Europe :: Moldova

Introduction ::Moldova

    Part of Romania during the interwar period, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although the country has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River supporting a Transnistrian separatist region composed of a Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians), but with a sizeable ethnic Moldovan minority. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a communist, Vladimir VORONIN, as its president in 2001. VORONIN served as Moldova's president until he resigned in September 2009, following the opposition's gain of a narrow majority in July parliamentary elections and the Communist Party's (PCRM) subsequent inability to attract the three-fifths of parliamentary votes required to elect a president. Four Moldovan opposition parties formed a new coalition, the Alliance for European Integration (AEI), which has acted as Moldova's governing coalition since. Moldova experienced significant political uncertainty between 2009 and early 2012, holding three general elections and numerous presidential ballots in parliament, all of which failed to secure a president. Following November 2010 parliamentary elections, a reconstituted AEI-coalition consisting of three of the four original AEI parties formed a government, and in March 2012 was finally able to elect an independent as president.

Geography ::Moldova

People and Society ::Moldova

Government ::Moldova

    conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
    conventional short form: Moldova
    local long form: Republica Moldova
    local short form: Moldova
    former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
    name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)
    note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyev)
    geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
    raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
    municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
    autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
    territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)
    27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
    adopted 29 July 1994; effective 27 August 1994; note - replaced 1979 Soviet Constitution
    civil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Nicolae TIMOFTI (since 23 March 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Iurie LEANCA (since 25 April 2013; acting until 30 May 2013, sworn in on 31 May 2013)
    cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 16 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2016); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; the prime minister and Cabinet received a vote of confidence 30 May 2013
    election results: Nicolae TIMOFTI elected president; parliamentary votes - 62 of 101 votes Iurie LEANCA designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 58 of 101
    unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; members elected on an at-large basis by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
    elections: last held on 28 November 2010 (next to be held in 2014); note - this was the third parliamentary election in less than two years; the earlier parliaments (elected 5 April 2009 and 29 July 2009) were dissolved after they could not agree on a presidential candidate
    election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 39.3%, PLDM 29.4%, PD 12.7%, PL 10%, other 8.6%; seats by party - PCRM 42, PLDM 32, PD 15, PL 12; note - in November of 2011, 3 legislators defected from the Communist Party (PCRM) and voted with the PLDM, PD, and PL governing coalition - termed the Alliance for European Integration (AEI) - to reach a 62-seat majority sufficient to elect a new president; the 3 former PCRM legislators are now aligned with the Party of Socialists, and in 2012 an additional 5 legislators defected from the PCRM; 1 PLDM legislator also defected and is independent
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of a chief judges, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges)
    note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government.
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by Parliament upon the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the Moldovan president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term; other judges appointed for 6-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts
    represented in Parliament:
    Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]
    Democratic Party or PD [Marian LUPU]
    Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Vladimir FILAT]
    Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU]
    Alliance for European Integration or AEI (coalition of the PD, PLDM, and PL)
    not represented in Parliament:
    Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]
    Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA]
    Ecological Party of Moldova "Green Alliance" or PEMAVE [Vladimir BRAGA]
    European Action Movement or MAE [Veaceslav UNTILA]
    For Nation and Country Party or PpNT [Sergiu MOCANU]
    Humanist Party of Moldova or PUM [Valeriu PASAT]
    Labor Party or PM [Gheorghe SIMA]
    National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]
    Party of Socialists or PSRM [Igor DODON]
    Patriots of Moldova Party or PPM [Mihail GARBUZ]
    Popular Republican Party or PPR [Nicolae ANDRONIC]
    Republican Party of Moldova or PRM [Andrei STRATAN]
    Roma Social Political Movement of the Republic of Moldova or MRRM [Ion BUCUR]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor SELIN]
    Social Political Movement "Equality" or MR [Valeriy KLIMENCO]
    United Moldova Party or PMUEM [Vladimir TURCAN]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Igor MUNTEANU
    chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-2624
    chief of mission: Ambassador William H. MOSER
    embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
    FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized aurochs head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow; based on the color scheme of the flag of Romania - with which Moldova shares a history and culture - but Moldova's blue band is lighter; the reverse of the flag does not display any coat of arms
    note: one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Paraguay and Saudi Arabia
    aurochs (a type of wild cattle)
    name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)

    lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA
    note: adopted 1994

Economy ::Moldova

    Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. With its moderate climate and good farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by an estimated $4.3 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom due largely to unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the separatist Transnistria region. Previous Russian decisions to ban Moldovan wine and agricultural products, coupled with their decision to double the price Moldova paid for Russian natural gas and the large debt continue to hamper economic growth. Moldova also depends heavily on the annual $1 billion in remittances from the estimated one million Moldovans working in Europe and former Soviet Bloc countries. During the global financial crisis in 2009, Moldova experienced a 6% contraction of its GDP, a shrinkage due to increased unemployment and decrease in remittances. To stabilize the country, the IMF allocated $186 million to Moldova to cover its immediate budgetary needs in the fall of 2009, and the Moldovan Government agreeing with the IMF to a new program worth $574 million. In 2010, an upturn in the world economy boosted GDP growth to about 7% and inflation to more than 7%. Economic reforms have been slow because of corruption and strong political forces backing government controls. Nevertheless, the government's primary goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. The granting of EU trade preferences has encouraged higher growth rates, but the agreements are unlikely to serve as a panacea, given the extent to which export success depends on higher quality standards and other factors. The economy had modest growth in 2011, expanding by 6.8%. However, in 2012, with the Euro crisis and a devastating drought, Moldova's GDP stalled at an estimated 0.3% growth over 2011. Moldova's economic future remains vulnerable to political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, higher fuel prices and the concerns of foreign investors as well as the presence of an illegal separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region.
    $12.36 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    $12.46 billion (2011 est.)
    $11.66 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $7.252 billion (2012 est.)
    -0.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    6.8% (2011 est.)
    7.1% (2010 est.)
    $3,500 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    $3,500 (2011 est.)
    $3,300 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    16.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    11.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
    15.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 97.2%
    government consumption: 22.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
    investment in inventories: 1.5%
    exports of goods and services: 45.2%
    imports of goods and services: -88%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 13.1%
    industry: 19.8%
    services: 67.1% (2012 est.)
    vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk; wine
    sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
    -3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    1.215 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    agriculture: 27.5%
    industry: 13.1%
    services: 59.4% (2011)
    5.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    6.7% (2011 est.)
    21.9% (2010 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.3%
    highest 10%: 26% (2010 est.)
    38 (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    33.2 (2003)
    revenues: $2.768 billion
    expenditures: $2.92 billion (2012 est.)
    38.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    -2.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    17.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    19% of GDP (2011 est.)
    calendar year
    4.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    7.6% (2011 est.)
    13.4% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    14.44% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.54 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    $1.475 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $3.498 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    $3.049 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $2.877 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    $2.755 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $20.7 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    $22 million (31 December 2010)
    -$837.3 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    -$790.4 million (2011 est.)
    $2.228 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    $2.277 billion (2011 est.)
    foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
    Russia 20.9%, Romania 19.8%, Italy 11.6%, Ukraine 6.6%, Turkey 6%, Germany 4.7% (2012)
    $5.152 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    $5.147 billion (2011 est.)
    mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
    Ukraine 20.9%, Romania 16.1%, Germany 9.4%, Russia 7.9%, Italy 5.7%, Belarus 5.3%, Turkey 4.7%, Poland 4.4% (2012)
    $2.511 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    $1.965 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $6.132 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    $5.443 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $3.224 billion (30 September 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    $3.17 billion (30 September 2011 est.)
    $88.42 million (1 January 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    $67.85 million (1 January 2010)
    Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar -
    12.111 (2012 est.)
    11.738 (2011 est.)
    12.369 (2010 est.)
    11.11 (2009)
    10.326 (2008)

Energy ::Moldova

Communications ::Moldova

    1.18 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    3.715 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    general assessment: poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way
    domestic: multiple private operators of GSM mobile-cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations in 2007; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 100 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2011)
    state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 TV and 2 radio stations; a total of nearly 40 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2007)
    711,564 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    1.333 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 89

Transportation ::Moldova

    7 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    total: 5
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    under 914 m:
    1 (2013)
    gas 1,906 km (2013)
    total: 1,190 km
    country comparison to the world: 86
    broad gauge: 1,176 km 1.520-m gauge
    standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)
    total: 9,343 km
    country comparison to the world: 136
    paved: 8,810 km
    unpaved: 533 km (2008)
    558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut rivers) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    total: 121
    country comparison to the world: 45
    by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 88, carrier 1, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 11, specialized tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 63 (Bulgaria 1, Denmark 1, Egypt 5, Greece 1, Israel 2, Lebanon 1, Pakistan 1, Romania 2, Russia 5, Syria 5, Turkey 18, UK 3, Ukraine 14, Yemen 4) (2010)

Military ::Moldova

Transnational Issues ::Moldova

    Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops
    stateless persons: 1,998 (2012)
    limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity