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Africa :: Congo, Republic of the Print
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CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE
  • Introduction :: Congo, Republic of the
  • Background field listing
    Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government took office in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso, and ushered in a period of ethnic and political unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003. The Republic of Congo is one of Africa's largest petroleum producers, but with declining production it will need new offshore oil finds to sustain its oil earnings over the long term.
  • Geography :: Congo, Republic of the
  • Location field listing
    Central Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    1 00 S, 15 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Africa
    Area field listing
    total: 342,000 sq km
    land: 341,500 sq km
    water: 500 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly smaller than Montana
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 5,008 km
    border countries (5): Angola 231 km, Cameroon 494 km, Central African Republic 487 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1229 km, Gabon 2567 km
    Coastline field listing
    169 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    Climate field listing
    tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
    Terrain field listing
    coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 430 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    903 highest point: Mount Berongou
    Natural resources field listing
    petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, gold, magnesium, natural gas, hydropower
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 31.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 1.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 29.3% (2011 est.)
    forest: 65.6% (2011 est.)
    other: 3.3% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    20 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    the population is primarily located in the south, in and around the capital of Brazzaville
    Natural hazards field listing
    seasonal flooding
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation; wildlife protection
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them
  • People and Society :: Congo, Republic of the
  • Population field listing
    85,281,024 (July 2018 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 16
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Congolese or Congo
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Kongo 40.5%, Teke 16.9%, Mbochi 13.1%, foreigner 8.2%, Sangha 5.6%, Mbere/Mbeti/Kele 4.4%, Punu 4.3%, Pygmy 1.6%, Oubanguiens 1.6%, Duma 1.5%, Makaa 1.3%, other and unspecified 1% (2014-15 est.)
    Languages field listing
    French (official), French Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread)
    Religions field listing
    Roman Catholic 33.1%, Awakening Churches/Christian Revival 22.3%, Protestant 19.9%, Salutiste 2.2%, Muslim 1.6%, Kimbanguiste 1.5%, other 8.1%, none 11.3% (2010 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 41.75% (male 1,066,474 /female 1,046,924)
    15-24 years: 16.99% (male 431,279 /female 428,999)
    25-54 years: 33.77% (male 857,596 /female 851,712)
    55-64 years: 4.39% (male 112,669 /female 109,429)
    65 years and over: 3.1% (male 69,621 /female 87,318) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 84.5 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 78.3 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.2 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 16.1 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 19.6 years
    male: 19.4 years
    female: 19.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Population growth rate field listing
    2.33% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Birth rate field listing
    32.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Death rate field listing
    9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Net migration rate field listing
    -3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Population distribution field listing
    the population is primarily located in the south, in and around the capital of Brazzaville
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 66.9% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 3.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    2.23 million BRAZZAVILLE (capital), 1.138 million Pointe-Noire (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    19.8 years (2011/12 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    442 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 66.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 70.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 63.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 58.1 years (2018 est.)
    male: 56.5 years (2018 est.)
    female: 59.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Total fertility rate field listing
    4.26 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    30.1% (2014/15)
    Health expenditures field listing
    5.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 95.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 40% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 76.5% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 4.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 60% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 23.5% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 20% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 5.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 15% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 80% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 94.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 85% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    3.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    100,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    4,900 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    9.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    12.3% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Education expenditures field listing
    6.2% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 79.3% (2015 est.)
    male: 86.4% (2015 est.)
    female: 72.9% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 11 years (2012)
    male: 11 years (2012)
    female: 11 years (2012)
  • Government :: Congo, Republic of the
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
    conventional short form: Congo (Brazzaville)
    local long form: Republique du Congo
    local short form: Congo
    former: French Congo, Middle Congo, People's Republic of the Congo, Congo/Brazzaville
    etymology: named for the Congo River, which makes up much of the country's eastern border; the river name derives from Kongo, a Bantu kingdom that occupied its mouth at the time of Portuguese discovery in the late 15th century and whose name stems from its people the Bakongo, meaning "hunters"
    Government type field listing
    presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Brazzaville
    geographic coordinates: 4 15 S, 15 17 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions field listing
    12 departments (departments, singular - department); Bouenza, Brazzaville, Cuvette, Cuvette-Ouest, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pointe-Noire, Pool, Sangha
    Independence field listing
    15 August 1960 (from France)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 15 August (1960)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest approved by referendum 25 October 2015 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by Parliament; passage of presidential proposals requires Supreme Court review followed by approval in a referendum; such proposals may also be submitted directly to Parliament, in which case passage requires at least three-quarters majority vote of both houses in joint session; proposals by Parliament require three-fourths majority vote of both houses in joint session; constitutional articles including those affecting the country’s territory, republican form of government, and secularity of the state are not amendable (2017)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Republic of the Congo
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (since 25 October 1997)
    head of government: Prime Minister (vacant); Prime Minister Clement MOUAMBA (since 23 April 2016) resigned on 18 August 2017; note - a constitutional referendum held in 2015 approved the change of the head of government from the president to the prime minister
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 additional terms); election last held on 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: Denis SASSOU-Nguesso reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (PCT) 60.4%, Guy Price Parfait KOLELAS (MCDDI) 15.1%, Jean-Marie MOKOKO (independent) 13.9%, Pascal Tsaty MABIALA (UPADS) 4.4%, other 6.2%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
    Senate (72 seats; members indirectly elected by regional councils by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms with one-half of membership renewed every 3 years)
    National Assembly (151 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections:  
    Senate - last held on 31 August 2017 for expiry of half the seats (next to be held in 2020)
    National Assembly - last held on 16 and 30 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022)
    election results:  
    Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PCT 46, independent 12, MAR 2, RDPS 2, UPADS 2, DRD 1, FP 1, MCDDI 1, PRL 1, Pulp 1, PUR 1, RC 1
    National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PCT 96, UPADS 8, MCDDI 4, other 23 (less than 4 seats) independent 20
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); note - a High Court of Justice, outside the judicial authority, tries cases involving treason by the president of the republic
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges elected by Parliament and serve until age 65; Constitutional Court members appointed by the president of the republic - 3 directly by the president and 6 nominated by Parliament; members appointed for renewable 9-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
    subordinate courts: Court of Audit and Budgetary Discipline; courts of appeal; regional and district courts; employment tribunals; juvenile courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Action Movement for Renewal or MAR [Roland BOUITI-VIAUDO]
    Citizen's Rally or RC [Claude Alphonse NSILOU]
    Congolese Labour Party or PCT [Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO]
    Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Guy Price Parfait KOLELAS]
    Movement for Unity, Solidarity, and Work or MUST [Claudine MUNARI]
    Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Pascal Tsaty MABIALA]
    Party for the Unity of the Republic or PUR
    Patriotic Union for Democracy and Progress or UPDP [Auguste-Celestin GONGARD NKOUA]
    Prospects and Realities Club or CPR
    Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Bernard BATCHI]
    Rally of the Presidential Majority or RMP
    Republican and Liberal Party or PRL [Bonaventure MIZIDY]
    Union for the Republic or UR
    Union of Democratic Forces or UDF
    Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR
    many smaller parties
    International organization participation field listing
    ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Serge MOMBOULI (since 31 July 2001)
    chancery: 1720 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
    FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Todd P. HASKELL (since July 2017)
    embassy: 70-83 Section D, Maya-Maya Boulevard, Brazzaville
    mailing address: B.P. 1015, Brazzaville
    telephone: [242] 06 612-2000
    Flag description field listing
    divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; green symbolizes agriculture and forests, yellow the friendship and nobility of the people, red is unexplained but has been associated with the struggle for independence

    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia

    National symbol(s) field listing
    lion, elephant; national colors: green, yellow, red
    National anthem field listing
    name: "La Congolaise" (The Congolese)
    lyrics/music: Jacques TONDRA and Georges KIBANGHI/Jean ROYER and Joseph SPADILIERE

    note: originally adopted 1959, restored 1991

  • Economy :: Congo, Republic of the
  • Economy - overview field listing

    The Republic of the Congo’s economy is a mixture of subsistence farming, an industrial sector based largely on oil and support services, and government spending. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. Natural gas is increasingly being converted to electricity rather than being flared, greatly improving energy prospects. New mining projects, particularly iron ore, which entered production in late 2013, may add as much as $1 billion to annual government revenue. The Republic of the Congo is a member of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) and shares a common currency – the Central African Franc – with five other member states in the region.

    The current administration faces difficult economic challenges of stimulating recovery and reducing poverty. The drop in oil prices that began in 2014 has constrained government spending; lower oil prices forced the government to cut more than $1 billion in planned spending. The fiscal deficit amounted to 11% of GDP in 2017. The government’s inability to pay civil servant salaries has resulted in multiple rounds of strikes by many groups, including doctors, nurses, and teachers. In the wake of a multi-year recession, the country reached out to the IMF in 2017 for a new program; the IMF noted that the country’s continued dependence on oil, unsustainable debt, and significant governance weakness are key impediments to the country’s economy. In 2018, the country’s external debt level will approach 120% of GDP. The IMF urged the government to renegotiate debts levels to sustainable levels before it agreed to a new macroeconomic adjustment package.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $29.39 billion (2017 est.)
    $30.33 billion (2016 est.)
    $31.22 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 133
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $8.718 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    -3.1% (2017 est.)
    -2.8% (2016 est.)
    2.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $6,800 (2017 est.)
    $7,200 (2016 est.)
    $7,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 161
    Gross national saving field listing
    19.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    -12.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    6.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 47.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 9.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 42.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 62.9% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -62.7% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 9.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 51% (2017 est.)
    services: 39.7% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    cassava (manioc, tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products
    Industries field listing
    petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    -3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Labor force field listing
    2.055 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 44% (2005 est.)
    industry: 20.6% (2005 est.)
    services: 44% (2005 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    36% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Population below poverty line field listing
    46.5% (2011 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 37.1% (2005)
    highest 10%: 37.1% (2005)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    48.9 (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 1.965 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.578 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    22.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Public debt field listing
    130.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    128.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    0.5% (2017 est.)
    3.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    4.75% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    14.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
    14% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $2.585 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.456 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $2.585 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.456 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $3.036 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.901 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing

    NA

    Current account balance field listing
    -$1.128 billion (2017 est.)
    -$5.735 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Exports field listing
    $4.193 billion (2017 est.)
    $4.116 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Exports - commodities field listing
    petroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds
    Exports - partners field listing
    China 53.8%, Angola 6.2%, Gabon 5.7%, Italy 5.4%, Spain 5.4%, Australia 4.8% (2017)
    Imports field listing
    $2.501 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.498 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Imports - commodities field listing
    capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $505.7 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $727.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Imports - partners field listing
    France 15%, China 14%, Belgium 12.2%, Norway 8.1% (2017)
    Debt - external field listing
    $4.605 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.721 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing

    NA

    Exchange rates field listing
    Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
    579.8 (2017 est.)
    593.01 (2016 est.)
    593.01 (2015 est.)
    591.45 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Congo, Republic of the
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 2.6 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 42% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 62% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 5% (2013)
    Electricity - production field listing
    1.676 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    900.5 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Electricity - exports field listing
    22 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Electricity - imports field listing
    18 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    545,000 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    61.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    38.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Crude oil - production field listing
    308,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    254,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    1.6 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    16,530 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    18,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    6,058 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    6,821 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Natural gas - production field listing
    1.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    1.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    39 million cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    90.61 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
  • Communications :: Congo, Republic of the
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 17,000 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 5.056 million (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 102 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable with services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order
    (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line infrastructure inadequate, providing less than 1 connection per 100 persons; in the absence of an adequate fixed-line infrastructure, mobile-cellular subscribership has surged to 102 per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 242; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
    Broadcast media field listing
    1 state-owned TV and 3 state-owned radio stations; several privately owned TV and radio stations; satellite TV service is available; rebroadcasts of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
    Internet country code field listing
    .cg
    Internet users field listing
    total: 362,000 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 7.6% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
  • Transportation :: Congo, Republic of the
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 657,926 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,987,493 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    TN (2016)
    Airports field listing
    27 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 8 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 19 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    232 km gas, 4 km liquid petroleum gas, 982 km oil (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 510 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 510 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Roadways field listing
    total: 17,000 km (2006)
    paved: 1,212 km (2006)
    unpaved: 15,788 km (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Waterways field listing
    1,120 km (commercially navigable on Congo and Oubanqui Rivers above Brazzaville; there are many ferries across the river to Kinshasa; the Congo south of Brazzaville-Kinshasa to the coast is not navigable because of rapids, necessitating a rail connection to Pointe Noire; other rivers are used for local traffic only) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 40 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 27, oil tanker 2, other 11 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Pointe-Noire
    oil terminal(s): Djeno
    river port(s): Brazzaville (Congo)
    Impfondo (Oubangi) Ouesso (Sangha) Oyo (Alima)
  • Military and Security :: Congo, Republic of the
  • Military expenditures field listing
    7.17% of GDP (2016)
    4.97% of GDP (2014)
    2.61% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Military branches field listing
    Congolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Congolaises, FAC): Army (Armee de Terre), Navy, Congolese Air Force (Armee de l'Air Congolaise); Gendarmerie; Special Presidential Security Guard (GSSP) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in the Armed Forces (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Congo, Republic of the
  • Disputes - international field listing
    the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Democratic Republic of the Congo is undefined except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 9,202 (Rwanda) (2016), 31,688 (Central African Republic) (2017), 15,620 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
    IDPs: 108,000 (multiple civil wars since 1992) (2017)
    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: the Republic of the Congo is a source and destination country for children, men, and women, subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; most trafficking victims are from Benin, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and, to a lesser extent, other neighboring countries and are subjected to domestic servitude and market vending by West African and Congolese nationals; adults and children, the majority from the DRC, are also sex trafficked in Congo, mainly Brazzaville; internal trafficking victims, often from rural areas, are exploited as domestic servants or forced to work in quarries, bakeries, fishing, and agriculture
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the Republic of the Congo does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the country drafted an action plan based on anti-trafficking legislation, which remains pending in the Supreme Court; the government made minimal anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts in 2014, failing to prosecute or convict suspected traffickers from cases dating back to 2010; serious allegations of official complicity continue to be reported; the government lacks a systematic means of identifying victims and relies on NGOs and international organizations to identify victims and NGOs and foster families to provide care to victims; the quality of care varied widely because the foster care system was allegedly undermined by inadequate security and official complicity (2015)