Africa :: Burundi

Introduction ::Burundi

    Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. More than 200,000 Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a transition process that led to an integrated defense force, established a new constitution in 2005, and elected a majority Hutu government in 2005. The government of President Pierre NKURUNZIZA, who was reelected in 2010, continues to face many political and economic challenges.

Geography ::Burundi

    Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
    3 30 S, 30 00 E
    total: 27,830 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 147
    land: 25,680 sq km
    water: 2,150 sq km
    slightly smaller than Maryland
    total: 974 km
    border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
    hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
    lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
    highest point: Heha 2,670 m
    nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
    arable land: 33.06%
    permanent crops: 14.37%
    other: 52.57% (2011)
    214.3 sq km (2003)
    12.54 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.29 cu km/yr (15%/5%/79%)
    per capita: 43.27 cu m/yr (2005)
    flooding; landslides; drought
    soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile

People and Society ::Burundi

    noun: Burundian(s)
    adjective: Burundian
    Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
    Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
    Christian 82.8% (Roman Catholic 61.4%, Protestant 21.4%), Muslim 2.5%, Adventist 2.3%, other 6.5%, unknown 5.9% (2008 census)
    10,888,321 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    0-14 years: 45.6% (male 2,497,999/female 2,469,564)
    15-24 years: 19.7% (male 1,071,135/female 1,074,763)
    25-54 years: 28.4% (male 1,533,191/female 1,559,661)
    55-64 years: 3.8% (male 186,706/female 225,467)
    65 years and over: 2.5% (male 108,243/female 161,592) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 88.6 %
    youth dependency ratio: 84 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.5 %
    potential support ratio: 22 (2013)
    total: 16.9 years
    male: 16.6 years
    female: 17.2 years (2013 est.)
    3.08% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    40.04 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    9.12 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    -0.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    urban population: 10.9% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 4.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BUJUMBURA (capital) 605,000 (2011)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
    800 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    total: 58.86 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 26
    male: 63.32 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 54.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 59.69 years
    country comparison to the world: 194
    male: 57.92 years
    female: 61.5 years (2013 est.)
    5.99 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    21.9% (2010/11)
    11.6% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
    1.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 83% of population
    rural: 71% of population
    total: 72% of population
    urban: 17% of population
    rural: 29% of population
    total: 28% of population (2010 est.)
    urban: 49% of population
    rural: 46% of population
    total: 46% of population
    urban: 51% of population
    rural: 54% of population
    total: 54% of population (2010 est.)
    3.3% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    180,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    15,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    2.9% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    35.2% (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    6.1% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 67.2%
    male: 72.9%
    female: 61.8% (2010 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 11 years (2010)
    total number: 433,187
    percentage: 19 % (2005 est.)

Government ::Burundi

    conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
    conventional short form: Burundi
    local long form: Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
    local short form: Burundi
    former: Urundi
    name: Bujumbura
    geographic coordinates: 3 22 S, 29 21 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    17 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
    1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
    Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
    ratified by popular referendum 28 February 2005
    mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA - Hutu (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Therence SINUNGURUZA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2010); Second Vice President Gervais RUFYIKIRI - Hutu (since 29 August 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA - Hutu (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Therence SINUNGURUZA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2010); Second Vice President Gervais RUFYIKIRI - Hutu (since 29 August 2010)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: the president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 28 June 2010 (next to be held in 2015); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by parliament
    election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA elected president by popular vote; Pierre NKURUNZIZA 91.6%, other 8.4%; note - opposition parties withdrew from the election due to alleged government interference in the electoral process
    bicameral Parliament or Parlement, consists of a Senate (54 seats; 34 members elected by indirect vote to serve five-year terms, with remaining seats assigned to ethnic groups and former chiefs of state) and a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (minimum 100 seats, 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi with at least 30% being women; additional seats appointed by a National Independent Electoral Commission to ensure ethnic representation; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 23 July 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - TBD; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CNDD-FDD 81.2%, UPRONA 11.6%, FRODEBU 5.9%, others 1.3%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 81, UPRONA 17, FRODEBU 5, other 3
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges and organized into Judicial, administrative, and cassation chambers)
    judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Judicial Service Commission, a 15-member independent body of judicial and legal profession officials); judges appointed by the president with the approval of the Senate; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; County Courts; Courts of Residence
    governing parties:
    Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA]
    National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Jeremie NGENDAKUMANA]
    Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progress Nationale) or UPRONA [Bonaventure NIYOYANKANA]
    note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are:
    National Council for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD [Leonard NYANGOMA]
    National Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]
    Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]
    Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC [Pacifique NININAHAZWE] (civil society umbrella organization)
    Observatoire de lutte contre la corruption et les malversations economiques or OLUCOME [Gabriel RUFYIRI] (anti-corruption pressure group)
    other: Hutu and Tutsi militias (loosely organized)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Angele NIYUHIRE
    chancery: Suite 408, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
    FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
    chief of mission: Ambassador [vacant]; Charge d'Affaires Samuel R. WATSON
    embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
    mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
    telephone: [257] 22-207-000
    FAX: [257] 22-222-926
    divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below); green symbolizes hope and optimism, white purity and peace, and red the blood shed in the struggle for independence; the three stars in the disk represent the three major ethnic groups: Hutu, Twa, Tutsi, as well as the three elements in the national motto: unity, work, progress
    name: "Burundi Bwacu" (Our Beloved Burundi)
    lyrics/music: Jean-Baptiste NTAHOKAJA/Marc BARENGAYABO
    note: adopted 1962

Economy ::Burundi

    Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural; agriculture accounts for just over 30% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings, though exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Burundi's export earnings - and its ability to pay for imports - rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices. An ethnic-based war that lasted for over a decade resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally. Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in 15 adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply. Less than 2% of the population has electricity in its homes. Burundi's GDP grew around 4% annually in 2006-12. Political stability and the end of the civil war have improved aid flows and economic activity has increased, but underlying weaknesses - a high poverty rate, poor education rates, a weak legal system, a poor transportation network, overburdened utilities, and low administrative capacity - risk undermining planned economic reforms. The purchasing power of most Burundians has decreased as wage increases have not kept up with inflation. Burundi will remain heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors - foreign aid represents 42% of Burundi''s national income, the second highest rate in Sub-Saharan Africa. Burundi joined the East African Community in 2009, which should boost Burundi's regional trade ties, and also in 2009 received $700 million in debt relief. Government corruption is hindering the development of a healthy private sector as companies seek to navigate an environment with ever changing rules.
    $5.578 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    $5.363 billion (2011 est.)
    $5.148 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $2.475 billion (2012 est.)
    4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    4.2% (2011 est.)
    3.8% (2010 est.)
    $600 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 226
    $600 (2011 est.)
    $600 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    1.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    1.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
    0.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 91.8%
    government consumption: 12.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
    investment in inventories: -4.5%
    exports of goods and services: 8%
    imports of goods and services: -29.1%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 35.2%
    industry: 18.6%
    services: 46.2% (2012 est.)
    coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, cassava (manioc); beef, milk, hides
    light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap, and beer; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
    4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    4.245 million (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    agriculture: 93.6%
    industry: 2.3%
    services: 4.1% (2002 est.)
    68% (2002 est.)
    lowest 10%: 4.1%
    highest 10%: 28% (2006)
    42.4 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    revenues: $767.6 million
    expenditures: $865.8 million (2012 est.)
    31% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    -4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    50.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    55.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
    calendar year
    18% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    9.7% (2011 est.)
    11.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    10% (31 December 2009 est.)
    14.32% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    13.23% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $332.2 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    $335.7 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $519 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    $465.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $572.2 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    $576.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    -$337.4 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    -$253.4 million (2011 est.)
    $127.1 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    $124 million (2011 est.)
    coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
    Germany 14.8%, Pakistan 9.1%, China 8.7%, Austria 7.5%, Sweden 7.2%, Belgium 5.1%, France 4.7%, Rwanda 4.4%, US 4.1% (2012)
    $810 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    $771.7 million (2011 est.)
    capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
    Saudi Arabia 16.3%, China 7.9%, Uganda 7.7%, Belgium 7%, Kenya 6.7%, Zambia 6.6%, India 5.5%, Singapore 5.1% (2012)
    $308.8 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    $295.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $639.7 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    $627.7 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    Burundi francs (BIF) per US dollar -
    1,442.51 (2012 est.)
    1,261.07 (2011 est.)
    1,230.8 (2010 est.)
    1,230.18 (2009)
    1,198 (2008)

Energy ::Burundi

Communications ::Burundi

    30,000 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    1.915 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    general assessment: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relays
    domestic: telephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is increasing but remains at roughly 20 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)
    state-controlled La Radiodiffusion et Television Nationale de Burundi (RTNB) operates the lone TV station and the only national radio network; about 10 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in Bujumbura (2007)
    229 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    157,800 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 147

Transportation ::Burundi

Military ::Burundi

Transnational Issues ::Burundi

    Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region
    refugees (country of origin): 41,349 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2012)
    IDPs: 78,800 (the majority are ethnic Tutsi displaced by inter-communal violence that broke out after the 1993 coup and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; no new displacements since 2008 when the last rebel group laid down its arms) (2012)
    stateless persons: 1,302 (2012)
    current situation: Burundi is a source country for children and possibly women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; business people recruit Burundian girls for prostitution domestically, as well as in Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda, and the Middle East, and recruit boys and girls for forced labor in Burundi and Tanzania; children and young adults are coerced into forced labor in farming, mining, construction, or informal commerce; some family members, friends, and neighbors are complicit in exploiting children, luring them in with offers of educational or job opportunities
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Burundi does not comply fully with the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government fails to prosecute trafficking offenses vigorously or increase its capacity to protect victims; most victim assistance continues to be provided by NGOs without government support; the government also fails to complete its draft anti-trafficking legislation, which is intended to rectify gaps in existing laws; a nationwide awareness-raising campaign continues (2013)