Africa :: Chad

Introduction ::Chad

    Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the insurgents. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority.

Geography ::Chad

People and Society ::Chad

Government ::Chad

    conventional long form: Republic of Chad
    conventional short form: Chad
    local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
    local short form: Tchad/Tshad
    name: N'Djamena
    geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    22 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
    11 August 1960 (from France)
    Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
    passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits
    mixed legal system of civil and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)
    head of government: Prime Minister Djimrangar DADNADJI (since 21 January 2013)
    cabinet: Council of State; members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 8.6%, Nadji MADOU 7.8%
    unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February 2011 (next to be held by 2015); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ART 133, UNDR 11, others 44
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 15 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges term NA
    subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
    Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP
    Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
    National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]
    National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
    Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]
    Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]
    Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]
    Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
    rebel groups
    chief of mission: Ambassador Maitine DJOUMBE
    chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mark M. BOULWARE
    embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
    mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
    telephone: [235] 2251-70-09
    FAX: [235] 2251-56-54
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
    note: similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
    goat (north); lion (south)
    name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
    lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
    note: adopted 1960

Economy ::Chad

    Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. Economic conditions have been positive in recent years, with real GDP growth reaching 13% in 2010 because of high international prices for oil and a strong local harvest. GDP growth for 2012 was 5%. However, Chad's investment climate remains challenging due to limited infrastructure, a lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. The government of Chad is determined to improve agricultural production through modernization and mechanization over the next three years, and hosted a national Rural Development Forum in 2012 to promote investment in agriculture. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. Remittances are also an important source of income. The Libyan conflict disrupted inflows of remittances to Chad's impoverished western region that relies on income from Chadians living in Libya. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1.5 billion barrels - in southern Chad. Chinese companies are also expanding exploration efforts and have completed a 311-km pipeline and the country's first refinery. The nation's total oil reserves are estimated at 1.5 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings.
    $21 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    $19.99 billion (2011 est.)
    $19.89 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $10.81 billion (2012 est.)
    5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    0.5% (2011 est.)
    13% (2010 est.)
    $2,000 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    $1,900 (2011 est.)
    $1,900 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    28% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    30.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
    27.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 66.5%
    government consumption: 11.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 31.9%
    investment in inventories: 0.7%
    exports of goods and services: 41%
    imports of goods and services: -52.1%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 47.1%
    industry: 9.2%
    services: 43.7% (2012 est.)
    cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
    oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
    10.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    4.293 million (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    agriculture: 80% (2006 est.)
    industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
    80% (2001 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.6%
    highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
    revenues: $2.748 billion
    expenditures: $2.979 billion (2012 est.)
    25.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    -2.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    33.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    43.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
    calendar year
    10.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    -4.9% (2011 est.)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    4.75% (31 December 2008)
    15.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    15% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.499 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    $1.235 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.642 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    $1.335 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $785.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    $553.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    -$1.965 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    -$2.386 billion (2011 est.)
    $4.144 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    $4.306 billion (2011 est.)
    oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic
    US 82.5%, China 6.7% (2012)
    $2.761 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    $2.696 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
    China 19.8%, Cameroon 19.7%, France 15.8%, Saudi Arabia 5.4%, US 4.1% (2012)
    $1.174 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    $968.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.793 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    $1.821 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $4.5 billion (2006 est.)
    Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
    510.53 (2012 est.)
    471.87 (2011 est.)
    495.28 (2010 est.)
    472.19 (2009)
    447.81 (2008)

Energy ::Chad

Communications ::Chad

    31,200 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    3.666 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high costs and low telephone density
    domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 35 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
    1 state-owned TV station; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007)
    6 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 229
    168,100 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 145

Transportation ::Chad

    59 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    total: 9
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 50
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
    914 to 1,523 m: 22
    under 914 m:
    11 (2013)
    oil 582 km (2013)
    total: 40,000 km
    country comparison to the world: 89
    note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)
    (Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)

Military ::Chad

Transnational Issues ::Chad

    since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
    refugees (country of origin): 306,960 (Sudan) (2012); 83,751 (Central African Republic) (2013)
    IDPs: 90,000 (majority are in the east) (2012)
    current situation: Chad is a source, transit, and destination country for children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the trafficking problem is mainly internal and frequently involves family members entrusting children to relatives or intermediaries in return for promises of education, apprenticeships, goods, or money; child trafficking victims are subjected to involuntary domestic servitude, forced cattle herding, forced begging, involuntary agricultural labor, or commercial sexual exploitation; some Chadian girls who travel to larger towns in search of work are forced into prostitution; in 2012, Chadian children were identified in some government military training centers and among rebel groups
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Chad does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has made a limited commitment to increased anti-trafficking law enforcement but continues to lack formal victim identification procedures; draft revisions to Chad's penal code that would prohibit child trafficking and provide protection for victims were not enacted for the third consecutive year; the government continues its nationwide campaign on human rights issues, including human trafficking, and high-ranking officials, such as the president and prime minister, are speaking out publicly against human trafficking (2013)