Africa :: Guinea

Introduction ::Guinea

    Guinea has had a history of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after the death of the first president, Sekou TOURE. Guinea did not hold democratic elections until 1993 when Gen. CONTE (head of the military government) was elected president of the civilian government. He was reelected in 1998 and again in 2003, though all the polls were marred by irregularities. History repeated itself in December 2008 when following President CONTE's death, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that culminated in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people, and in early December 2009 when CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and evacuated to Morocco and subsequently to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE held democratic elections in 2010 and Alpha CONDE was elected president in the country's first free and fair elections since independence. CONDE in July 2011 survived an attack on his residence allegedly perpetrated by the military. In October 2012, he announced a cabinet reshuffle that removed three members of the military from their positions, making the current administration Guinea's first all-civilian government.

Geography ::Guinea

People and Society ::Guinea

Government ::Guinea

    conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
    conventional short form: Guinea
    local long form: Republique de Guinee
    local short form: Guinee
    former: French Guinea
    name: Conakry
    geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    33 prefectures and 1 special zone (zone special)*; Beyla, Boffa, Boke, Conakry*, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Dubreka, Faranah, Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane, Kindia, Kissidougou, Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Lelouma, Lola, Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue, Yomou
    2 October 1958 (from France)
    Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
    7 May 2010 (Loi Fundamentale)
    civil law system based on the French model
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)
    head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Said FOFANA (since 24 December 2010)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held on 27 June 2010 with a runoff election held on 7 November 2010
    election results: Alpha CONDE elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote Alpha CONDE 52.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO 47.5%
    the legislature was dissolved by junta leader Moussa Dadis CAMARA in December 2008 and in February 2010, the Transition Government appointed a 155 member National Transition Council (CNT) that has since acted in the legislature's place
    elections: last held on 30 June 2002 (next election scheduled for 24 September 2013)
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Constitutional, Civil, Penal, Commercial, and Administrative Chambers, and Chamber of Accounts; court consists of the first president, chamber presidents, and NA members)
    judge selection and term of office: court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; member tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; courts of first instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; labor court; military tribunal; High Court of Justice; justices of the peace
    National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
    Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]
    Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jean Marie DORE]
    Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
    Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
    note: listed are the five most popular parties as of December 2012; overall, there are more than 130 registered parties
    National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG and Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG); Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
    chief of mission: Ambassador Blaise CHERIF
    chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
    FAX: [1] (202) 478-3010
    chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia Newton MOLLER
    embassy: Koloma, Conakry, east of Hamdallaye Circle
    mailing address: B. P. 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
    telephone: [224] 65-10-40-00
    FAX: [224] 65-10-42-97
    three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal
    name: "Liberte" (Liberty)

    lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA
    note: adopted 1958

Economy ::Guinea

    Guinea is a poor country that possesses major mineral, hydropower, and agricultural resources. The country has almost half of the world's bauxite reserves and significant iron ore, gold, and diamond reserves. However, Guinea has been unable to profit from this potential, as rampant corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, and political uncertainty have drained investor confidence. In the time since a 2008 coup following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, have significantly curtailed their development programs. Throughout 2009, policies of the ruling military junta severely weakened the economy. The junta leaders spent and printed money at an accelerating rate, driving inflation and debt to perilously high levels. In early 2010, the junta collapsed and was replaced by a transition government, which ceded power in December 2010 to the country's first-ever democratically elected president, Alpha CONDE. International assistance and investment are expected to return to Guinea, but the levels will depend upon the ability of the new government to combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. IMF and World Bank programs will be especially critical as Guinea attempts to gain debt relief. International investors have expressed keen interest in Guinea''s vast iron ore reserves, which could further propel the country''s growth. The government put forward a new mining code in September 2011 that includes provisions to combat corruption, protect the environment, and review all existing mining contracts. Longer range plans to deploy broadband Internet throughout the country could spur economic growth as well.
    $12.37 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    $11.9 billion (2011 est.)
    $11.45 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $5.632 billion (2012 est.)
    3.9% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    3.9% (2011 est.)
    1.9% (2010 est.)
    $1,100 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    $1,100 (2011 est.)
    $1,100 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    -20.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    -6.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
    3.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 88.6%
    government consumption: 14.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 17.4%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 26.6%
    imports of goods and services: -47.3%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 22%
    industry: 45%
    services: 33% (2012 est.)
    rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (manioc), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
    bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron; alumina refining; light manufacturing, and agricultural processing
    4.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    4.771 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    agriculture: 76%
    industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)
    47% (2006 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.7%
    highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)
    39.4 (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    40.3 (1994)
    revenues: $1.328 billion
    expenditures: $1.639 billion (2012 est.)
    23.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    -5.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    calendar year
    15.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    21.4% (2011 est.)
    NA% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    22.25% (31 December 2005)
    27% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    28% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.428 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    $1.38 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.915 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    $1.731 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.468 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    $1.533 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    -$1.754 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    -$1.215 billion (2011 est.)
    $1.348 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    $1.428 billion (2011 est.)
    bauxite, alumina, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
    India 10.3%, Spain 9.2%, Chile 9%, US 6.9%, Germany 6.1%, Ireland 6%, Ukraine 5.5%, France 4.8% (2012)
    $2.606 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    $2.097 billion (2011 est.)
    petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
    China 14%, Netherlands 7.6% (2012)
    $174.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    $111.8 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.584 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    $3.139 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -
    6,986.1 (2012 est.)
    6,658 (2011 est.)
    5,726.1 (2010 est.)
    5,500 (2009)
    5,500 (2008)

Energy ::Guinea

Communications ::Guinea

    18,000 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    4.5 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    general assessment: inadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system
    domestic: Conakry reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate and large companies tend to rely on their own systems for nationwide links; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding and exceeds 40 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
    government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2011)
    15 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    95,000 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 161

Transportation ::Guinea

Military ::Guinea

Transnational Issues ::Guinea

    conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in neighboring states have spilled over into Guinea resulting in domestic instability; Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998
    refugees (country of origin): 6,552 (Cote d'Ivoire); 5,400 (Liberia) (2012)
    current situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of trafficking victims are Guinean children; Guinean girls are subjected to domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation, while boys are forced to beg, work as street vendors or shoe shiners, or miners; some Guinean children are forced to mine in Senegal, Mali, and possibly other West African countries; Guinean women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude and sex trafficking in Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire, Benin, Senegal, Greece, and Spain, while Chinese and Vietnamese women are reportedly forced into prostitution in Guinea
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; a new police unit has been created to focus on human trafficking and child labor; the government has initiated five new trafficking investigations but has failed to prosecute or convict any trafficking offenders, which represents a decrease in anti-trafficking law enforcement over the previous year; the government fails to provide victims with protective services and has not supported NGOs that assist victims but continues to refer child victims to NGOs on an ad hoc basis; Guinean law does not prohibit all forms of trafficking, excluding, for example, forced prostitution of adults and debt bondage, which are not criminalized (2013)