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South America :: Chile
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  • Introduction :: CHILE

  • Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche were brought under central government control. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by General Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was inaugurated in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation. In January 2014, Chile assumed a two-year nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council.
  • Geography :: CHILE

  • Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru
    30 00 S, 71 00 W
    South America
    total: 756,102 sq km
    land: 743,812 sq km
    water: 12,290 sq km
    note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez
    slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
    total: 7,801 km
    border countries (3): Argentina 6,691 km, Bolivia 942 km, Peru 168 km
    6,435 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200/350 nm
    temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south
    low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m
    copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower
    agricultural land: 21.1%
    arable land 1.7%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 18.8%
    forest: 21.9%
    other: 57% (2011 est.)
    11,990 sq km (2003)
    922 cu km (2011)
    total: 26.67 cu km/yr (4%/10%/86%)
    per capita: 1,603 cu m/yr (2007)
    severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
    volcanism: significant volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains; Lascar (elev. 5,592 m), which last erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes; Llaima (elev. 3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country's most active; Chaiten's 2008 eruption forced major evacuations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Cerro Hudson, Calbuco, Copahue, Guallatiri, Llullaillaco, Nevados de Chillan, Puyehue, San Pedro, and Villarrica
    widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    the longest north-south trending country in the world, extending across 38 degrees of latitude; strategic location relative to sea lanes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert - the driest desert in the world - spreads across the northern part of the country; the crater lake of Ojos del Salado is the world's highest lake (at 6,390 m)
  • People and Society :: CHILE

  • noun: Chilean(s)
    adjective: Chilean
    white and non-indigenous 88.9%, Mapuche 9.1%, Aymara 0.7%, other indigenous groups 1% (includes Rapa Nui, Likan Antai, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Kawesqar, Yagan or Yamana), unspecified 0.3% (2012 est.)
    Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2%
    note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2012 est.)
    Roman Catholic 66.7%, Evangelical or Protestant 16.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 3.4%, none 11.5%, unspecified 1.1% (2012 est.)
    Chile is in the advanced stages of demographic transition and is becoming an aging society - with fertility below replacement level, low mortality rates, and life expectancy on par with developed countries. Nevertheless, with its dependency ratio nearing its low point, Chile could benefit from its favorable age structure. It will need to keep its large working-age population productively employed, while preparing to provide for the needs of its growing proportion of elderly people, especially as women - the traditional caregivers - increasingly enter the workforce. Over the last two decades, Chile has made great strides in reducing its poverty rate, which is now lower than most Latin American countries. However, its severe income inequality ranks as the worst among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unequal access to quality education perpetuates this uneven income distribution.
    Chile has historically been a country of emigration but has slowly become more attractive to immigrants since transitioning to democracy in 1990 and improving its economic stability (other regional destinations have concurrently experienced deteriorating economic and political conditions). Most of Chile's small but growing foreign-born population consists of transplants from other Latin American countries, especially Peru.
    17,363,894 (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 20.7% (male 1,834,247/female 1,760,315)
    15-24 years: 16.3% (male 1,442,610/female 1,383,738)
    25-54 years: 43.2% (male 3,733,261/female 3,766,912)
    55-64 years: 9.9% (male 806,044/female 910,818)
    65 years and over: 9.9% (male 720,681/female 1,005,268) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 45.1%
    youth dependency ratio: 30.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 14.9%
    potential support ratio: 6.7% (2014 est.)
    total: 33.3 years
    male: 32.2 years
    female: 34.6 years (2014 est.)
    0.84% (2014 est.)
    13.97 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    5.93 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 89.4% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 1.09% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    SANTIAGO (capital) 6.472 million; Valparaiso 902,000; Concepcion 806,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    22 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 7.02 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 7.51 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 6.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 78.44 years
    male: 75.42 years
    female: 81.59 years (2014 est.)
    1.84 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2006)
    7.7% of GDP (2013)
    1.02 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 99.6% of population
    rural: 91.3% of population
    total: 98.8% of population
    urban: 0.4% of population
    rural: 8.7% of population
    total: 1.2% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 89.3% of population
    total: 98.9% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 10.7% of population
    total: 1.1% of population (2012 est.)
    0.33% (2013 est.)
    37,900 (2013 est.)
    700 (2013 est.)
    28.5% (2014)
    0.5% (2013)
    4.6% of GDP (2012)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.5%
    male: 97.6%
    female: 97.4% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 15 years (2012)
    total number: 82,882
    percentage: 3% (2003 est.)
    total: 16.3%
    male: 14.3%
    female: 19.1% (2012 est.)
  • Government :: CHILE

  • conventional long form: Republic of Chile
    conventional short form: Chile
    local long form: Republica de Chile
    local short form: Chile
    name: Santiago; note - Valparaiso is the seat of the national legislature
    geographic coordinates: 33 27 S, 70 40 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, under a new pilot program that begins second Sunday in September and ends fourth Sunday in April
    15 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aysen, Antofagasta, Araucania, Arica y Parinacota, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Los Rios, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso
    note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
    18 September 1810 (from Spain)
    Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
    many previous; latest adopted 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended many times, last in 2011 (2011)
    civil law system influenced by several West European civil legal systems; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Tribunal
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2014); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held on 17 November 2013 with a runoff election held on 15 December 2013 (next to be held on 19 November 2017)
    election results: Michelle BACHELET Jeria elected president; percent of vote - Michelle BACHELET Jeria 62.2%; Evelyn Rose MATTHEI Fornet 37.8%
    description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (38 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote to serve 8-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote to serve 4-year terms); note - in both the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, the party winning at least two-thirds of the votes is entitled to 2 seats in the constituency; if it obtains less than two-thirds of the votes, it is entitled to one seat with the remaining seat awarded to the next highest winning party
    elections: Senate - last held on 17 November 2013 (next to be held on 15 November 2017); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 17 November 2013 (next to be held on 15 November 2017)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - New Majority Coalition (formerly known as Concertacion) 19 (PDC 6, PS 6, PPD 6, MAS 1), Coalition for Change (formerly known as the Alianza coalition) 15 (RN 6, UDI 8, Amplitude Party 1), independents 4; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - New Majority 67 (PDC 21, PS 16, PPD 15, PC 6, PRSD 6, Citizen Left 1, independents 2), Coalition for Change 49 (UDI 29, RN 15, independents 4), Liberal Party 1, independents 4
    note: In January 2015, the Chilean Congress voted to end the binomial system that was put in place under Gen. Augusto PINOCHET; the Congress also voted to expand its size and establish rules to ensure that there is equitable gender representation; the new electoral system will be put in place in 2017
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of a court president and 20 members or ministros); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members); Electoral Court (consists of 5 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 70; Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 by the Supreme Court, 1 by the president of the republic, 2 by the National Security Council, and 1 by the Senate; members serve 8-year terms with partial membership replacement every 4 years (the court reviews constitutionality of legislation); Electoral Court member appointments - 4 by the Supreme Court and 1 a former president or vice-president of the Senate or Chamber of Deputies selected by the Supreme Court; member term NA
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; oral criminal tribunals; military tribunals; local police courts; specialized tribunals and courts in matters such as family, labor, customs, taxes, and electoral affairs
    Broad Social Movement or MAS [Alejandro NAVARRO Brain]
    Citizen Left or IC
    Coalition for Change or CC (also known as the Alliance for Chile (Alianza) or APC) (including National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN Pena], and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Patricio MELERO]
    Coalition of Parties for Democracy (Concertacion) or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Ignacio WALKER Prieto], Party for Democracy or PPD [Jaime Daniel QUINTANA Leal], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia], and Socialist Party or PS [Osvaldo ANDRADE Lara])
    Communist Party of Chile (Partido Comunista de Chile) or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER del Valle]
    Ecological Green Party [Cristian VILLAROEL Novoa]
    Equality Party [Lautaro GUANCA Vallejos]
    Humanist Party or PH [Danilo MONTEVERDE Reyes]
    Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Ernesto SILVA]
    Independent Regionalist Party or PRI [Carlos OLIVARES Zepeda]
    Liberal Party [Vlado MIROSEVIC]
    National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN]
    Progressive Party or PRO [Marco ENRIQUEZ-OMINAMI Gumucio]
    Roman Catholic Church, particularly conservative groups such as Opus Dei
    United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations
    other: university student federations at all major universities
    APEC, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Juan Gabriel VALDES Soublette (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
    FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador Michael HAMMER (since April 2014)
    embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago
    mailing address: APO AA 34033
    telephone: [56] (2) 2330-3000
    FAX: [56] (2) 2330-3710, 2330-3160
    two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red represents the blood spilled to achieve independence
    note: design was influenced by the US flag
    huemul (mountain deer), Andean condor; national colors: red, white, blue
    name: "Himno Nacional de Chile" (National Anthem of Chile)
    lyrics/music: Eusebio LILLO Robles and Bernardo DE VERA y Pintado/Ramon CARNICER y Battle
    note: music adopted 1828, original lyrics adopted 1818, adapted lyrics adopted 1847; under Augusto PINOCHET"s military rule, a verse glorifying the army was added; however, as a protest, some citizens refused to sing this verse; it was removed when democracy was restored in 1990
  • Economy :: CHILE

  • Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. Exports of goods and services account for approximately one-third of GDP, with commodities making up some three-quarters of total exports. Copper alone provides 19% of government revenue. From 2003 through 2013, real growth averaged almost 5% per year, despite the slight contraction in 2009 that resulted from the global financial crisis. Growth slowed to 4.2% in 2014. Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which took effect on 1 January 2004. Chile has 22 trade agreements covering 60 countries including agreements with the European Union, Mercosur, China, India, South Korea, and Mexico. Chile has joined the United States and 10 other countries in negotiating the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement. The Chilean Government has generally followed a countercyclical fiscal policy, accumulating surpluses in sovereign wealth funds during periods of high copper prices and economic growth, and generally allowing deficit spending only during periods of low copper prices and growth. As of 31 December 2012, those sovereign wealth funds - kept mostly outside the country and separate from Central Bank reserves - amounted to more than $20.9 billion. Chile used these funds to finance fiscal stimulus packages during the 2009 economic downturn. In May 2010 Chile signed the OECD Convention, becoming the first South American country to join the OECD. In 2014, President Michelle BACHELET introduced tax reforms aimed at delivering her campaign promise to fight inequality and to provide access to education and health care. The reforms are expected to generate additional tax revenues equal to 3% of Chile’s GDP, mostly by increasing corporate tax rates to OECD averages.
    $410.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $402.2 billion (2013 est.)
    $386.2 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $264.1 billion (2014 est.)
    2% (2014 est.)
    4.2% (2013 est.)
    5.5% (2012 est.)
    $23,200 (2014 est.)
    $22,900 (2013 est.)
    $22,200 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 77
    20.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    20.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    21.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 65.4%
    government consumption: 13.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 22.1%
    investment in inventories: 0.2%
    exports of goods and services: 34.1%
    imports of goods and services: -35%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 3.5%
    industry: 35.5%
    services: 61.1% (2014 est.)
    grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber
    copper, lithium, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
    2.5% (2014 est.)
    8.514 million (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 13.2%
    industry: 23%
    services: 63.9% (2005)
    6.5% (2014 est.)
    6% (2013 est.)
    15.1% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.5%
    highest 10%: 42.8% (2009 est.)
    52.1 (2009)
    57.1 (2000)
    revenues: $50.67 billion
    expenditures: $56.32 billion (2014 est.)
    19.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -2.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    16.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    12.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    calendar year
    4.3% (2014 est.)
    1.9% (2013 est.)
    3.12% (31 December 2010)
    0.5% (31 December 2009)
    8.1% (31 December 2014 est.)
    9.26% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $40.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $42.22 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $154.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $158 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $201.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $206.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $313.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $270.3 billion (31 December 2011)
    $341.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $-3.805 billion (2014 est.)
    $-9.485 billion (2013 est.)
    $76.98 billion (2014 est.)
    $76.68 billion (2013 est.)
    copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine
    China 24.9%, US 12.8%, Japan 9.9%, Brazil 5.8%, South Korea 5.5% (2013)
    $70.67 billion (2014 est.)
    $74.57 billion (2013 est.)
    petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas
    US 20.3%, China 19.7%, Brazil 6.5%, Argentina 5%, Germany 4% (2013)
    $41.99 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $41.09 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $140 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $130.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $204 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $185 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $87.97 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $76.83 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    Chilean pesos (CLP) per US dollar -
    568 (2014 est.)
    495.31 (2013 est.)
    486.49 (2012 est.)
    483.67 (2011 est.)
    510.25 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: CHILE

  • 61.85 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    57.89 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    700 million kWh (2013 est.)
    17.95 million kW (2011 est.)
    60.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    33.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    6.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    10,640 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    163,200 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    150 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    198,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    341,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    13,040 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    138,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    947 million cu m (2013 est.)
    4.705 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    3.779 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    97.97 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    81.51 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: CHILE

  • 3.276 million (2012)
    24.13 million (2012)
    general assessment: privatization began in 1988; most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations
    domestic: number of fixed-line connections have stagnated in recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching 130 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 56; landing points for the Pan American, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin America Nautilus submarine cables providing links to the US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
    national and local terrestrial TV channels, coupled with extensive cable TV networks; the state-owned Television Nacional de Chile (TVN) network is self-financed through commercial advertising revenues and is not under direct government control; large number of privately owned TV stations; about 250 radio stations (2007)
    AM 180, FM 64, shortwave 17 (1998)
    63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)
    2.152 million (2012)
    7.009 million (2009)
  • Transportation :: CHILE

  • 481 (2013)
    total: 90
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
    914 to 1,523 m: 31
    under 914 m: 24 (2013)
    total: 391
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
    914 to 1,523 m: 56
    under 914 m:
    319 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 3,160 km; liquid petroleum gas 781 km; oil 985 km; refined products 722 km (2013)
    total: 7,082 km
    broad gauge: 3,435 km 1.676-m gauge (850 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 3,647 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
    total: 77,764 km
    paved: 18,119 km (includes 2,387 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 59,645 km (2010)
    total: 42
    by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 5, chemical tanker 7, container 2, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 1
    foreign-owned: 1 (Norway 1)
    registered in other countries: 52 (Argentina 6, Brazil 1, Honduras 1, Isle of Man 9, Liberia 9, Panama 14, Peru 6, Singapore 6) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Coronel, Huasco, Lirquen, Puerto Ventanas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Valparaiso
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Mejillones, Quintero
  • Military :: CHILE

  • Chilean Army, Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile, includes Naval Aviation, Marine Corps, and Maritime Territory and Merchant Marine Directorate (Directemar)), Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Chile, FACh) (2015)
    18-45 years of age for voluntary male and female military service, although the right to compulsory recruitment of males 18-45 is retained; service obligation is 12 months for Army and 22 months for Navy and Air Force (2015)
    males age 16-49: 4,324,732
    females age 16-49: 4,251,954 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 3,621,475
    females age 16-49: 3,561,099 (2010 est.)
    male: 141,500
    female: 135,709 (2010 est.)
    2.04% of GDP (2012)
    2.17% of GDP (2011)
    2.04% of GDP (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: CHILE

  • Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile has offered instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian natural gas; Chile rejects Peru's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Peru; in October 2007, Peru took its maritime complaint with Chile to the ICJ; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001, has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)
    transshipment country for cocaine destined for Europe and the region; some money laundering activity, especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone; imported precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising, making Chile a significant consumer of cocaine (2008)