Africa :: Malawi

Introduction ::Malawi

    Established in 1891, the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule under President Hastings Kamuzu BANDA the country held multiparty elections in 1994, under a provisional constitution that came into full effect the following year. President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA, elected in May 2004 after a failed attempt by the previous president to amend the constitution to permit another term, struggled to assert his authority against his predecessor and subsequently started his own party, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) in 2005. MUTHARIKA was reelected to a second term in May 2009. As president, he oversaw some economic improvement in his first term, but was accused of economic mismanagement and poor governance in his second term. He died abruptly in April 2012 and was succeeded by his vice president, Joyce BANDA. Population growth, increasing pressure on agricultural lands, corruption, and the spread of HIV/AIDS pose major problems for Malawi.

Geography ::Malawi

People and Society ::Malawi

    noun: Malawian(s)
    adjective: Malawian
    Chewa 32.6%, Lomwe 17.6%, Yao 13.5%, Ngoni 11.5%, Tumbuka 8.8%, Nyanja 5.8%, Sena 3.6%, Tonga 2.1%, Ngonde 1%, other 3.5%
    Chichewa (official) 57.2%, Chinyanja 12.8%, Chiyao 10.1%, Chitumbuka 9.5%, Chisena 2.7%, Chilomwe 2.4%, Chitonga 1.7%, other 3.6% (1998 census)
    Christian 82.7%, Muslim 13%, other 1.9%, none 2.5% (1998 census)
    16,777,547 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    0-14 years: 44.7% (male 3,754,206/female 3,738,521)
    15-24 years: 20.6% (male 1,723,098/female 1,725,326)
    25-54 years: 28.5% (male 2,422,642/female 2,364,137)
    55-64 years: 3.6% (male 269,058/female 327,158)
    65 years and over: 2.7% (male 192,928/female 260,473) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 94.1 %
    youth dependency ratio: 87.9 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.2 %
    potential support ratio: 16.1 (2013)
    total: 17.3 years
    male: 17.2 years
    female: 17.4 years (2013 est.)
    2.74% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    39.98 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    12.54 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    urban population: 15.7% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Blantyre 856,000; LILONGWE (capital) 821,000 (2009)
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    18.9
    note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
    460 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    total: 76.98 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 10
    male: 80.99 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 72.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 52.78 years
    country comparison to the world: 210
    male: 51.95 years
    female: 53.62 years (2013 est.)
    5.26 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    46.1% (2010)
    6.6% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
    1.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 95% of population
    rural: 80% of population
    total: 83% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 5% of population
    rural: 20% of population
    total: 17% of population (2010 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 49% of population
    rural: 51% of population
    total: 51% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 51% of population
    rural: 49% of population
    total: 49% of population (2010 est.)
    11% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    920,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    51,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    4.3% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    13.8% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    5.4% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 74.8%
    male: 81.1%
    female: 68.5% (2010 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 11 years (2011)
    total number: 993,318
    percentage: 26 % (2006 est.)

Government ::Malawi

    conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
    conventional short form: Malawi
    local long form: Dziko la Malawi
    local short form: Malawi
    former: British Central African Protectorate, Nyasaland Protectorate, Nyasaland
    multiparty democracy
    name: Lilongwe
    geographic coordinates: 13 58 S, 33 47 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    28 districts; Balaka, Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Likoma, Lilongwe, Machinga, Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Neno, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Phalombe, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
    6 July 1964 (from the UK)
    Independence Day (Republic Day), 6 July (1964)
    18 May 1994
    mixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Joyce BANDA (since 7 April 2012); Vice President Khumbo Hastings KACHALI (since 11 April 2012); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; former President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA died on 5 April 2012, Vice President Joyce BANDA was subsequently sworn in on 7 April 2012
    head of government: President Joyce BANDA (since 7 April 2012); Vice President Khumbo Hastings KACHALI (since 11 April 2012)
    cabinet: 36-member Cabinet named by the president
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014)
    election results: Bingu wa MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Bingu wa MUTHARIKA 66%, John TEMBO 30.7%, other 3.3%; note - MUTHARIKA passed away on 5 April 2012 and was succeeded by then vice president Joyce BANDA
    unicameral National Assembly (193 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 19 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DPP 114, MCP 26, UDF 17, independents 32, other 4
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; other judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, which regulates judicial officers; judges serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: High Court; magistrate courts; Industrial Relations Court; district and city traditional or local courts
    Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Godfrey SHAWA]
    Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Peter MUTHARIKA]
    Malawi Congress Party or MCP [John TEMBO]
    Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA]
    Malawi Forum for Unity and Development or MAFUNDE [George MNESA]
    New Labour Party or NLP [Friday JUMBE]
    New Republican Party [Gwanda CHAKUWAMBA]
    People's Party or PP [Joyce BANDA]
    People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Mark Katsonga PHIRI]
    People's Transformation Movement or PETRA [Kamuzu CHIBAMBO]
    United Democratic Front or UDF [Atupele MULUZI]
    Council for NGOs in Malawi or CONGOMA (human rights, democracy, and development)
    Human Rights Consultative Committee or HRCC (human rights)
    Malawi Economic Justice Network or MEJN (pro economic growth, development, government accountability)
    Malawi Law Society (an umbrella organization of all lawyers in Malawi)
    Public Affairs Committee or PAC (promotes democracy, development, peace and unity)
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen D. Tennyson MATENJE
    chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 721-0270
    FAX: [1] (202) 721-0288
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jeanine E. JACKSON
    embassy: 16 Jomo Kenyatta Road, Lilongwe 3
    mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
    telephone: [265] (1) 773-166
    FAX: [265] (1) 770-471
    three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered on the black band; black represents the native peoples, red the blood shed in their struggle for freedom, and green the color of nature; the rising sun represents the hope of freedom for the continent of Africa
    name: "Mulungu dalitsa Malawi" (Oh God Bless Our Land of Malawi)

    lyrics/music: Michael-Fredrick Paul SAUKA
    note: adopted 1964

Economy ::Malawi

    Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's most densely populated and least developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural with about 80% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture, which has benefited from fertilizer subsidies since 2006, accounts for one-third of GDP and 90% of export revenues. The performance of the tobacco sector is key to short-term growth as tobacco accounts for more than half of exports. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. In 2006, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. In December 2007, the US granted Malawi eligibility status to receive financial support within the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) initiative. The government faces many challenges including developing a market economy, improving educational facilities, facing up to environmental problems, dealing with the rapidly growing problem of HIV/AIDS, and satisfying foreign donors that fiscal discipline is being tightened. Since 2005 President BANDA'S government has exhibited improved financial discipline under the guidance of Finance Minister Goodall GONDWE and signed a three year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility worth $56 million with the IMF. The government has announced infrastructure projects that could yield improvements, such as a new oil pipeline for better fuel access, and the potential for a waterway link through Mozambican rivers to the ocean for better transportation options. Since 2009, however, Malawi has experienced some setbacks, including a general shortage of foreign exchange, which has damaged its ability to pay for imports, and fuel shortages that hinder transportation and productivity. Investment fell 23% in 2009, and continued to decline in 2010. The government has failed to address barriers to investment such as unreliable power, water shortages, poor telecommunications infrastructure, and the high costs of services. Donors, who provided an average of 36% of government revenue in the past five years, suspended general budget support for Malawi in 2011 due to a negative IMF review and governance issues.
    $14.5 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    $14.23 billion (2011 est.)
    $13.64 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $4.212 billion (2012 est.)
    1.9% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    4.3% (2011 est.)
    6.5% (2010 est.)
    $900 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    $900 (2011 est.)
    $900 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    7.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    9.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
    15.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 74.2%
    government consumption: 20.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 13.3%
    investment in inventories: 2%
    exports of goods and services: 28.5%
    imports of goods and services: -38.5%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 29%
    industry: 19.2%
    services: 51.8% (2012 est.)
    tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses, groundnuts, Macadamia nuts; cattle, goats
    tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
    0.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    5.747 million (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    agriculture: 90%
    industry and services: 10% (2003 est.)
    NA%
    53% (2004)
    lowest 10%: 3%
    highest 10%: 31.9% (2004)
    39 (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    revenues: $1.032 billion
    expenditures: $1.358 billion (2012 est.)
    24.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    -7.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    61.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    40.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
    1 July - 30 June
    21.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    7.6% (2011 est.)
    15% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    15% (31 December 2008)
    32.4% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    23.8% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $457.6 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    $866.8 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.382 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    $1.92 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.128 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    $2.042 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.384 billion (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    $1.363 billion (31 December 2010)
    $1.383 billion (31 December 2009)
    -$683.4 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    -$758.5 million (2011 est.)
    $1.193 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    $1.263 billion (2011 est.)
    tobacco 53%, tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, peanuts, wood products, apparel
    Canada 9.8%, Zimbabwe 9.5%, Germany 6.7%, South Africa 6.3%, Russia 6%, US 5.7%, Egypt 5.3% (2012)
    $1.901 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    $1.923 billion (2011 est.)
    food, petroleum products, semi-manufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
    South Africa 26.5%, China 16.2%, Zambia 9.1%, India 8.5%, Tanzania 5.5%, US 4.1% (2012)
    $245.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    $213.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.365 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    $1.202 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $NA
    $NA
    Malawian kwachas (MWK) per US dollar -
    249.11 (2012 est.)
    156.93 (2011 est.)
    150.49 (2010 est.)
    141.14 (2009)
    142.41 (2008)

Energy ::Malawi

Communications ::Malawi

    173,500 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    3.952 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    general assessment: rudimentary; privatization of Malawi Telecommunications (MTL), a necessary step in bringing improvement to telecommunications services, completed in 2006
    domestic: limited fixed-line subscribership of about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services are expanding but network coverage is limited and is based around the main urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership about 25 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
    radio is the main broadcast medium; state-run radio has the widest geographic broadcasting reach, but about a dozen privately owned radio stations broadcast in major urban areas; the single TV network is government-owned; relays of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    .mw
    1,099 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    716,400 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 109

Transportation ::Malawi

Military ::Malawi

Transnational Issues ::Malawi

    disputes with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant