Africa :: Cote d'Ivoire

Introduction ::Cote d'Ivoire

    Close ties to France following independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment all made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivorian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002 that developed into a rebellion and then a civil war. The war ended in 2003 with a cease fire that left the country divided with the rebels holding the north, the government the south, and peacekeeping forces a buffer zone between the two. In March 2007, President GBAGBO and former New Forces rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed an agreement in which SORO joined GBAGBO's government as prime minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the buffer zone, integrating rebel forces into the national armed forces, and holding elections. Difficulties in preparing electoral registers delayed balloting until 2010. In November 2010, Alassane Dramane OUATTARA won the presidential election over GBAGBO, but GBAGBO refused to hand over power, resulting in a five-month stand-off. In April 2011, after widespread fighting, GBAGBO was formally forced from office by armed OUATTARA supporters with the help of UN and French forces. Several thousand UN peacekeepers and several hundred French troops remain in Cote d'Ivoire to support the transition process. OUATTARA is focused on rebuilding the country's infrastructure and military after the five months of post-electoral fighting and faces ongoing threats from GBAGBO supporters, many of whom have sought shelter in Ghana. GBAGBO is in The Hague awaiting trial for crimes against humanity.

Geography ::Cote d'Ivoire

    Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia
    8 00 N, 5 00 W
    total: 322,463 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 69
    land: 318,003 sq km
    water: 4,460 sq km
    slightly larger than New Mexico
    total: 3,110 km
    border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km
    515 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm
    tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)
    mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
    lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
    highest point: Monts Nimba 1,752 m
    petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower
    arable land: 8.99%
    permanent crops: 13.65%
    other: 77.36% (2011)
    727.5 sq km (2003)
    81.14 cu km (2011)
    total: 1.55 cu km/yr (41%/21%/38%)
    per capita: 83.07 cu m/yr (2008)
    coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
    deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated

People and Society ::Cote d'Ivoire

    noun: Ivoirian(s)
    adjective: Ivoirian
    Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous 11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8% (includes 130,000 Lebanese and 14,000 French) (1998)
    French (official), 60 native dialects of which Dioula is the most widely spoken
    Muslim 38.6%, Christian 32.8%, indigenous 11.9%, none 16.7% (2008 est.)
    note: the majority of foreigners (migratory workers) are Muslim (70%) and Christian (20%)
    22,400,835 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    0-14 years: 38.9% (male 4,393,005/female 4,319,967)
    15-24 years: 21% (male 2,372,125/female 2,336,657)
    25-54 years: 32.5% (male 3,737,464/female 3,549,600)
    55-64 years: 4.4% (male 490,420/female 489,471)
    65 years and over: 3.2% (male 347,211/female 364,915) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 80.2 %
    youth dependency ratio: 74.5 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.7 %
    potential support ratio: 17.5 (2013)
    total: 20 years
    male: 20.1 years
    female: 19.9 years (2013 est.)
    2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    29.83 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    9.8 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    urban population: 51.3% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 3.56% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    ABIDJAN (seat of government) 4.288 million; YAMOUSSOUKRO (capital) 966,000 (2011)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2005 est.)
    400 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    total: 61.66 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 23
    male: 68.06 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 55.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 57.66 years
    country comparison to the world: 198
    male: 56.57 years
    female: 58.78 years (2013 est.)
    3.73 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    18.2% (2012)
    5.3% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
    0.4 beds/1,000 population (2006)
    urban: 91% of population
    rural: 68% of population
    total: 80% of population
    urban: 9% of population
    rural: 32% of population
    total: 20% of population (2010 est.)
    urban: 36% of population
    rural: 11% of population
    total: 24% of population
    urban: 64% of population
    rural: 89% of population
    total: 76% of population (2010 est.)
    3.4% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    450,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    36,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    6.2% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    29.4% (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    4.6% of GDP (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 56.9%
    male: 65.6%
    female: 47.6% (2011 est.)
    total: 6 years
    male: 8 years
    female: 5 years (2000)
    total number: 1,796,802
    percentage: 35 % (2006 est.)

Government ::Cote d'Ivoire

    conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
    conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
    local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
    local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
    note: pronounced coat-div-whar
    former: Ivory Coast
    republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960
    name: Yamoussoukro
    geographic coordinates: 6 49 N, 5 16 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    note: although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan
    19 regions; Agneby, Bafing, Bas-Sassandra, Denguele, Dix-Huit Montagnes, Fromager, Haut-Sassandra, Lacs, Lagunes, Marahoue, Moyen-Cavally, Moyen-Comoe, N'zi-Comoe, Savanes, Sud-Bandama, Sud-Comoe, Vallee du Bandama, Worodougou, Zanzan
    7 August 1960 (from France)
    Independence Day, 7 August (1960)
    approved by referendum 23 July 2000
    civil law system based on the French civil code; judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction under Article 12(3)of the Rome Statute
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA (since 4 December 2010)
    head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 21 November 2012)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 October and 28 November 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Alassane OUATTARA elected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA 54.1%, Laurent GBAGBO 45.9%; note - President OUATTARA was declared winner by the election commission and took the oath of office on 4 December, Prime Minister SORO resigned from the incumbent administration and was subsequently appointed to the same position by OUATTARA; former president GBAGBO refused to cede resulting in a 5-month stand-off, he was finally forced to stand down in April 2011
    unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (225 seats; members elected in single- and multi-district elections by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: elections last held on 11 December 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
    election results: percent of vote by party - RDR 42.1%, PDCI 28.6%, UDPCI 3.1%, RDP 1.7%, other 24.5% ; seats by party - RDR 127, PDCI 76, UDPCI 7, RDP 4, other 4, independents 39
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Judicial, Audit, Constitutional, and Administrative Chambers; consists of the court president, 3 vice-presidents for the Judicial, Audit, and Administrative chambers, and 9 associate justices or magistrates)
    note - recommendations for reform of the country's judicial system were announced in April 2012
    judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Superior Council of the Magistrature, a 7-member body consisting of the national president (chairman), 3 "Bench" judges, and 3 public prosecutors; judges appointed for life
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (organized into civil, criminal, and social chambers); first instance courts; peace courts
    Citizen's Democratic Union or UDCY [Theodore MEL EG]
    Democratic Liberty for the Republic or LIDER [Mamadou KOULIBALY]
    Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]
    Freedom and Democracy for the Republic or LIBRE [Mamadou KOULIBALY]
    Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Miaka OURETO]
    Ivorian Worker's Party or PIT [Francois KOUABLAN]
    Opposition Movement of the Future or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY]
    Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane OUATTARA]
    Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Toikeuse MABRI]
    over 144 smaller registered parties
    Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Serges KOFFI]
    National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or CNRD [Bernard DADIE]
    Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP [Alphonse DJEDJE MADY]
    Young Patriots [Charles BLE GOUDE]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Daouda DIABATE
    chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300
    FAX: [1] (202) 462-9444
    chief of mission: Ambassador Philip CARTER III
    embassy: Cocody Riviera Golf 01, Abidjan
    mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01
    telephone: [225] 22 49 40 00
    FAX: [225] 22 49 43 32
    three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; orange symbolizes the land (savannah) of the north and fertility, white stands for peace and unity, green represents the forests of the south and the hope for a bright future
    note: similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France
    name: "L'Abidjanaise" (Song of Abidjan)

    lyrics/music: Mathieu EKRA, Joachim BONY, and Pierre Marie COTY/Pierre Marie COTY and Pierre Michel PANGO
    note: adopted 1960; although the nation's capital city moved from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro in 1983, the anthem still owes its name to the former capital

Economy ::Cote d'Ivoire

Energy ::Cote d'Ivoire

Communications ::Cote d'Ivoire

    268,200 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    17.344 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    general assessment: well-developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed-lines have increased since that time with two fixed-line providers operating over open-wire lines, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optics; 90% digitalized
    domestic: with multiple mobile-cellular service providers competing in the market, usage has increased sharply to roughly 80 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2011)
    2 state-owned TV stations; no private terrestrial TV stations, but satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned radio stations; some private radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
    9,115 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    967,300 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 103

Transportation ::Cote d'Ivoire

    27 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    total: 7
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 20
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 11
    under 914 m:
    3 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    condensate 101 km; gas 256 km; oil 118 km; oil/gas/water 5 km; water 7 km (2013)
    total: 660 km
    country comparison to the world: 104
    narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-m gauge
    note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso (2008)
    total: 81,996 km
    country comparison to the world: 59
    paved: 6,502 km
    unpaved: 75,494 km
    note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable (2007)
    980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    major seaport(s): Abidjan, San-Pedro
    oil/gas terminal(s): Espoir Offshore Terminal

Military ::Cote d'Ivoire

Transnational Issues ::Cote d'Ivoire

    disputed maritime border between Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana
    refugees (country of origin): 9,126 (Liberia) (2012)
    IDPs: 40,000 - 80,000 (post-election conflict in 2010-2011, as well as civil war from 2002-2004; most pronounced in western and southwestern regions) (2011)
    stateless persons: 700,000 (2012); note - many Ivoirians have documentation problems; birth on Ivorian soil does not automatically result in citizenship; disputes over citizenship and the associated rights of the large population descended from migrants from neighboring countries is an ongoing source of tension and contributed to the country's 2002 civil war; some observers believe the government's mass naturalizations of thousands of people over the last couple of years is intended to boost its electoral support base
    illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local consumption; utility as a narcotic transshipment point to Europe reduced by ongoing political instability; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a developed financial system limits the country's utility as a major money-laundering center (2008)