Europe :: Montenegro

Introduction ::Montenegro

    The use of the name Crna Gora (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro, while a part of the Ottoman Empire, was able to maintain a level of autonomy. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.

Geography ::Montenegro

People and Society ::Montenegro

Government ::Montenegro

    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Montenegro
    local long form: none
    local short form: Crna Gora
    former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
    name: Podgorica; note - the Old Royal Capital is Cetinje mentioned in the constitution
    geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    21 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
    3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
    National Day, 13 July (1878)
    approved 19 October 2007 (by the Assembly)
    civil law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction
    18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
    chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)
    head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 4 December 2012)
    cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
    election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.2%, Miodrag LEKIC 48.8%%
    unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms)
    elections: last held on 14 October 2012 (next to be held by 2016)
    election results: percent of vote by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 45.6%, Democratic Front 22.8%, SNP 11.1%, Positive Montenegro 8.2%, Bosniak Party, 4.2%, other (including Albanian and Croatian minority parties) 8.1%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 39, Democratic Front 20, SNP 9, Positive Montenegro 7, Bosniak Party 3, Albanian and Croatian minority parties 3
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president and 6 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 6 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court proposed jointly by the president of Montenegro, the speaker of the Assembly, and the prime minister; other judges elected by the Judicial Council; court president term is 5 years; term of other judges is 9 years; Constitutional Court judges proposed by the president of Montenegro and elected by the Assembly; court president elected among its members; term of judges is 9 years; court president term is 3 years
    subordinate courts: Administrative Court; Court of Appeal; regional and first instance courts
    Albanian Coalition (includes Democratic Alliance in Montenegro [Mehmed BARDHI], Democratic Party [Fatmir DJEKA], and Albanian Alternative [Djerdj DAMAJ])
    Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]
    Coalition for European Montenegro (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC], Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC], and the Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Andrija POPOVIC])
    Coalition FORCA for Unity (includes FORCA [Nazif CUNGU and Civic Initiative [Vaselj Sinistaj])
    Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]
    Democratic Center or DC [Goran BATRICEVIC]
    Democratic Front (bloc) [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC], Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC], a splinter faction of the Socialist People's Party or SNP, and the Pensioners' Party [Vojo VULETIC])
    Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Dragica PEROVIC]
    Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]
    Just Montenegro [Rade BOJOVIC]
    People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Dejan VUCICEVIC]
    Positive Montenegro [Darko PAJOVIC]
    Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdan MILIC]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Srdjan DARMANOVIC
    chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
    FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Sue K BROWN
    embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [382] (0) 20 410 500
    FAX: [382] (0) 20 241 358
    a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is symbol of episcopal authority and harks back to the three and a half centuries that Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy
    double-headed eagle
    name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)

    lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC
    note: adopted 2004; the anthem's music is based on a Montenegrin folk song

Economy ::Montenegro

    Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system, but the state sector remains large and additional institutional changes are needed. The economy relies heavily on tourism and the export of refined metals. Unprofitable state-owned enterprises weigh on public finances. Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and maintained its own central bank, adopted the deutsch mark, then the euro - rather than the Yugoslav dinar - as official currency, collected customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro became the 156th member of World Trade Organization in December 2011. The European Council (EC) granted candidate country status to Montenegro at the December 2010 session. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EC in June, 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime. Unemployment and regional disparities in development are key political and economic problems. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector. The global financial crisis had a significant negative impact on the economy, due to the ongoing credit crunch, a decline in the real estate sector, and a fall in aluminum exports. In 2012, real GDP growth slipped to 0.5%, reflecting the general downturn in most of Europe.
    $7.461 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    $7.458 billion (2011 est.)
    $7.226 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $4.28 billion (2012 est.)
    0% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    3.2% (2011 est.)
    2.5% (2010 est.)
    $12,000 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $12,000 (2011 est.)
    $11,200 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    household consumption: 84.4%
    government consumption: 22.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
    investment in inventories: 1.1%
    exports of goods and services: 40.2%
    imports of goods and services: -66.2%
    (2011 est.)
    agriculture: 0.8%
    industry: 11.3%
    services: 87.9% (2011)
    tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep
    steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
    251,300 (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    agriculture: 6.3%
    industry: 20.9%
    services: 72.8% (2011 est.)
    19.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    11.5% (2011 est.)
    6.6% (2010 est.)
    24.3 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    30 (2003)
    revenues: $1.68 billion
    expenditures: $1.58 billion (2012 est.)
    39.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    2.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    52.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    45% of GDP (2011 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
    calendar year
    4% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    3% (2011)
    9.69% (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    9.53% (31 December 2010 est.)
    $749 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    $783.3 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    $1.982 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    $2.01 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $3.29 billion (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    $3.771 billion (31 December 2008)
    $3.322 billion (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    $3.604 billion (31 December 2010)
    $4.289 billion (31 December 2009)
    -$1.938 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    -$1.927 billion (2011 est.)
    $489.2 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    $640 million (2011 est.)
    Croatia 22.7%, Serbia 22.7%, Slovenia 7.8% (2012 est.)
    $2.4 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    $2.5 billion (2011 est.)
    Serbia 29.3%, Greece 8.7%, China 7.1% (2012 est.)
    $400 million (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    $1.7 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    $1.2 billion (2011 est.)
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.7778 (2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
    0.755 (2010 est.)
    0.7198 (2009 est.)
    0.6827 (2008 est.)

Energy ::Montenegro

Communications ::Montenegro

    169,500 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    1.17 million (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
    domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing
    international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2011)
    state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 public TV stations and some 20 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations and more than 40 private radio stations (2007)
    10,088 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    280,000 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 133

Transportation ::Montenegro

Military ::Montenegro

Transnational Issues ::Montenegro