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  • Introduction :: CHINA

  • For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.
  • Geography :: CHINA

  • Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
    35 00 N, 105 00 E
    total: 9,596,960 sq km
    land: 9,326,410 sq km
    water: 270,550 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 4
    slightly smaller than the US
    Area comparison map:
    total: 22,457 km
    border countries (14): Afghanistan 91 km, Bhutan 477 km, Burma 2,129 km, India 2,659 km, Kazakhstan 1,765 km, North Korea 1,352 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,063 km, Laos 475 km, Mongolia 4,630 km, Nepal 1,389 km, Pakistan 438 km, Russia (northeast) 4,133 km, Russia (northwest) 46 km, Tajikistan 477 km, Vietnam 1,297 km
    regional borders: Hong Kong 33 km, Macau 3 km
    14,500 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
    mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
    mean elevation: 1,840 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
    highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
    coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest), arable land
    agricultural land: 54.7%
    arable land 11.3%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 41.8%
    forest: 22.3%
    other: 23% (2011 est.)
    690,070 sq km (2012)
    2,840 cu km (2011)
    total: 554.1 cu km/yr (12%/23%/65%)
    per capita: 409.9 cu m/yr (2005)
    frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
    volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
    air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US) and largest country situated entirely in Asia; Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak
  • People and Society :: CHINA

  • noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Chinese
    Han Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai and other nationalities) 7.1%
    note: the Chinese Government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
    Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
    note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
    Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < 0.1%, Jewish < 0.1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%
    note: officially atheist (2010 est.)
    1,367,485,388 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    0-14 years: 17.08% (male 126,146,137/female 107,410,265)
    15-24 years: 13.82% (male 100,380,703/female 88,615,299)
    25-54 years: 47.95% (male 334,240,795/female 321,417,301)
    55-64 years: 11.14% (male 77,098,602/female 75,286,553)
    65 years and over: 10.01% (male 65,573,256/female 71,316,477) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 36.6%
    youth dependency ratio: 23.5%
    elderly dependency ratio: 13%
    potential support ratio: 7.7% (2015 est.)
    total: 36.8 years
    male: 36 years
    female: 37.7 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    0.45% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    12.49 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    7.53 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    -0.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 3.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Shanghai 23.741 million; BEIJING (capital) 20.384 million; Chongqing 13.332 million; Guangdong 12.458 million; Tianjin 11.21 million; Shenzhen 10.749 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    total: 12.44 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 12.58 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 12.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    total population: 75.41 years
    male: 73.38 years
    female: 77.73 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    1.6 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    84.6% (2006)
    5.6% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    1.49 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    3.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 97.5% of population
    rural: 93% of population
    total: 95.5% of population
    urban: 2.5% of population
    rural: 7% of population
    total: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
    urban: 86.6% of population
    rural: 63.7% of population
    total: 76.5% of population
    urban: 13.4% of population
    rural: 36.3% of population
    total: 23.5% of population (2015 est.)
    0.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    780,000 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    degree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis
    soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    7.3% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    3.4% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 96.4%
    male: 98.2%
    female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2012)
    in October 2015, the Chinese Government announced that it would change its rules to allow all couples to have two children instead of just one, as mandated in 1979; the new policy - to be officially adopted in March 2016 - is being implemented to address China’s rapidly aging population and economic needs
  • Government :: CHINA

  • conventional long form: People's Republic of China
    conventional short form: China
    local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
    local short form: Zhongguo
    abbreviation: PRC
    etymology: English name derives from the Qin (Chin) rulers of the 3rd century B.C., who comprised the first imperial dynasty of ancient China; the Chinese name Zhongguo translates as "Central Nation"
    communist state
    name: Beijing
    geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E
    time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial "Xinjiang time zone" of UTC+6, two hours behind Beijing
    23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
    provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
    autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)
    municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
    note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
    1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
    National Day, the anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, 1 October (1949)
    several previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
    civil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - criminal procedure law revised in early 2012
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of China
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: while naturalization is theoretically possible, in practical terms it is extremely difficult; residency is required but not specified
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013)
    head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premiers ZHANG Gaoli (since 16 March 2013), LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013), MA Kai (since 16 March 2013), WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013)
    cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress
    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
    election results: XI Jinping elected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,952 ; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,940 votes
    description: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members indirectly elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and the People's Liberation Army; members serve 5-year terms); note - in practice, only members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its 8 allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected
    elections: last held in December 2012-February 2013 (next to be held in late 2017 to early 2018)
    election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987
    highest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices organized into a civil committee and tribunals for civil, economic, administrative, complaint and appeal, and communication and transportation cases)
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress; term limited to 2 consecutive 5-year terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the People's National Congress; term of other justices and judges NA
    subordinate courts: Higher People's Courts; Intermediate People's Courts; District and County People's Courts; Autonomous Region People's Courts; Special People's Courts for military, maritime, transportation, and forestry issues
    note: in late 2014, China unveiled planned judicial reforms
    Chinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]
    note: China has eight nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
    no substantial political opposition groups exist
    ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador CUI Tiankai (since 3 April 2013)
    chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266
    FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador Max Sieben BAUCUS (since 18 March 2014)
    embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
    mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
    telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
    FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
    consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
    red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner; the color red represents revolution, while the stars symbolize the four social classes - the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie (capitalists) - united under the Communist Party of China
    dragon; national colors: red, yellow
    name: "Yiyongjun Jinxingqu" (The March of the Volunteers)
    lyrics/music: TIAN Han/NIE Er
    note: adopted 1949; the anthem, though banned during the Cultural Revolution, is more commonly known as "Zhongguo Guoge" (Chinese National Song); it was originally the theme song to the 1935 Chinese movie, "Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm"
  • Economy :: CHINA

  • Since the late 1970s China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role - in 2010 China became the world's largest exporter. Reforms began with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to "economic security," explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2015 stood as the largest economy in the world, surpassing the US in 2014 for the first time in modern history. Still, China's per capita income is below the world average.
    After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, in July 2005 China moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid-2005 to late 2008 cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar was more than 20%, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual appreciation. In 2015 the People’s Bank of China (PBOC) announced it would continue to carefully push for full convertibility of the renminbi after the currency was accepted as part of the IMF’s special drawing rights basket.
    The Chinese government faces numerous economic challenges, including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic consumption; (b) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and increasing numbers of college graduates; (c) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (d) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2014 more than 274 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of population control policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on nuclear and alternative energy development.
    Several factors are converging to slow China's growth, including debt overhang from its credit-fueled stimulus program, industrial overcapacity, inefficient allocation of capital by state-owned banks, and the slow recovery of China's trading partners. The government's 13th Five-Year Plan, unveiled in November 2015, emphasizes continued economic reforms and the need to increase innovation and domestic consumption in order to make the economy less dependent in the future on fixed investments, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals. The new government of President XI Jinping has signaled a greater willingness to undertake reforms that focus on China's long-term economic health, including giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources. In 2014 China agreed to begin limiting carbon dioxide emissions by 2030.
    $19.51 trillion (2015 est.)
    $18.27 trillion (2014 est.)
    $17.02 trillion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 1
    $11.38 trillion
    note: because China's exchange rate is determined by fiat, rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries (2015 est.)
    6.8% (2015 est.)
    7.3% (2014 est.)
    7.7% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    $14,300 (2015 est.)
    $13,400 (2014 est.)
    $12,400 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 112
    47.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    48.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    48.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    household consumption: 38.1%
    government consumption: 13.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 42.4%
    investment in inventories: 1%
    exports of goods and services: 22.7%
    imports of goods and services: -18% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 8.9%
    industry: 42.7%
    services: 48.4%
    (2015 est.)
    world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
    world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products (including footwear, toys, and electronics); food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
    7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    804 million
    note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.004 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    agriculture: 33.6%
    industry: 30.3%
    services: 36.1%
    (2012 est.)
    4.2% (2015 est.)
    4.1% (2014 est.)
    note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants
    country comparison to the world: 40
    note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $400)
    (2013 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.7%
    highest 10%: 30%
    note: data are for urban households only (2009)
    46.9 (2014 est.)
    47.3 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    revenues: $2.426 trillion
    expenditures: $2.718 trillion (2015 est.)
    21.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    -2.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    16.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    14.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt, which China's National Audit Office estimated at RMB 10.72 trillion (approximately US$1.66 trillion) in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, China Asset Management Company debt, and non-performing loans
    country comparison to the world: 160
    calendar year
    1.5% (2015 est.)
    2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    2.25% (31 December 2014 est.)
    2.25% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    4.4% (31 December 2015 est.)
    5.6% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    $5.753 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $5.688 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    $20.93 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $20.07 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    $18.81 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $17.6 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    $6.065 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.499 trillion (31 December 2013)
    $5.753 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    $347.8 billion (2015 est.)
    $219.7 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    $2.27 trillion (2015 est.)
    $2.244 trillion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles, integrated circuits
    US 16.9%, Hong Kong 15.5%, Japan 6.4%, South Korea 4.3% (2014 est.)
    $1.596 trillion (2015 est.)
    $1.808 trillion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans
    South Korea 9.7%, Japan 8.3%, US 8.1%, Taiwan 7.8%, Germany 5.4%, Australia 5% (2014 est.)
    $3.217 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $3.869 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    $949.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $874.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    $1.723 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.334 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    $1.111 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $792.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -
    6.243 (2015 est.)
    6.1434 (2014 est.)
    6.1958 (2013 est.)
    6.3123 (2012 est.)
    6.4615 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: CHINA

  • 5.65 trillion kWh (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    5.523 trillion kWh (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    18.16 billion kWh (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    6.75 billion kWh (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    1.505 billion kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    67.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    1.5% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    22.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    9% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    4.189 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    12,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    6.167 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    24.65 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    9.879 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    10.48 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    593,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    600,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    121.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    180.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    2.603 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    59.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    3.3 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    10 billion Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
  • Communications :: CHINA

  • total subscriptions: 249.4 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    total: 1.3 billion
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 94 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its six telecom service operators to three, China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services
    domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users exceeded 564 million by the end of 2012; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place
    international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2012)
    all broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately owned TV or radio stations; state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offer more than 2,000 channels; the Central Propaganda Department lists subjects that are off limits to domestic broadcast media with the government maintaining authority to approve all programming; foreign-made TV programs must be approved prior to broadcast
    AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
    3,240 (of which 209 are operated by China Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations, and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
    20.602 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    total: 626.6 million
    percent of population: 46.0% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
  • Transportation :: CHINA

  • 507 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    total: 463
    over 3,047 m: 71
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 158
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
    914 to 1,523 m: 25
    under 914 m: 86 (2013)
    total: 44
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 9
    under 914 m: 18 (2013)
    47 (2013)
    condensate 9 km; gas 48,502 km; oil 23,072 km; oil/gas/water 31 km; refined products 15,298 km; water 9 km (2013)
    total: 191,270 km
    broad gauge: 100 km 1.520-m gauge
    standard gauge: 190,000 km 1.435-m gauge (92,000 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 670 km 1.000-m gauge; 500 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    total: 4,106,387 km
    paved: 3,453,890 km (includes 84,946 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 652,497 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    110,000 km (navigable waterways) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    total: 2,030
    by type: barge carrier 7, bulk carrier 621, cargo 566, carrier 10, chemical tanker 140, container 206, liquefied gas 60, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 81, petroleum tanker 264, refrigerated cargo 33, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 23
    foreign-owned: 22 (Hong Kong 18, Indonesia 2, Japan 2)
    registered in other countries: 1,559 (Bangladesh 1, Belize 61, Cambodia 177, Comoros 1, Cyprus 6, Georgia 10, Honduras 2, Hong Kong 500, India 1, Indonesia 1, Kiribati 26, Liberia 4, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 14, North Korea 3, Panama 534, Philippines 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 65, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Sierra Leone 19, Singapore 29, South Korea 6, Thailand 1, Togo 1, Tuvalu 4, UK 7, Vanuatu 1, unknown 73) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    major seaport(s): Dalian, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin
    river port(s): Guangzhou (Pearl)
    container port(s) (TEUs): Dalian (6,400,300), Guangzhou (14,260,400), Ningbo (14,719,200), Qingdao (13,020,100), Shanghai (31,739,000), Shenzhen (22,570,800), Tianjin (11,587,600)(2011)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Shanghai, Tangshan, Zhejiang
  • Military and Security :: CHINA

  • People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (PLAN; includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF; includes Airborne Forces), and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2012)
    18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in 2011 (2012)
    1.99% of GDP (2012)
    2% of GDP (2011)
    1.99% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 40
  • Transnational Issues :: CHINA

  • continuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lie in Bhutan's northwest and along the Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands;
    China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests
    Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop
    refugees (country of origin): 300,896 (Vietnam); undetermined (North Korea) (2014)
    IDPs: undetermined (2014)
    current situation: China is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; Chinese adults and children are forced into prostitution and various forms of forced labor, including begging and working in brick kilns, coal mines, and factories; women and children are recruited from rural areas and taken to urban centers for sexual exploitation, often lured by criminal syndicates or gangs with fraudulent job offers; state-sponsored forced labor, where detainees work for up to four years often with no remuneration, continues to be a serious concern; Chinese men, women, and children also may be subjected to conditions of sex trafficking and forced labor worldwide, particularly in overseas Chinese communities; women and children are trafficked to China from neighboring countries, as well as Africa and the Americas, for forced labor and prostitution
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - China does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; official data for 2014 states that 194 alleged traffickers were arrested and at least 35 were convicted, but the government’s conflation of human trafficking with other crimes makes it difficult to assess law enforcement efforts to investigate and to prosecute trafficking offenses according to international law; despite reports of complicity, no government officials were investigated, prosecuted, or convicted for their roles in trafficking offenses; authorities did not adequately protect victims and did not provide the data needed to ascertain the number of victims identified or assisted or the services provided; the National People’s Congress ratified a decision to abolish “reform through labor” in 2013, but some continued to operate as state-sponsored drug detention or “custody and education” centers that force inmates to perform manual labor; some North Korean refugees continued to be forcibly repatriated as illegal economic migrants, despite reports that some were trafficking victims (2015)
    major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic consumption of synthetic drugs, and heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia; source country for methamphetamine and heroin chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry; more people believed to be convicted and executed for drug offences than anywhere else in the world, according to NGOs (2008)