East & Southeast Asia :: Indonesia

Introduction ::Indonesia

    The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1988, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After rioting toppled Suharto in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Geography ::Indonesia

    Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
    5 00 S, 120 00 E
    total: 1,904,569 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 15
    land: 1,811,569 sq km
    water: 93,000 sq km
    slightly less than three times the size of Texas
    total: 2,830 km
    border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
    54,716 km
    measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
    mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
    petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
    arable land: 12.34%
    permanent crops: 10.5%
    other: 77.16% (2011)
    67,220 sq km (2005)
    2,019 cu km (2011)
    total: 113.3 cu km/yr (11%/19%/71%)
    per capita: 517.3 cu m/yr (2005)
    occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
    volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, western Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
    deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

People and Society ::Indonesia

Government ::Indonesia

    conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
    conventional short form: Indonesia
    local long form: Republik Indonesia
    local short form: Indonesia
    former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
    name: Jakarta
    geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
    time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones
    31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta*
    note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
    17 August 1945 (declared)
    Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
    August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002
    civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
    chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; presidential election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
    election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%
    People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia's origianal 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district)
    elections: last held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 107, PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN 46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17
    note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement age; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
    Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
    Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]
    Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [SUHARDI]
    Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
    National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
    National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]
    People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]
    Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Anis MATTA]
    United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
    Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
    Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
    Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
    ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Dino Patti DJALAL
    chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
    FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kristen F. BAUER
    embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
    mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
    telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
    FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
    consulate general: Surabaya
    presence post: Medan
    consular agent: Bali
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
    note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
    garuda (mythical bird)
    name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)

    lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
    note: adopted 1945

Economy ::Indonesia

    Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, grew more than 6% annually in 2010-12. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO (2004-09), introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth in 2009. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25%, a fiscal deficit below 3%, and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The government in 2013 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia''s insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, labor unrest over wages, and reducing its fuel subsidy program in the face of high oil prices.
    $1.237 trillion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    $1.164 trillion (2011 est.)
    $1.093 trillion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $878.2 billion (2012 est.)
    6.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    6.5% (2011 est.)
    6.2% (2010 est.)
    $5,100 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    $4,800 (2011 est.)
    $4,600 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    32.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    33.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
    33% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 54.6%
    government consumption: 8.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 33.2%
    investment in inventories: 2.2%
    exports of goods and services: 24.3%
    imports of goods and services: -25.8%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 14.4%
    industry: 47%
    services: 38.6% (2012 est.)
    rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
    petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instuments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
    5.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    118.1 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    agriculture: 38.9%
    industry: 22.2%
    services: 47.9% (2012 est.)
    6.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    6.6% (2011 est.)
    11.7% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.3%
    highest 10%: 29.9% (2009)
    36.8 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    39.4 (2005)
    revenues: $164 billion
    expenditures: $180.9 billion (2012 est.)
    18.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    -1.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    23% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    22.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
    calendar year
    4.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    5.4% (2011 est.)
    6.37% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    6.46% (31 December 2009)
    note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010
    11.8% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    12.4% (31 December 2011 est.)
    note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans
    $87.04 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    $79.73 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $355.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    $317.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $350 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    $307.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $426.8 billion (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    $390.1 billion (31 December 2011)
    $360.4 billion (31 December 2010)
    -$20.73 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    $2.069 billion (2011 est.)
    $187 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    $191.1 billion (2011 est.)
    oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
    Japan 15.9%, China 11.4%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 7.9%, US 7.8%, India 6.6%, Malaysia 5.9% (2012)
    $178.5 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    $157.3 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
    China 15.3%, Singapore 13.6%, Japan 11.9%, Malaysia 6.4%, South Korea 6.2%, US 6.1%, Thailand 6% (2012)
    $112.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    $110.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $251.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    $225.4 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $192.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    $173.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $14.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    $9.502 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
    9,386.6 (2012 est.)
    8,770.43 (2011 est.)
    9,090.4 (2010 est.)
    10,389.9 (2009)
    9,698.9 (2008)

Energy ::Indonesia

Communications ::Indonesia

    38.618 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    249.8 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
    domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
    international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
    mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)
    1.344 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    20 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 22

Transportation ::Indonesia

    673 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    total: 186
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
    914 to 1,523 m: 72
    under 914 m: 37 (2013)
    total: 487
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
    914 to 1,523 m: 23
    under 914 m:
    460 (2013)
    76 (2013)
    condensate 1,064 km; condensate/gas 150 km; gas 11,702 km; liquid petroleum gas 119 km; oil 7,767 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 728 km; unknown 53 km; water 44 km (2013)
    total: 5,042 km
    country comparison to the world: 35
    narrow gauge: 5,042 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2008)
    total: 496,607 km
    country comparison to the world: 13
    paved: 283,102 km
    unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
    21,579 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    total: 1,340
    country comparison to the world: 8
    by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 618, chemical tanker 69, container 120, liquefied gas 28, passenger 49, passenger/cargo 77, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 11
    foreign-owned: 69 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 8, Jordan 1, Malaysia 1, Norway 3, Singapore 46, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, UK 2, US 2)
    registered in other countries: 95 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 2, Hong Kong 10, Liberia 4, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 2, Panama 10, Singapore 60, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)
    Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
    the International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; attacks have increased yearly since 2009; in 2012, 73 commercial vessels were boarded and 47 crew members taken hostage; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift

Military ::Indonesia

Transnational Issues ::Indonesia

    Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
    IDPs: 180,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku) (2011)
    illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy