Central Asia :: Kyrgyzstan

Introduction ::Kyrgyzstan

    A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to Russia in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Subsequent presidential elections in July 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Over the next few years, the new president manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for himself. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won re-election in a presidential campaign that the international community deemed flawed. In April 2010, violent protests in Bishkek led to the collapse of the BAKIEV regime and his eventual fleeing to Minsk, Belarus. His successor, Roza OTUNBAEVA, served as transitional president until Almazbek ATAMBAEV was inaugurated in December 2011. Continuing concerns include: the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, poor interethnic relations, and terrorism.

Geography ::Kyrgyzstan

    Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
    41 00 N, 75 00 E
    total: 199,951 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 87
    land: 191,801 sq km
    water: 8,150 sq km
    slightly smaller than South Dakota
    total: 3,051 km
    border countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,224 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
    peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation
    lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
    highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
    abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
    arable land: 6.38%
    permanent crops: 0.37%
    other: 93.24%
    note: Kyrgyzstan has the world's largest natural-growth walnut forest (2011)
    10,210 sq km (2005)
    23.62 cu km (2011)
    total: 8.01 cu km/yr (3%/4%/93%)
    per capita: 1,558 cu m/yr (2006)
    water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes

People and Society ::Kyrgyzstan

Government ::Kyrgyzstan

    conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
    conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
    local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
    local short form: Kyrgyzstan
    former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
    name: Bishkek
    geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
    time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    7 provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
    31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
    27 June 2010
    civil law system which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Almazbek ATAMBAEV (since 1 December 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister Jantoro SATYBALDIEV (since 5 September 2012); First Deputy Prime Minister - Joomart OTORBAEV (since 5 September 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers - Tayyrbek SARPASHEV and Kamila TALIEVA (since 5 September 2012), Tokon MAMYTOV (since 19 June 2013)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; ministers in charge of defense and security are appointed solely by the president
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held on 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister nominated by the parliamentary party holding more than 50% of the seats; if no such party exists, the president selects the party that will form a coalition majority and government
    election results: Almazbek ATAMBAEV elected president; percent of vote - Almazbek ATAMBAEV 63.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV 14.7%, Kamchybek TASHIEV 14.3%, other 7.8%; Jantoro SATYBALDIEV elected prime minister; parliamentary vote - 111-2
    unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kengesh (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 10 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
    election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ata-Jurt 28, SDPK 26, Ar-Namys 25, Respublika 23, Ata-Meken 18
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts
    subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts
    Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Feliks KULOV]
    Ata-Jurt (Homeland) [Kamchybek TASHIEV, Akhmat KELDIBEKOV]
    Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]
    Butun Kyrgyzstan (All Kyrgyzstan) [Adakhan MADUMAROV]
    Respublika [Omurbek BABANOV]
    Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (SDPK) [Almazbek ATAMBAEV]
    Adilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]
    Citizens Against Corruption [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
    Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]
    Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA]
    Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV]
    Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA]
    Union of True Muslims [Nurlan MOTUEV]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mukhtar JUMALIEV
    chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822
    FAX: [1] (202) 386-7550
    consulate(s): New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela SPRATLEN
    embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217
    FAX: [996] (312) 551-264
    red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a "tunduk" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth
    name: "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)

    lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV
    note: adopted 1992

Economy ::Kyrgyzstan

    Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with a dominant agricultural sector. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and electricity. The economy depends heavily on gold exports - mainly from output at the Kumtor gold mine - and on remittances from Kyrgyzstani migrant workers primarily in Russia. Following independence, Kyrgyzstan was progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. Much of the government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995, production began to recover and exports began to increase. In 2005, the BAKIEV government and international financial institutions initiated a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy. The government made steady strides in controlling its substantial fiscal deficit, nearly closing the gap between revenues and expenditures in 2006, before boosting expenditures more than 20% in 2007-08. GDP grew about 8% annually in 2007-08, partly due to higher gold prices internationally, but slowed to 2.9% in 2009. The overthrow of President BAKIEV in April 2010 and subsequent ethnic clashes left hundreds dead and damaged infrastructure. Shrinking trade and agricultural production, as well as the political instability caused by the change in government, caused GDP to contract 0.5% in 2010. The fiscal deficit widened to 11% of GDP in 2010, reflecting significant increases in crisis-related spending, including both rehabilitation of damaged infrastructure and bank recapitalization. The economy grew 5.7% in 2011, but slowed to around 1% in 2012, primarily due to an 83% decrease in production from Kumtor. As a result, the budget deficit increased at year's end. Progress in fighting corruption, improving transparency in licensing, business permits and taxations, restructuring domestic industry, and attracting foreign aid and investment are key to future growth.
    $13.5 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    $13.62 billion (2011 est.)
    $12.85 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $6.473 billion (2012 est.)
    -0.9% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    6% (2011 est.)
    -0.5% (2010 est.)
    $2,400 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    $2,500 (2011 est.)
    $2,300 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    2.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    19% of GDP (2011 est.)
    18.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 86.5%
    government consumption: 20.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 25.7%
    investment in inventories: -0.5%
    exports of goods and services: 53.3%
    imports of goods and services: -85.7%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 20.8%
    industry: 23.3%
    services: 55.9% (2012 est.)
    tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
    small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
    -20% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    2.344 million (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    agriculture: 48%
    industry: 12.5%
    services: 39.5% (2005 est.)
    8.6% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    18% (2004 est.)
    33.7% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.8%
    highest 10%: 27.8% (2009 est.)
    33.4 (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    29 (2001)
    revenues: $1.908 billion
    expenditures: $2.138 billion (2012 est.)
    29.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    -3.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    calendar year
    2.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    16.5% (2011 est.)
    13.73% (22 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    2.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
    28.43% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    34.07% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.372 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    $1.151 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.952 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    $1.654 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $932.5 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    $761.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $165 million (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    $79 million (31 December 2010)
    $71.84 million (31 December 2009)
    -$546.3 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    -$252.4 million (2011 est.)
    $2 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    $2.271 billion (2011 est.)
    gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat, tobacco; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes
    Uzbekistan 28.8%, Kazakhstan 22%, Russia 14.6%, China 7%, UAE 6.3%, Afghanistan 5.7% (2012)
    $4.981 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $3.936 billion (2011 est.)
    oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
    China 55.9%, Russia 17.7%, Kazakhstan 6.4% (2012)
    $2.066 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    $1.835 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $3.722 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $5.486 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.572 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    $1.312 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $39.6 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    $39.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    soms (KGS) per US dollar -
    47.005 (2012 est.)
    46.144 (2011 est.)
    45.964 (2010 est.)
    42.905 (2009)
    36.108 (2008)

Energy ::Kyrgyzstan

Communications ::Kyrgyzstan

    502,000 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    6.277 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links
    domestic: fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; multiple mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership was about 115 per 100 persons in 2011
    international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2011)
    state-run TV broadcaster operates 2 nationwide networks and 6 regional stations; roughly 20 private TV stations operating with most rebroadcasting other channels; state-run radio broadcaster operates 2 networks; about 20 private radio stations (2007)
    115,573 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    2.195 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 74

Transportation ::Kyrgyzstan

Military ::Kyrgyzstan

Transnational Issues ::Kyrgyzstan

    Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas
    IDPs: 172,000 (June 2010 violence in southern Kyrgyzstan between the Kyrgyz majority and the Uzbek minority) (2012)
    stateless persons: 15,473 (2012); note - most stateless people were born in Kyrgystan, have lived there many years, or are married to a Kyrgyz citizen; in 2009, Kyrgyzstan adopted a national action plan to speed up the exchange of old Soviet passports for Kyrgyz ones; stateless people are unable to register marriages and births, to travel within the country or abroad, to own property, or to receive social benefits
    limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates