Central America and Caribbean :: Antigua and Barbuda

Introduction ::Antigua and Barbuda

    The Siboney were the first people to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early Spanish and French settlements were succeeded by an English colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Geography ::Antigua and Barbuda

People and Society ::Antigua and Barbuda

Government ::Antigua and Barbuda

    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
    constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a Commonwealth realm
    name: Saint John's
    geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
    1 November 1981 (from the UK)
    Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
    1 November 1981
    common law based on the English model
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)
    head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
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    elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
    bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
    elections: House of Representatives - last held on 12 March 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
    election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 50.9%, ALP 47.2%, BPM 1.1%, other 0.8%; seats by party - UPP 9, ALP 7, BPM 1
    highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Antigua and Barbuda; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; 2 High Court judges reside on Antigua and Barbuda
    note - Antigua and Barbuda replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London as the final appellate court; also a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
    judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Chief Justice appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
    subordinate courts: Industrial Court; Magistrates' Courts
    Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Gaston BROWNE]
    Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Trevor WALKER]
    Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]
    Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]
    United Progressive Party or UPP [W. Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
    Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [Wigley GEORGE]
    People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
    ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL
    chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
    telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-5525
    consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
    the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
    red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band; the sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era, black represents the African heritage of most of the population, blue is for hope, and red is for the dynamism of the people; the "V" stands for victory; the successive yellow, blue, and white coloring is also meant to evoke the country's tourist attractions of sun, sea, and sand
    name: "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"

    lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS
    note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

Economy ::Antigua and Barbuda

    Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters. After taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program and was successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from approximately 130% in 2010 to 89% in 2012. In 2009, Antigua's economy was severely hit by the global economic crisis and suffered from the collapse of its largest private sector employer, a steep decline in tourism, a rise in debt, and a sharp economic contraction between 2009-11. Antigua has not yet returned to its pre-crisis growth levels.
    $1.605 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    $1.58 billion (2011 est.)
    $1.628 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $1.176 billion (2012 est.)
    1.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    -3% (2011 est.)
    -8.5% (2010 est.)
    $18,300 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    $18,000 (2011 est.)
    $18,600 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    household consumption: 27.3%
    government consumption: 23.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 91.5%
    investment in inventories: -37.3%
    exports of goods and services: 58.2%
    imports of goods and services: -63.6%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 2.3%
    industry: 18.3%
    services: 79.4% (2012 est.)
    cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
    tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
    NA%
    30,000 (1991)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    agriculture: 7%
    industry: 11%
    services: 82% (1983)
    11% (2001 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    NA%
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $229.5 million
    expenditures: $293.4 million (2009 est.)
    19.5% of GDP (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    -5.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    89% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    130% of GDP (2010 est.)
    1 April - 31 March
    1.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    3.3% (2011 est.)
    6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)
    10.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    10.93% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $208.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    $223.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.131 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    $1.12 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.185 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    $1.134 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    -$200 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    -$120.1 million (2011 est.)
    $37.9 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    $43.45 million (2011 est.)
    petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals
    $400 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    $427 million (2011 est.)
    food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
    $441.2 million (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    $458 million (June 2010)
    East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
    2.7 (2012 est.)
    2.7 (2011 est.)
    2.7 (2010 est.)
    2.7 (2009)

Energy ::Antigua and Barbuda

Communications ::Antigua and Barbuda

    35,500 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    176,000 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    general assessment: good automatic telephone system
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is some 200 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France) (2011)
    state-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; ABS operates 1 radio station; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies (2007)
    .ag
    11,532 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    65,000 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 172

Transportation ::Antigua and Barbuda

    3 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    total: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 1
    under 914 m:
    1 (2013)
    total: 1,165 km
    country comparison to the world: 182
    paved: 384 km
    unpaved: 781 km (2002)
    total: 1,257
    country comparison to the world: 9
    by type: bulk carrier 49, cargo 753, carrier 6, chemical tanker 4, container 407, liquefied gas 12, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 17, vehicle carrier 2
    foreign-owned: 1,215 (Albania 1, Colombia 1, Denmark 20, Estonia 10, Germany 1094, Greece 4, Iceland 10, Latvia 16, Lithuania 3, Mexico 1, Netherlands 17, Norway 9, NZ 2, Poland 2, Russia 3, Switzerland 7, Turkey 7, UK 1, US 7) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Saint John's

Military ::Antigua and Barbuda

Transnational Issues ::Antigua and Barbuda