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South America :: Colombia
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Colombia
  • Introduction :: COLOMBIA

  • Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A nearly five-decade long conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. More than 31,000 former paramilitaries had demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia as a formal organization had ceased to function. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, emerging criminal groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, but continue attacks against civilians. Large areas of the countryside are under guerrilla influence or are contested by security forces. In November 2012, the Colombian Government started formal peace negotiations with the FARC aimed at reaching a definitive bilateral ceasefire and incorporating demobilized FARC members into mainstream society and politics. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its administrative departments. Despite decades of internal conflict and drug related security challenges, Colombia maintains relatively strong democratic institutions characterized by peaceful, transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties.
  • Geography :: COLOMBIA

  • Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
    4 00 N, 72 00 W
    South America
    total: 1,138,910 sq km
    land: 1,038,700 sq km
    water: 100,210 sq km
    note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank
    country comparison to the world: 26
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    total: 6,672 km
    border countries (5): Brazil 1,790 km, Ecuador 708 km, Panama 339 km, Peru 1,494 km, Venezuela 2,341 km
    3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
    flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains (Llanos)
    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
    note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
    petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
    arable land: 1.43%
    permanent crops: 1.68%
    other: 96.89% (2012 est.)
    10,870 sq km (2011)
    2,132 cu km (2011)
    total: 12.65 cu km/yr (55%/4%/41%)
    per capita: 308 cu m/yr (2010)
    highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
    volcanism: Galeras (elev. 4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (elev. 5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars (mudflows) that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace
    deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
    party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
  • People and Society :: COLOMBIA

  • noun: Colombian(s)
    adjective: Colombian
    mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
    Spanish (official)
    Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%
    Colombia is in the midst of a demographic transition resulting from steady declines in its fertility, mortality, and population growth rates. The birth rate has fallen from more than 6 children per woman in the 1960s to just above replacement level today as a result of increased literacy, family planning services, and urbanization. However, income inequality is among the worst in the world, and more than a third of the population lives below the poverty line.
    Colombia experiences significant legal and illegal economic emigration and refugee flows. Large-scale labor emigration dates to the 1960s; Venezuela and the United States continue to be the main host countries. Colombia is the largest source of Latin American refugees in Latin America, nearly 400,000 of whom live primarily in Venezuela and Ecuador. Forced displacement remains prevalent because of violence among guerrillas, paramilitary groups, and Colombian security forces. Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. A leading NGO estimates that 5.2 million people have been displaced since 1985, while the Colombian Government estimates 3.6 million since 2000. These estimates may undercount actual numbers because not all internally displaced persons are registered. Historically, Colombia also has one of the world's highest levels of forced disappearances. About 30,000 cases have been recorded over the last four decades - although the number is likely to be much higher - including human rights activists, trade unionists, Afro-Colombians, indigenous people, and farmers in rural conflict zones.
    46,245,297 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    0-14 years: 25.3% (male 5,998,645/female 5,720,229)
    15-24 years: 18% (male 4,243,251/female 4,099,299)
    25-54 years: 41.6% (male 9,515,723/female 9,720,894)
    55-64 years: 8.3% (male 1,796,050/female 2,051,948)
    65 years and over: 6.7% (male 1,293,258/female 1,806,000) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 50.9%
    youth dependency ratio: 41.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 9.6%
    potential support ratio: 10.4% (2014 est.)
    total: 28.9 years
    male: 27.9 years
    female: 29.9 years (2014 est.)
    1.07% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    16.73 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    5.36 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    -0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    urban population: 76.2% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BOGOTA (capital) 9.558 million; Medellin 3.85 million; Cali 2.61 million; Barranquilla 1.975 million; Bucaramanga 1.195 million; Cartagena 1.072 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    21.4
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
    83 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    total: 15.02 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 18.22 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 11.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    total population: 75.25 years
    male: 72.08 years
    female: 78.61 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    2.07 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    79.1% (2009/10)
    6.8% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    1.47 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 96.9% of population
    rural: 73.6% of population
    total: 91.2% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 3.1% of population
    rural: 26.4% of population
    total: 8.8% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 84.9% of population
    rural: 65.7% of population
    total: 80.2% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 15.1% of population
    rural: 34.3% of population
    total: 19.8% of population (2012 est.)
    0.45% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    136,500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    6,500 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever (2013)
    20.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    3.4% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    4.9% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 94.7%
    male: 94.6%
    female: 94.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 14 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 14 years (2010)
    total number: 988,362
    percentage: 9%
    note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2009 est.)
    total: 21.9%
    male: 17%
    female: 28.9% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
  • Government :: COLOMBIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
    conventional short form: Colombia
    local long form: Republica de Colombia
    local short form: Colombia
    republic; executive branch dominates government structure
    name: Bogota
    geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W
    time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, Archipielago de San Andres, Providencia y Santa Catalina (colloquially San Andres y Providencia), Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
    20 July 1810 (from Spain)
    Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
    several previous; latest promulgated 5 July 1991; amended many times, last in 2011 (2013)
    civil law system influenced by the Spanish and French civil codes
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President German VARGAS Lleras (since 7 August 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President German VARGAS Lleras (since 7 August 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 May 2010 with a runoff election 20 June 2010 (next to be held on 25 May 2014)
    election results: Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon 69.06%, Antanas MOCKUS 27.52%
    description: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - U Party 21, CD 19, CD PC, PL 17, CR 9, PDA 5, Green Party 5, other 7; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - U Party 39, PL 37, PC 27, CR 16, CD 12, Green Party 6, PDA 3, other 26
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of the Civil-Agrarian and Labor Chambers each with 7 judges, and the Penal Chamber with 9 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 magistrates); Council of State (consists of 10 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Congress from candidates submitted by the president; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court magistrates - 3 nominated by the president, 3 by the Supreme Court, and 3 elected by the Senate; judges elected for individual 2-8 year terms; Council of State members nominated by the president and elected by the Congress biannually to serve 4-year terms
    subordinate courts: Superior Tribunals (appellate courts for each of the judicial districts); regional courts; civil municipal courts; Superior Military Tribunal; first instance administrative courts
    Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Clara LOPEZ]
    Conservative Party or PC [Omar YEPES Alzate]
    Democratic Center Party or CD [Alvaro URIBE Velez]
    Green Party [Alfonso PRADA]
    Liberal Party or PL [Simon GAVIRIA Munoz]
    National Integration Party or PIN [Angel ALIRIO Moreno]
    Radical Change or CR [Carlos Fernando GALAN]
    Social National Unity Party or U Party [Sergio Diaz GANADOS]
    note: Colombia has seven major political parties, and numerous smaller movements
    Central Union of Workers or CUT
    Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC
    General Confederation of Workers or CGT
    National Liberation Army or ELN
    Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC
    note: FARC and ELN are the two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia
    BCIE, BIS, CAN, Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Carlos VILLEGAS Echeverri (since 3 December 2013)
    chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Newark (NJ), San Juan (Puerto Rico)
    consulate(s): Boston, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kevin WHITAKER (since 11 June 2014)
    embassy: Calle 24 Bis No. 48-50, Bogota, D.C.
    mailing address: Carrera 45 No. 24B-27, Bogota, D.C.
    telephone: [57] (1) 275-2000
    FAX: [57] (1) 275-4600
    three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the short-lived South American republic that broke up in 1830; various interpretations of the colors exist and include: yellow for the gold in Colombia's land, blue for the seas on its shores, and red for the blood spilled in attaining freedom; alternatively, the colors have been described as representing more elemental concepts such as sovereignty and justice (yellow), loyalty and vigilance (blue), and valor and generosity (red); or simply the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity
    note: similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center
    Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red
    name: "Himno Nacional de la Republica de Colombia" (National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia)
    lyrics/music: Rafael NUNEZ/Oreste SINDICI
    note: adopted 1920; the anthem was created from an inspirational poem written by President Rafael NUNEZ
  • Economy :: COLOMBIA

  • Colombia's consistently sound economic policies and aggressive promotion of free trade agreements in recent years have bolstered its ability to weather external shocks. Real GDP has grown more than 4% per year for the past four years, continuing almost a decade of strong economic performance. All three major ratings agencies have upgraded Colombia's government debt to investment grade, which helped to attract record levels of investment in 2013 and 2014, mostly in the hydrocarbons sector. Colombia depends heavily on energy and mining exports, making it vulnerable to a drop in commodity prices. Colombia is the world's fourth largest coal exporter and Latin America's fourth largest oil producer. Economic development is stymied by inadequate infrastructure, inequality, poverty, narco-trafficking and an uncertain security situation. Moreover, the unemployment rate of 9.2% in 2014 is still one of Latin America's highest. The SANTOS Administration's foreign policy has focused on bolstering Colombia's commercial ties and boosting investment at home. Colombia has signed or is negotiating Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with more than a dozen countries; the US-Colombia FTA went into force on May 2012. Colombia is also a founding member of the Pacific Alliance - a regional grouping formed in 2012 by Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to promote regional trade and economic integration. In 2013, Colombia began its ascension process to the OECD. In 2014, Colombia passed a tax reform bill to offset the lost revenue from the global drop in oil prices. The SANTOS administration is also using tax reform to help finance implementation of a peace deal, in the event FARC and the government reach an agreement in 2015. Colombian officials estimate a peace deal may bolster economic growth by almost 2%.
    $642.7 billion (2014 est.)
    $612.1 billion (2013 est.)
    $584.7 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 32
    $400.1 billion (2014 est.)
    5% (2014 est.)
    4.7% (2013 est.)
    4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    $13,500 (2014 est.)
    $13,000 (2013 est.)
    $12,600 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 111
    21.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    21.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    20.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    household consumption: 59.8%
    government consumption: 17%
    investment in fixed capital: 25.5%
    investment in inventories: 0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 18.5%
    imports of goods and services: -20.8%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 6.1%
    industry: 37.3%
    services: 56.6% (2014 est.)
    coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; shrimp; forest products
    textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
    4.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    23.67 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    agriculture: 17%
    industry: 21%
    services: 62% (2011 est.)
    9.2% (2014 est.)
    9.7% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    32.7% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.1%
    highest 10%: 42% (2010 est.)
    53.5 (2012)
    56.9 (1996)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    revenues: $114.1 billion
    expenditures: $120.2 billion (2014 est.)
    28.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    -1.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    41.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    43.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
    country comparison to the world: 90
    calendar year
    2.9% (2014 est.)
    2% (2013 est.)
    4.75% (31 December 2011)
    5% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    10.9% (31 December 2014 est.)
    11% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    $47.31 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $44.55 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $177.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $161.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    $177.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $166.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    $262.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $201.3 billion (31 December 2011)
    $208.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    -$16.08 billion (2014 est.)
    -$12.28 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    $55 billion (2014 est.)
    $58.03 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, apparel
    US 31%, China 9%, Panama 6%, India 5%, Spain 5% (2013)
    $56.75 billion (2014 est.)
    $55.03 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
    US 28%, China 18%, Mexico 9%, Brazil 4% (2013)
    $47.74 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $43.16 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    $84 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $80.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $144.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $127.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    $44 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $39 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Colombian pesos (COP) per US dollar -
    1,992 (2014 est.)
    1,868.9 (2013 est.)
    1,798 (2012 est.)
    1,848 (2011 est.)
    1,898.6 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: COLOMBIA

  • 59.22 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    50.25 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    236 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    8.22 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    14.47 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    32.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    67.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    0.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    1.022 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    2.377 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    313,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    306,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    92,410 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    49,790 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    11.93 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    9.39 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    2.54 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    198.4 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    74.9 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: COLOMBIA

  • 6.291 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    49.066 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    general assessment: modern system in many respects with a nationwide microwave radio relay system, a domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations, and a fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; telecommunications sector liberalized during the 1990s; multiple providers of both fixed-line and mobile-cellular services
    domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 100 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to the steep decline in the market share of fixed line services
    international: country code - 57; multiple submarine cable systems provide links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers) (2011)
    combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media provide service; more than 500 radio stations and many national, regional, and local TV stations (2007)
    AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)
    60 (1997)
    .co
    4.41 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    22.538 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 17
  • Transportation :: COLOMBIA

  • 836 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    total: 121
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
    914 to 1,523 m: 53
    under 914 m: 18 (2013)
    total: 715
    over 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
    914 to 1,523 m: 201
    under 914 m:
    488 (2013)
    3 (2013)
    gas 4,991 km; oil 6,796 km; refined products 3,429 km (2013)
    total: 874 km
    standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
    narrow gauge: 498 km 0.950-m gauge; 226 km 0.914-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    total: 141,374 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    24,725 km (18,300 km navigable; the most important waterway, the River Magdalena, of which 1,488 km is navigable, is dredged regularly to ensure the safe passage of cargo vessels and container barges) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    total: 12
    by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 2
    registered in other countries: 4 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Panama 2, Portugal 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    major seaport(s): Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean) - Cartagena, Santa Marta, Turbo; Pacific Ocean - Buenaventura
    river port(s): Barranquilla (Rio Magdalena)
    oil/gas terminal(s): Covenas offshore terminal
    dry bulk cargo port(s): Puerto Bolivar (coal)
    container port(s) (TEUs): Cartagena (1,853,342)
  • Military :: COLOMBIA

  • National Army (Ejercito Nacional), Republic of Colombia Navy (Armada Republica de Colombia, ARC, includes Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (Infanteria de Marina, IM), and Coast Guard), Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia, FAC) (2012)
    18-24 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; service obligation is 18 months (2012)
    males age 16-49: 11,692,647
    females age 16-49: 11,727,625 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 9,150,400
    females age 16-49: 9,861,760 (2010 est.)
    male: 430,634
    female: 413,974 (2010 est.)
    3.28% of GDP (2012)
    3.06% of GDP (2011)
    3.63% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 17
  • Transnational Issues :: COLOMBIA

  • in December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank
    IDPs: 6,044,200 (conflict between government and illegal armed groups and drug traffickers since 1985; about 300,000 new IDPs each year since 2000) (2014)
    stateless persons: 12 (2013)
    illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator with 83,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2011, a 17% decrease over 2010, producing a potential of 195 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; in 2012, aerial eradication dispensed herbicide to treat over 100,549 hectares combined with manual eradication of 30,486 hectares; a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange; important supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation is estimated to have fallen to 1,100 hectares in 2009 while pure heroin production declined to 2.1 mt; most Colombian heroin is destined for the US market (2013)
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