Africa :: Angola

Introduction ::Angola

    Angola is still rebuilding its country since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS pushed through a new constitution in 2010; elections held in 2012 saw him installed as president.

Geography ::Angola

    Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
    12 30 S, 18 30 E
    total: 1,246,700 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 23
    land: 1,246,700 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    total: 5,198 km
    border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
    1,600 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
    narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
    petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
    arable land: 3.29%
    permanent crops: 0.23%
    other: 96.48% (2011)
    855.3 sq km (2005)
    148 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.71 cu km/yr (45%/34%/21%)
    per capita: 40.27 cu m/yr (2005)
    locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
    overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People and Society ::Angola

Government ::Angola

    conventional long form: Republic of Angola
    conventional short form: Angola
    local long form: Republica de Angola
    local short form: Angola
    former: People's Republic of Angola
    republic; multiparty presidential regime
    name: Luanda
    geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
    11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
    Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
    adopted by National Assembly 5 February 2010
    civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president indirectly elected by National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 2010 constitution; note - according to the 2010 constitution, ballots are cast for parties rather than candidates, the leader of the party with the most votes becomes president; following the results of the 2012 legislative elections DOS SANTOS became president (eligible for a second term)
    election results: NA; as leader of the MPLA, Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS became pesident following legislative elections on 31 August 2012; DOS SANTOS was inaugurated on 26 September 2012 to serve the first of a possible two terms under the 2010 constitution
    unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 31 August 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
    election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 71.8%, UNITA 18.7%, CASA-CE 6.0%, PRS 1.7%, FNLA 1.1%, other 0.7%; seats by party - MPLA 175, UNITA 32, CASA-CE 8, PRS 3, FNLA 2
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (consists of the chief justice and NA judges; Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body presided over by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms
    subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts
    Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU]
    National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [Lucas NGONDA]
    National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party)
    Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975)
    Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]
    note: 4 other parties qualified to participate in the national election in August 2012
    Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO]
    note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; Several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues Mingas], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese soccer team in 2010
    chief of mission: Ambassador Alberto do Carmo BENTO RIBEIRO
    chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
    FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
    consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher J. MCMULLEN
    embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
    mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
    telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000
    FAX: [244] (222) 64-1232
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty, black the African continent, the symbols characterize workers and peasants
    Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope)
    name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)

    lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO
    note: adopted 1975

Economy ::Angola

    Angola's high growth rate in recent years was driven by high international prices for its oil. Angola became a member of OPEC in late 2006 and its current assigned a production quota of 1.65 million barrels a day (bbl/day). Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 85% of GDP. Diamond exports contribute an additional 5%. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Much of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, even though peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Since 2005, the government has used billions of dollars in credit lines from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. The global recession that started in 2008 temporarily stalled economic growth. Lower prices for oil and diamonds during the global recession slowed GDP growth to 2.4% in 2009, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell in 2008 and 2009. Angola abandoned its currency peg in 2009, and in November 2009 signed onto an IMF Stand-By Arrangement loan of $1.4 billion to rebuild international reserves. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to about 10% in 2012. Higher oil prices have helped Angola turn a budget deficit of 8.6% of GDP in 2009 into an surplus of 12% of GDP in 2012. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, also is a major challenge.
    $130.4 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    $120.3 billion (2011 est.)
    $115.7 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $118.7 billion (2012 est.)
    8.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    3.9% (2011 est.)
    3.4% (2010 est.)
    $6,500 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    $6,100 (2011 est.)
    $6,100 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    20.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    24% of GDP (2011 est.)
    21.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 48%
    government consumption: 19.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 11.4%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 64.2%
    imports of goods and services: -43.4%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 10.2%
    industry: 61.4%
    services: 28.4% (2011 est.)
    bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
    petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
    8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    8.468 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    agriculture: 85%
    industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
    40.5% (2006 est.)
    lowest 10%: 0.6%
    highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
    revenues: $51.24 billion
    expenditures: $44.23 billion (2012 est.)
    43.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    5.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    16.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    18.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
    calendar year
    10.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    13.5% (2011 est.)
    25% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    30% (31 December 2009 est.)
    16.81% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    18.76% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $13.31 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    $12.19 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $44.65 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    $36.55 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $20.45 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    $18.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $17.09 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    $15.92 billion (2011 est.)
    $69.26 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $67.31 billion (2011 est.)
    crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
    China 45.8%, US 13.7%, India 11%, South Africa 4.1% (2012)
    $22.86 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    $20.23 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
    China 20.8%, Portugal 19.5%, US 7.7%, South Africa 7.1%, Brazil 5.9% (2012)
    $33.41 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $26.48 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $21.78 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    $21.12 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $17.15 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    $12.15 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $9.621 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    $7.361 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
    95.468 (2012 est.)
    93.935 (2011 est.)
    91.906 (2010 est.)
    79.33 (2009)
    75.023 (2008)

Energy ::Angola

Communications ::Angola

    303,200 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    9.491 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    general assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed-lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to 5; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001
    domestic: only about two fixed-lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 50 telephones per 100 persons in 2011
    international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2009)
    state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half dozen private radio stations broadcast locally (2008)
    20,703 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    606,700 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 114

Transportation ::Angola

    176 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    total: 31
    over 3,047 m: 7
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 145
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
    914 to 1,523 m: 66
    under 914 m:
    43 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    gas 352 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1,065 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2013)
    total: 2,764 km
    country comparison to the world: 59
    narrow gauge: 2,641 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2008)
    total: 51,429 km
    country comparison to the world: 78
    paved: 5,349 km
    unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)
    1,300 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    total: 7
    country comparison to the world: 123
    by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
    foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)
    registered in other countries: 17 (Bahamas 6, Curacao 2, Cyprus 1, Liberia 1, Malta 7) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe

Military ::Angola

Transnational Issues ::Angola

    Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments
    refugees (country of origin): 20,740 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (2012)
    IDPs: 19,500 (27-year civil war ending in 2002) (2005)
    current situation: Angola is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor in agriculture, construction, domestic service, and diamond mines; some Angolan girls are forced into domestic prostitution, while some Angolan boys are taken to Namibia as forced laborers or are forced to be cross-border couriers; women and children are also forced into domestic service in South Africa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, and European countries; Vietnamese, Brazilian, and Chinese women are trafficked to Angola for prostitution, while Chinese, Southeast Asian, Namibian, and possibly Congolese migrants are subjected to forced labor in Angola's construction industry
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Angola does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; authorities opened one internal labor trafficking investigation but have not initiated the prosecution of any trafficking offenders, has never convicted a trafficking offender, and does not have a law specifically prohibiting all forms of trafficking; the government has not adopted amendments to the penal code reflecting the 2010 constitutional provision prohibiting human trafficking and has not finalized draft anti-trafficking legislation; the government has made minimal efforts to protect trafficking victims but continues to lack a systematic process for identifying trafficking victims and providing legal remedies to victims (2013)
    used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa