Africa :: Botswana

Introduction ::Botswana

    Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. More than four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography ::Botswana

People and Society ::Botswana

    noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
    adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
    Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
    Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English (official) 2.1%, other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)
    Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none 20.6% (2001 census)
    2,127,825 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    0-14 years: 33.2% (male 360,053/female 346,691)
    15-24 years: 21.8% (male 229,713/female 233,546)
    25-54 years: 36.7% (male 411,019/female 370,395)
    55-64 years: 4.3% (male 40,639/female 51,305)
    65 years and over: 4% (male 33,868/female 50,596) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 59.1 %
    youth dependency ratio: 53.3 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.8 %
    potential support ratio: 17.3 (2013)
    total: 22.7 years
    male: 22.6 years
    female: 22.7 years (2013 est.)
    1.35% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    21.69 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    12.91 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    4.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population
    country comparison to the world: 23
    note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2013 est.)
    urban population: 61.7% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 2.07% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    GABORONE (capital) 202,000 (2011)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    160 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    total: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 145
    male: 10.34 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 9.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 54.47 years
    country comparison to the world: 205
    male: 55.98 years
    female: 52.92 years (2013 est.)
    2.41 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    52.8%
    note: percent of women aged 12-49 (2007/08)
    8.3% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    0.34 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
    1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 99% of population
    rural: 92% of population
    total: 96% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 1% of population
    rural: 8% of population
    total: 4% of population (2010 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 75% of population
    rural: 41% of population
    total: 62% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 25% of population
    rural: 59% of population
    total: 38% of population (2010 est.)
    24.8% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    320,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    5,800 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria (2013)
    11.2% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    11.2% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    7.8% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 85.1%
    male: 84.6%
    female: 85.6% (2011 est.)
    total: 12 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 12 years (2006)
    total number: 45,036
    percentage: 9 %
    note: data represents children ages 7-17 (2006 est.)
    total: 13.6%
    country comparison to the world: 94
    male: 13.2%
    female: 14% (2000)

Government ::Botswana

    conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
    conventional short form: Botswana
    local long form: Republic of Botswana
    local short form: Botswana
    former: Bechuanaland
    parliamentary republic
    name: Gaborone
    geographic coordinates: 24 38 S, 25 54 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    9 districts and 5 town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Pikwe*, South East, Southern
    30 September 1966 (from the UK)
    Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
    March 1965; effective 30 September 1966
    mixed legal system of civil law influenced by the Roman-Dutch model and also customary and common law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Ponatshego KEDIKILWE (since 2 August 2012); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Ponatshego KEDIKILWE (since 2 August 2012)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president indirectly elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 October 2009 (next to be held in October 2014); vice president appointed by the president
    election results: Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA
    bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 35-member body with 8 ex-officio members consisting of the chiefs of the principal tribes, and 27 non-permanent members serving five-year terms, of which 22 are indirectly elected with the remaining 5 appointed by the President) and the National Assembly (63 seats; 57 members directly elected by popular vote, 4 appointed by the majority party, and 2, the President and Attorney General, serve as ex-officio members; members serve five-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly elections last held on 16 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
    election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 53.3%, BNF 21.9%, BCP 19.2%, BAM 2.3%, other 3.3%; seats by party - BDP 45, BNF 6, BCP 4, BAM 1, other 1
    highest court(s): Court of Appeal, High Court (each consists of a chief justice and number of other judges as prescribed by the Parliament)
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and in three districts); Magistrates Courts (one in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief's Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief's Representative Court; Chief's Representative’s Court; Headman's Court
    Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO]; Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Daniel KWELAGOBE]; Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Gomolemo MOTSWALEDI]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Bernard BALIKANI]; MELS Movement of Botswana or MELS [Themba JOINA]; New Democratic Front or NDF [Dick BAYFORD]
    note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
    First People of the Kalahari (Bushman organization); Pitso Ya Ba Tswana; Society for the Promotion of Ikalanga Language (Kalanga elites)
    other: diamond mining companies
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Tebelelo Mazile SERETSE
    chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
    FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
    chief of mission: Ambassador Michelle D. GAVIN
    embassy: Embassy Drive, Government Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaborone
    mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
    telephone: [267] 395-3982
    FAX: [267] 318-0232
    light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center; the blue symbolizes water in the form of rain, while the black and white bands represent racial harmony
    zebra
    name: "Fatshe leno la rona" (Our Land)

    lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETE
    note: adopted 1966

Economy ::Botswana

    Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. However, economic growth was negative in 2009, with the industrial sector shrinking by 30%, after the global crisis reduced demand for Botswana's diamonds. Although the economy recovered in 2010, GDP growth has again slowed. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $16,800 in 2012. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP, 70-80% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. Botswana's heavy reliance on a single luxury export was a critical factor in the sharp economic contraction of 2009. Tourism, financial services, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. According to official government statistics, unemployment reached 17.8% in 2009, but unofficial estimates run much higher. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens Botswana's impressive economic gains. An expected leveling off in diamond production within the next two decades overshadows long-term prospects. A major international diamond company signed a 10-year deal with Botswana in 2012 to move its rough stone sorting and trading division from London to Gaborone by the end of 2013. The move may support Botswana's downstream diamond industry.
    $32.06 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    $30.88 billion (2011 est.)
    $29.39 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $17.62 billion (2012 est.)
    3.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    5.1% (2011 est.)
    7% (2010 est.)
    $17,100 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    $16,700 (2011 est.)
    $16,000 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    34.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    39.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
    37.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 39.8%
    government consumption: 20.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 30%
    investment in inventories: 5.4%
    exports of goods and services: 35.7%
    imports of goods and services: -43.6%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 2.1%
    industry: 45%
    services: 52.9% (2011 est.)
    livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
    diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; livestock processing; textiles
    0% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    1.288 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    agriculture: NA%
    industry: NA%
    services: NA%
    17.8% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    7.5% (2007 est.)
    30.3% (2003)
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    63 (1993)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    revenues: $5.508 billion
    expenditures: $5.393 billion (2012 est.)
    31.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    0.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    14.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    17% of GDP (2011 est.)
    1 April - 31 March
    7.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    8.5% (2011 est.)
    9.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    10% (31 December 2009 est.)
    11% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    11% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.361 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    $1.153 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $7.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    $7.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.45 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    $1.114 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $4.44 billion (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    $4.107 billion (31 December 2011)
    $4.076 billion (31 December 2010)
    $231.3 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    $271 million (2011 est.)
    $6.259 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    $6.458 billion (2011 est.)
    diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles
    $6.938 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    $6.275 billion (2011 est.)
    foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
    $7.839 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    $8.082 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.437 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    $2.396 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    pulas (BWP) per US dollar -
    7.6179 (2012 est.)
    6.8382 (2011 est.)
    6.7936 (2010 est.)
    7.1551 (2009)
    6.7907 (2008)

Energy ::Botswana

Communications ::Botswana

    149,600 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    2.9 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    general assessment: Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stations
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 7 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity now pushing 140 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)
    2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; privately owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast locally (2007)
    .bw
    1,806 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    120,000 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 154

Transportation ::Botswana

    74 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    total: 10
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 64
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
    914 to 1,523 m: 46
    under 914 m:
    13 (2013)
    total: 888 km
    country comparison to the world: 93
    narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
    total: 17,916 km
    country comparison to the world: 117
    note: includes 8,916 km of Public Highway Network roads (6,116 km paved and 2,800 km unpaved) and other 9,000 km of District Council roads (2011)

Military ::Botswana