(special administrative region of China)

Introduction ::Macau

    Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China on 20 December 1999. In this agreement, China promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's political and economic system would not be imposed on Macau, and that Macau would enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign affairs and defense for the next 50 years.

Geography ::Macau

People and Society ::Macau

    noun: Chinese
    adjective: Chinese
    Chinese 92.4%, other 7.6% (includes Macanese - mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry) (2011 census)
    Cantonese 83.3%, Mandarin 5%, Hokkien 3.7%, other Chinese dialects 2%, English 2.3%, Tagalog 1.7%, Portuguese 0.7%, other 1.3%
    note: Chinese and Portuguese are the official language (2011 census)
    Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none or other 35% (1997 est.)
    583,003 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    0-14 years: 14.5% (male 44,454/female 40,089)
    15-24 years: 14.5% (male 43,670/female 41,018)
    25-54 years: 51% (male 133,043/female 164,369)
    55-64 years: 11.1% (male 32,782/female 32,185)
    65 years and over: 8.8% (male 24,091/female 27,302) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 25.8 %
    youth dependency ratio: 15.6 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.2 %
    potential support ratio: 9.8 (2013)
    total: 37.2 years
    male: 37.9 years
    female: 36.7 years (2013 est.)
    0.85% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    9.03 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    3.97 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    3.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    urban population: 100% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 2.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    total: 3.15 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 218
    male: 3.31 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 84.46 years
    country comparison to the world: 2
    male: 81.5 years
    female: 87.56 years (2013 est.)
    0.93 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    NA
    NA
    NA
    2.6% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 95.6%
    male: 97.8%
    female: 93.7% (2011 est.)
    total: 14 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 14 years (2008)
    total: 5.8%
    country comparison to the world: 130
    male: 7%
    female: 4.7% (2011)

Government ::Macau

    conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region
    conventional short form: Macau
    official long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)
    official short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)
    special administrative region of the People's Republic of China
    limited democracy
    none (special administrative region of the People's Republic of China)
    none (special administrative region of China)
    National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December 1999 is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
    The Basic Law, approved 31 March 1993 by China's National People's Congress, is Macau's charter
    civil law system based on the Portuguese model
    18 years of age in direct elections for some legislative positions, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; note - indirect elections are limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (973 were registered in the 2009 legislative elections) and a 300-member Election Committee for the Chief Executive (CE) drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, central government bodies, and elected Macau officials
    chief of state: President of China HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003)
    head of government: Chief Executive Fernando CHUI Sai-on (since 20 December 2009)
    cabinet: Executive Council consists of 1 government secretary, 3 legislators, 4 businessmen, 1 pro-Beijing unionist, and 1 pro-Beijing educator
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: chief executive chosen by a 300-member Election Committee for a five-year term (current chief executive is eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 July 2009 (next to be held in July 2014)
    note: the Legislative Assembly voted in August 2012 to expand the electoral committee to 400 seats for the 2014 election.
    election results: Fernando CHUI Sai-on elected in 2009 with 282 votes, took office on 20 December 2009
    unicameral Legislative Assembly (29 seats; 12 members elected by popular vote, 10 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the chief executive; members serve four-year terms)
    elections: last held on 20 September 2009 (next to be held in September 2013)
    election results: percent of vote - UPD 14.9%, ACUM 12%, APMD 11.6%, NUDM 9.9%, UPP 9.9%, ANMD 7.8%, UMG 7.3%, MUDAR 5.5%, others 21.1%; seats by political group - UPD 2, ACUM 2, APMD 2, NE 1, NUMD 1, UPP 1, ANMD 1, UMG 1, MUDAR 1; 10 seats filled by professional and business groups; 7 members appointed by the chief executive
    highest court(s): Court of Final Appeal of Macau Special Administrative Region (consists of the court president and 2 associate justices)
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the Macau chief executive upon the recommendation of an independent commission of judges, lawyers, and "eminent" persons; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Court of Second Instance; Court of First instance; Lower Court; Administrative Court
    Alliance for Change or MUDAR
    Democratic New Macau Association or ANMD (an electoral list of New Macau Association [Jason CHAO]
    Democratic Prosperous Macau Association or APMD (an electoral list of New Macau Association [Jason CHAO]
    Macau Development Alliance or NUDM [Angela LEONG On-kei]
    Macau-Guangdong Union or UMG
    Macau United Citizens' Association or ACUM [CHAN Meng-kam]
    New Macau Association or NMA [Jason CHAO]
    New Hope or NE [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]
    Union for Development or UDP
    Union for Promoting Progress or UPP [LEONG Heng-teng]
    note: there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
    Civic Power [Agnes LAM lok-fong]
    Democratic Action [LEE Kin-yun]
    Bar-Bending Workers' Association {WONG Wai-Man]
    Macau New Chinese Youth Association [LEONG Sin-man]
    Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO]
    Macau Worker's Union [HO Heng-kuok]
    New Macau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]
    ICC (national committees), IHO, IMF, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), ISO (correspondent), UNESCO (associate), UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCO, WTO
    none (special administrative region of China)
    the US has no offices in Macau; US Consulate General in Hong Kong is accredited to Macau
    green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in the center of the arc and two smaller on either side; the lotus is the floral emblem of Macau, the three petals represent the peninsula and two islands that make up Macau; the five stars echo those on the flag of China
    lotus blossom
    note: as a Special Administrative Region of China, "Yiyonggjun Jinxingqu" is the official anthem (see China)

Economy ::Macau

    Since opening up its locally-controlled casino industry to foreign competition in 2001, Macau has attracted tens of billions of dollars in foreign investment, transforming the territory into one of the world's largest gaming centers. Macau's gaming and tourism businesses were fueled by China''s decision to relax travel restrictions on Chinese citizens wishing to visit Macau. By 2006, Macau''s gaming revenue surpassed that of the Las Vegas strip, and gaming-related taxes accounted for more than 70% of total government revenue. Macau''s economy slowed dramatically in 2009 as a result of the global economic slowdown, but strong growth resumed in 2010-11, largely on the back of tourism from mainland China and the gaming sectors. In 2012, this city of 582,000 hosted nearly 28 million visitors. Almost 60% came from mainland China. Macau''s traditional manufacturing industry has slowed greatly since the termination of the Multi-Fiber Agreement in 2005. China is Macau''s second largest goods export market, behind Hong Kong, and followed by the United States. In 2012, exports were less than US$1 billion, while gaming receipts were US$38 billion, a 13.5% increase over 2011. Macau''s economy expanded by 10% in 2012; although impressive, it was a slower growth rate than in previous years. Macau continues to face the challenges of managing its growing casino industry, money-laundering, and the need to diversify the economy away from heavy dependence on gaming revenues. Macau''s currency, the pataca, is closely tied to the Hong Kong dollar, which is also freely accepted in the territory.
    $47.19 billion (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    $42.9 billion (2011 est.)
    $39 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $44.3 billion (2012 est.)
    10% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    20.7% (2011 est.)
    27% (2010 est.)
    $82,400 (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    $75,500 (2010 est.)
    $69,700 (2009 est.)
    household consumption: 21.2%
    government consumption: 7.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 14%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 106.5%
    imports of goods and services: -48.8%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 0%
    industry: 7%
    services: 93% (2012 est.)
    only 2% of land area is cultivated, mainly by vegetable growers; fishing, mostly for crustaceans, is important; some of the catch is exported to Hong Kong
    tourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys
    8.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    356,700 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    manufacturing: 3%
    construction: 6.6%
    transport and communications: 4.3%
    wholesale and retail trade: 12.7%
    restaurants and hotels: 15.5%
    gambling: 15.1%
    public sector: 7.1%
    financial services: 2.2%
    other services: 33.5% (2012 est.)
    1.9% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    2.6% (2011 est.)
    NA%
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $16.06 billion
    expenditures: $4.731 billion (2012 est.)
    36.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    25.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    calendar year
    6.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    5.8% (2011 est.)
    5.25% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    5.25% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $5.849 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    $4.434 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $46.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    $46.29 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $5.734 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    $8.616 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $85.5 billion (2 March 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    $46.1 billion (31 February 2011)
    $2.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $17.01 billion (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    $12.06 billion (2010 est.)
    $1.02 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    $871 million (2011 est.)
    note: includes reexports
    clothing, textiles, footwear, toys, electronics, machinery and parts
    Hong Kong 43.1%, China 16.3%, Sudan 13.4%, US 5.1% (2012)
    $8.866 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    $7.786 billion (2011 est.)
    raw materials and semi-manufactured goods, consumer goods (foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco), capital goods, mineral fuels and oils
    China 32.3%, Hong Kong 15.6%, France 8%, Switzerland 7.7%, Italy 6.7%, Japan 5.5%, US 5% (2012)
    $16.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    $34.03 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    note: the Fiscal Reserves Act that came into force on 1 January 2012 requires the fiscal reserve to be separated from the foreign exchange reserves and to be managed separately; the transfer of assets took place in February 2012
    $0 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    $14.9 billion (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    $13.6 billion (#REF! est.)
    $672.1 million (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    $550.6 million (2010)
    patacas (MOP) per US dollar -
    7.9899 (2012 est.)
    8.0182 (2011 est.)
    8.0022 (2010 est.)
    7.983 (2008)
    8.011 (2007)

Energy ::Macau

Communications ::Macau

    165,500 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    1.353 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services
    domestic: termination of monopoly over mobile-cellular telephone services in 2001 spurred sharp increase in subscriptions with mobile-cellular teledensity exceeding 200 per 100 persons; fixed-line subscribership appears to have peaked and is now in decline
    international: country code - 853; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; HF radiotelephone communication facility; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)
    local government dominates broadcast media; 2 television stations operated by the government with one broadcasting in Portuguese and the other in Cantonese and Mandarin; 1 cable TV and 4 satellite TV services available; 3 radio stations broadcasting, of which 2 are government-operated (2012)
    .mo
    327 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    270,200 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 134

Transportation ::Macau

Military ::Macau

Transnational Issues ::Macau