Europe :: Albania

Introduction ::Albania

    Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, but was conquered by Italy in 1939. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944. Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960), and then with China (to 1978). In the early 1990s, Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997; however, each of Albania's post-communist elections have been marred by claims of electoral fraud. The 2009 general elections resulted in a coalition government, the first such in the country's history. Albania joined NATO in April 2009 and is a potential candidate for EU accession. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure.

Geography ::Albania

People and Society ::Albania

Government ::Albania

    conventional long form: Republic of Albania
    conventional short form: Albania
    local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
    local short form: Shqiperia
    former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
    parliamentary democracy
    name: Tirana (Tirane)
    geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 19 49 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Berat, Diber, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Korce, Kukes, Lezhe, Shkoder, Tirane, Vlore
    28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire)
    Independence Day, 28 November (1912) also known as Flag Day
    approved by parliament 21 October 1998; adopted by popular referendum 22 November 1998; promulgated 28 November 1998
    civil law system except in the northern rural areas where customary law known as the "Code of Leke" prevails
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President of the Republic Bujar NISHANI (since 24 July 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Edi Rama (since 10 September 2013)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by parliament
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    elections: president is elected by the Assembly for a five-year term and is eligible for a second term (a candidate needs a three-fifths majority of the Assembly's 140 votes (84 votes) in one of the first three rounds of voting or a simple majority in round four or five to become president; up to five rounds of voting are held, if necessary); four election rounds held between 30 May and 11 June 2012 (next election to be held in 2017); prime minister appointed by the president on the proposal of the party or coalition of parties that has the majority of seats in the Assembly
    election results: Bujar NISHANI elected president on fourth round of voting; Assembly vote (for first three rounds three-fifths majority, 84 votes, required; fourth round, a simple majority of votes is required): Bujar NISHANI 73 votes; note - NISHANI took office 24 July 2012
    unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 deputies; 100 deputies elected directly in single member electoral zones with an approximate number of voters; 40 deputies elected from multi-name lists of parties or party coalitions according to their respective order; elected for a four-year term)
    elections: last held on 23 June 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
    election results: percent of vote by party- PS 41.12%, PD 30.41%, LSI 10.44%, PR 3.04%, PDIU 2.59%, other 12.4%; seats by party- PS 66, PD 49, LSI 16, PDIU 4, PR 3, other 2
    highest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges, including a chairman); Court of Cassation (consists of 14 judges, including the chief justice)
    judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president with the consent of the Assembly to serve single 9-year terms; chairman elected by the People's Assembly for single 3-year term; Court of Cassation judges, including the chairman, appointed by the president with the consent of the Assembly to serve single, 9-year terms)
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance
    Alliance for Employment, Prosperity, and Integration or APMI (coalition of 25 centrist and center-right parties) [Sali BERISHA]:
    Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]
    New Democracy Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]
    Party for Justice, Integration and Unity or PDIU [Shpetim IDRIZI]
    Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]
    Alliance for a European Albania or ASHE (coalition of 37 opposition parties from far left to right wing) [Edi RAMA]:
    Social Democracy Party or PDS [Paskel MILO]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]
    Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir META]
    Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]
    Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vangjel DULE]
    other parties:
    New Democratic Spirit or FRD [Bamir TOPI]
    Red and Black Alliance [Kreshnik SPAHIU]
    Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]
    Mjaft Movement [Elton KACIDHJA]
    Omonia [Vasil BOLLANO]
    Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
    BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EITI (candidate country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Gilbert GALANXHI
    chancery: 1312 18th Street NW, 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
    FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Alexander ARVIZU
    embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana
    mailing address: US Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510
    telephone: [355] (4) 2247285
    FAX: [355] (4) 2232222
    red with a black two-headed eagle in the center; the design is claimed to be that of 15th-century hero George Castriota SKANDERBEG, who led a successful uprising against the Turks that resulted in a short-lived independence for some Albanian regions (1443-78); an unsubstantiated explanation for the eagle symbol is the tradition that Albanians see themselves as descendants of the eagle; they refer to themselves as "Shkypetars," which translates as "sons of the eagle"
    double-headed eagle
    name: "Hymni i Flamurit" (Hymn to the Flag)

    lyrics/music: Aleksander Stavre DRENOVA/Ciprian PORUMBESCU
    note: adopted 1912

Economy ::Albania

    Albania, a formerly closed, centrally-planned state, is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. Macroeconomic growth averaged around 6% between 2004-08, but declined to about 3% in 2009-11, and 0.5% in 2012. Inflation is low and stable. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime, and recently adopted a fiscal reform package aimed at reducing the large gray economy and attracting foreign investment. Remittances, a significant catalyst for economic growth declined from 12-15% of GDP before the 2008 financial crisis to 8% of GDP in 2010, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy. The agricultural sector, which accounts for almost half of employment but only about one-fifth of GDP, is limited primarily to small family operations and subsistence farming because of lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land. Energy shortages because of a reliance on hydropower - 98% of the electrical power produced in Albania - and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure contribute to Albania's poor business environment and lack of success in attracting new foreign investment needed to expand the country's export base. FDI is among the lowest in the region, but the government has embarked on an ambitious program to improve the business climate through fiscal and legislative reforms. The completion of a new thermal power plant near Vlore has helped diversify generation capacity, and plans to upgrade transmission lines between Albania and Montenegro and Kosovo would help relieve the energy shortages. Also, with help from EU funds, the government is taking steps to improve the poor national road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth. The country will continue to face challenges from increasing public debt, having slightly exceeded its former statutory limit of 60% of GDP in 2012. Strong trade, remittance, and banking sector ties with Greece and Italy make Albania vulnerable to spillover effects of the global financial crisis.
    $26.54 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    $26.2 billion (2011 est.)
    $25.44 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    Albania has an informal, and unreported, sector that may be as large as 50% of official GDP
    $12.69 billion (2012 est.)
    1.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    3% (2011 est.)
    3.5% (2010 est.)
    $8,200 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    $8,100 (2011 est.)
    $7,900 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    15.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    13.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
    14.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 88.1%
    government consumption: 7.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 26%
    investment in inventories: 4.1%
    exports of goods and services: 31.6%
    imports of goods and services: -57.3%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 20%
    industry: 18.7%
    services: 61.3%
    (2012 est.)
    wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products; sheep
    perfumes and cosmetic products, food and tobacco products; textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
    -1.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    1.088 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    agriculture: 47.8%
    industry: 23%
    services: 29.2%
    (September 2010 est.)
    13.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    13.3% (2011 est.)
    note: these are official rates, but actual rates may exceed 30% due to preponderance of near-subsistence farming
    12.5% (2008 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.5%
    highest 10%: 29% (2008)
    34.5 (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    26.7 (2005)
    revenues: $3.054 billion
    expenditures: $3.477 billion (2012 est.)
    24.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    -3.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    59.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    58.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
    calendar year
    2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    3.5% (2011 est.)
    5% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    5.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
    10.88% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    12.43% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.657 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    $2.575 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $9.951 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $9.426 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $8.591 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    $8.408 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    -$1.45 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    -$1.695 billion (2011 est.)
    $921 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    $962.1 million (2011 est.)
    textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
    Italy 44.2%, Spain 9%, China 6.8%, Greece 4.9%, Turkey 4.7% (2012)
    $4.234 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    $4.461 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
    Italy 34.9%, Greece 11.7%, China 7.5%, Turkey 5.6%, Germany 4.3% (2012)
    $2.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    $2.473 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $5.917 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    $5.938 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    leke (ALL) per US dollar -
    108.19 (2012 est.)
    100.9 (2011 est.)
    103.94 (2010 est.)
    94.98 (2009)
    79.546 (2008)

Energy ::Albania

Communications ::Albania

    338,800 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    3.1 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    general assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines, teledensity remains low with roughly 10 fixed lines per 100 people; mobile-cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective
    domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile-cellular phone service has been available since 1996; by 2011 multiple companies were providing mobile services and mobile teledensity had reached 100 per 100 persons; Internet broadband services initiated in 2005 but growth has been slow; Internet cafes are popular in Tirana and have started to spread outside the capital
    international: country code - 355; submarine cable provides connectivity to Italy, Croatia, and Greece; the Trans-Balkan Line, a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system, provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2011)
    3 public TV networks, one of which transmits by satellite to Albanian-language communities in neighboring countries; more than 60 private TV stations; many viewers can pick up Italian and Greek TV broadcasts via terrestrial reception; cable TV service is available; 2 public radio networks and roughly 25 private radio stations; several international broadcasters are available (2010)
    15,528 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    1.3 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 91

Transportation ::Albania

Military ::Albania

Transnational Issues ::Albania

    stateless persons: 7,443 (2012)
    current situation: Albania is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; Albanian victims of sexual exploitation are trafficked within Albania and in Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Kosovo, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Ireland, and the UK; some Albanian women become sex trafficking victims after accepting offers of legitimate jobs; Albanian children are forced to beg or perform other forms of forced labor; Filipino victims of labor trafficking were identified in Albania during 2012
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Albania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government decreased its trafficking investigations, prosecutions, and convictions over the last year and, because of inconsistent implementation of operating procedures, continues to punish victims for unlawful acts that are a direct result of being subjected to sex trafficking; the high turnover rate of law enforcement personnel prevents progress at the local level in identifying and protecting trafficking victims; removal of the national anti-trafficking coordinator hinders efforts to implement the 2011 national action plan against trafficking; the government provides limited funding to NGO shelters (2013)
    increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and expanding cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens