3%
    industry: 74.4%
    services: 22.3% (2014 est.)
    cassava (manioc, tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products
    petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes
    3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    2.89 million (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    53% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    46.5% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.1%
    highest 10%: 37.1% (2005)
    revenues: $6.508 billion
    expenditures: $5.982 billion (2014 est.)
    46.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    3.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    30.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    26% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    calendar year
    0.9% (2014 est.)
    6% (2013 est.)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    4.75% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    14.8% (31 December 2014 est.)
    14.8% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    $3.894 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $4.115 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    $5.119 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $4.795 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    $-724.8 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $-1.136 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    $NA
    $170.7 million (2014 est.)
    $462.3 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    $8.972 billion (2014 est.)
    $9.707 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    petroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds
    China 53.8%, US 11.1%, Australia 9.4%, France 5.3% (2013)
    $4.389 billion (2014 est.)
    $4.336 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs
    China 19%, France 18.7%, Italy 6.2%, US 5.5%, India 5.1%, Belgium 4.5% (2013)
    $5.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.382 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    $3.956 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.561 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
    491.2 (2014 est.)
    494.04 (2013 est.)
    510.53 (2012 est.)
    471.87 (2011 est.)
    495.28 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

  • 559 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    588 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    27 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    559,000 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    51.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    48.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    279,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    290,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    1.6 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    13,820 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    13,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    4,288 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    4,156 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    1.16 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    1.16 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    39 million cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    90.61 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    6.691 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
  • Communications :: CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

  • 14,900 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    4.283 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    general assessment: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable with services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order
    domestic: fixed-line infrastructure inadequate, providing less than 1 connection per 100 persons; in the absence of an adequate fixed-line infrastructure, mobile-cellular subscribership has surged to 90 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 242; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
    1 state-owned TV and 3 state-owned radio stations; several privately owned TV and radio stations; satellite TV service is available; rebroadcasts of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
    AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 3 (2001)
    1 (2001)
    .cg
    45 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    245,200 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 133
  • Transportation :: CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

  • 27 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    total: 8
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
    total: 19
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
    914 to 1,523 m: 9
    under 914 m:
    2 (2013)
    gas 232 km; liquid petroleum gas 4 km; oil 982 km (2013)
    total: 886 km
    narrow gauge: 886 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    total: 17,289 km
    paved: 864 km
    unpaved: 16,425 km (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    1,120 km (commercially navigable on Congo and Oubanqui Rivers above Brazzaville; there are many ferries across the river to Kinshasa; the Congo south of Brazzaville-Kinshasa to the coast is not navigable because of rapids, necessitating a rail connection to Pointe Noire; other rivers are used for local traffic only) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    registered in other countries: 1 (Democratic Republic of the Congo 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    major seaport(s): Pointe-Noire
    river port(s): Brazzaville (Congo); Impfondo (Oubangi); Ouesso (Sangha); Oyo (Alima)
    oil terminal(s): Djeno
  • Military :: CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

  • Congolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Congolaises, FAC): Army (Armee de Terre), Navy, Congolese Air Force (Armee de l'Air Congolaise); Gendarmerie; Special Presidential Security Guard (GSSP) (2013)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in the Armed Forces (2012)
    males age 16-49: 928,664
    females age 16-49: 914,265 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 577,944
    females age 16-49: 566,587 (2010 est.)
    male: 50,000
    female: 49,641 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

  • the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Democratic Republic of the Congo is undefined except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
    refugees (country of origin): 23,376 (Democratic Republic of Congo); 9,104 (Rwanda) (2014); 27,654 (Central African Republic) (2015)
    IDPs: 7,800 (multiple civil wars since 1992) (2014)
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