Africa :: Cape Verde

Introduction ::Cape Verde

    The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; Cape Verde subsequently became a trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cape Verde continues to exhibit one of Africa's most stable democratic governments. Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result, Cape Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one. Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.

Geography ::Cape Verde

People and Society ::Cape Verde

Government ::Cape Verde

    conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
    conventional short form: Cape Verde
    local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
    local short form: Cabo Verde
    republic
    name: Praia
    geographic coordinates: 14 55 N, 23 31 W
    time difference: UTC-1 (4 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    22 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Porto Novo, Praia, Ribeira Brava, Ribeira Grande, Ribeira Grande de Santiago, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina do Fogo, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao Lourenco dos Orgaos, Sao Miguel, Sao Salvador do Mundo, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal, Tarrafal de Sao Nicolau
    5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
    Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
    25 September 1992; a major revision on 23 November 1995 substantially increased the powers of the president; a 1999 revision created the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)
    civil law system of Portugal
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Jorge Carlos FONSECA (since 9 September 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 2001)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
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    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 August 2011 with a second round runoff on 21 August 2011; prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president
    election results: percent of vote (second round) - Jorge Carlos FONSECA 53.4%, Manuel Inocencio SOUSA 46.6%
    unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 6 February 2011 (next to be held by 2016)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAICV 38, MPD 32, UCID 2
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief justice and at least 5 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointments - 1 by the president of the republic, 1 elected by the National Assembly, and the remainder by the Supreme Council of Magistrates, a 9-member independent body presided over by the chief justice and includes the high judicial inspector, 2 presidential appointees, 3 elected by the National Assembly, and 2 by their court peers; chief justice appointed by the president of the republic from among peers of the Supreme Court and in consultation with the Supreme Council of the Magistrates; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: first instance (municipal) courts; audit, military, and fiscal and customs courts
    African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]
    Democratic and Independent Cape Verdean Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]
    Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]
    Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]
    Movement for Democracy or MPD [Carlos VEIGA]
    Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]
    Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Anibal MEDINA]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM]
    other: environmentalists; political pressure groups
    ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, CD, CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Maria De Fatima Lima Da VEIGA
    chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
    FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
    consulate(s) general: Boston
    chief of mission: Ambassador Adrienne O'NEAL
    embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 6, Praia
    mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
    telephone: [238] 2-60-89-00
    FAX: [238] 2-61-13-55
    five unequal horizontal bands; the top-most band of blue - equal to one half the width of the flag - is followed by three bands of white, red, and white, each equal to 1/12 of the width, and a bottom stripe of blue equal to one quarter of the flag width; a circle of 10, yellow, five-pointed stars is centered on the red stripe and positioned 3/8 of the length of the flag from the hoist side; blue stands for the sea and the sky, the circle of stars represents the 10 major islands united into a nation, the stripes symbolize the road to formation of the country through peace (white) and effort (red)
    name: "Cantico da Liberdade" (Song of Freedom)

    lyrics/music: Amilcar Spencer LOPES/Adalberto Higino Tavares SILVA
    note: adopted 1996

Economy ::Cape Verde

    The economy is service-oriented with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for about three-fourths of GDP. This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought and poor soil for agriculture on several of the islands. Although about 40% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of food production in GDP is low. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit financed by foreign aid and remittances from its large pool of emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%. Despite the lack of resources, sound economic management has produced steadily improving incomes. Continued economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy and mitigate high unemployment. Future prospects depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, the encouragement of tourism, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development program. Cape Verde became a member of the WTO in July 2008.
    $2.214 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    $2.123 billion (2011 est.)
    $2.02 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $1.899 billion (2012 est.)
    4.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    5% (2011 est.)
    5.2% (2010 est.)
    $4,200 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    $4,100 (2011 est.)
    $3,900 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    23.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    21.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
    25% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 66.6%
    government consumption: 18.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 34.2%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 44%
    imports of goods and services: -63.8%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 10.1%
    industry: 17.7%
    services: 72.2% (2012 est.)
    bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish
    food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
    4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    196,100 (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    21% (2000 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    30% (2000)
    lowest 10%: 1.9%
    highest 10%: 40.6% (2001)
    revenues: $435.8 million
    expenditures: $588.4 million (2012 est.)
    22.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    -8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    86.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    78.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
    calendar year
    2.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    4.5% (2011 est.)
    7.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    7.5% (31 December 2009 est.)
    9.9% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    9.81% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $976.2 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    $893.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.362 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    $1.322 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.517 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    $1.426 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    -$257.9 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    -$287.8 million (2011 est.)
    $184 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    $211 million (2011 est.)
    fuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides
    Spain 66.6%, Portugal 13.9%, US 5% (2012)
    $902 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    $1.06 billion (2011 est.)
    foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels
    Portugal 38%, Netherlands 21.4%, China 7.9%, Spain 7% (2012)
    $376 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    $339 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.136 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    $1.025 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    Cape Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar -
    85.822 (2012 est.)
    79.323 (2011 est.)
    83.259 (2010 est.)
    79.38 (2009)
    73.84 (2008)

Energy ::Cape Verde

Communications ::Cape Verde

    74,500 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    396,400 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    general assessment: effective system, extensive modernization from 1996-2000 following partial privatization in 1995
    domestic: major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT); fiber-optic ring, completed in 2001, links all islands providing Internet access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced in 1998; broadband services launched in 2004
    international: country code - 238; landing point for the Atlantis-2 fiber-optic transatlantic telephone cable that provides links to South America, Senegal, and Europe; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
    state-run TV and radio broadcast network plus a growing number of private broadcasters; Portuguese public TV and radio services for Africa are available; transmissions of a few international broadcasters are available (2007)
    .cv
    38 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    150,000 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 148

Transportation ::Cape Verde

    9 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    total: 9
    over 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 1,350 km
    country comparison to the world: 179
    paved: 932 km
    unpaved: 418 km (2000)
    total: 13
    country comparison to the world: 104
    by type: cargo 3, chemical tanker 2, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 3 (Greece 1, Spain 1, UK 1)
    registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Porto Grande

Military ::Cape Verde

Transnational Issues ::Cape Verde

    none
    used as a transshipment point for Latin American cocaine destined for Western Europe, particularly because of Lusophone links to Brazil, Portugal, and Guinea-Bissau; has taken steps to deter drug money laundering, including a 2002 anti-money laundering reform that criminalizes laundering the proceeds of narcotics trafficking and other crimes and the establishment in 2008 of a Financial Intelligence Unit (2008)