Europe :: Macedonia

Introduction ::Macedonia

    Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution are ongoing. Since 2004, the United States and over 130 other nations have recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's ethnic Albanian population and led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting and established guidelines for the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. Fully implementing the Framework Agreement, maintaining momentum on democratic reforms, and stimulating economic growth and development continue to be challenges for Macedonia, although progress has been made over the past several years.

Geography ::Macedonia

People and Society ::Macedonia

Government ::Macedonia

    conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
    conventional short form: Macedonia
    local long form: Republika Makedonija
    local short form: Makedonija
    note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM)
    former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
    parliamentary democracy
    name: Skopje
    geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    71 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Caska, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Grad Skopje, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vrapciste, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
    8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
    Independence Day, 8 September (1991); also known as National Day
    adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001, 2005, and in 2009
    note: amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights, in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary, and in 2009 with amendments related to the threshold required to elect the president
    civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Gjorge IVANOV (since 12 May 2009)
    head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, BDI, and several small parties
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    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election: first round held on 22 March 2009, second round held on 5 April 2009 (next to be held in March 2014); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections; the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister
    election results: Gjorge IVANOV elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Gjorge IVANOV 63.1%, Ljubomir FRCKOSKI 36.9%
    unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (123 seats; all members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral and three diaspora districts; members serve four-year terms)
    elections: last held on 5 June 2011 (next to be held by June 2015)
    election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE-led block 39%, SDSM-led block 32.8%, BDI 10.2%, PDSh 5.9%, other 12.1%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE-led block 56, SDSM-led block 42, BDI 15, PDSh 8, RDK 2
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consist of NA judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 7-member body of legal professionals, and appointed by the Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the legislature for nonrenewable, 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Basic Courts
    Albanian Democratic Union or BDSh [Bardhyl MAHMUTI]
    Democratic League of Bosniaks in Macedonia [Rafet MUMINOVIC]
    Democratic Party of Serbs in Macedonia or DPSM [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]
    Democratic Party of the Albanians or PDSh [Menduh THACI]
    Democratic Party of Turks of Macedonia or DPTM [Kenan HASIPI]
    Democratic Renewal of Macedonia or DOM [Liljana POPOVSKA]
    Democratic Union or DS [Pavle TRAJANOV]
    Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI]
    Dosoinstvo (Diginity) [Stojance ANGELOV]
    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]
    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - People's Party or VMRO-NP [Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI]
    Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Andrej ZENOVSKI]
    Liberal Party of Macedonia or LP [Ivon VELICKOVSKI]
    Movement for Turkish National Union [Erdogan SARAC]
    National Democratic Revival or RDK [Rufi OSMANI]
    New Democracy or ND [Imer SELMANI]
    New Social-Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]
    Party for Democratic Action of Macedonia or SDA [Avdija PEPIC]
    Party for the Total Emancipation of Roma or PCER [Samka IBRAIMOVSKI]
    Party of United Democrats of Macedonia or PODEM [Zivko JANKULOVSKI]
    Party on European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]
    Serbian Progressive Party in Macedonia or SPSM [Dragisha MILETIC]
    Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Branko CRVENKOVSKI]
    Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVNAOV DZINGO]
    Union of Roma of Macedonia or SR [Amdi BAJRAM]
    United for Macedonia or OM [Ljube BOSKOSKI]
    Federation of Free Trade Unions [Mirjana ANDREVSKA]
    Federation of Trade Unions [Zivko MITREVSKI]
    Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture [Jakim NEDELKOV]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Zoran JOLEVSKI
    chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, Southfield (MI)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Paul D. WOHLERS
    embassy: Str. Samolilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje
    mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
    telephone: [389] (2) 310-2000
    FAX: [389] (2) 310-2499
    a yellow sun (the Sun of Liberty) with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field; the red and yellow colors have long been associated with Macedonia
    eight-rayed sun
    name: "Denes Nad Makedonija" (Today Over Macedonia)

    lyrics/music: Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI
    note: adopted 1991; the song, written in 1943, previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia

Economy ::Macedonia

    Macedonia is vulnerable to economic developments in Europe - due to strong trade ties - and dependent on regional integration and progress toward EU membership for continued economic growth. At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. Since then, Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has so far lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and creating jobs, despite making extensive fiscal and business sector reforms. Official unemployment has remained consistently high at more than 31% since 2008, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be between 20% and 45% of GDP, that is not captured by official statistics. In the wake of the global economic downturn, Macedonia has experienced decreased foreign direct investment and a large trade deficit. However, as a result of conservative fiscal policies and a sound financial system, in 2010 the country credit rating improved slightly to BB+ and was kept at that level in 2011-12. However, macroeconomic stability has been maintained by a prudent monetary policy, which keeps the domestic currency pegged against the euro. As a result, GDP growth was modest, but positive at about 3% both in 2010 and 2011, and inflation was under control. The government loosened fiscal policy in 2012 and the budget deficit expanded to 3.5% of GDP.
    $22.22 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    $22.28 billion (2011 est.)
    $21.66 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars; Macedonia has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data
    $9.676 billion (2012 est.)
    -0.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    2.9% (2011 est.)
    2.9% (2010 est.)
    $10,800 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    $10,800 (2011 est.)
    $10,500 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    24.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    24.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
    23.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 75.3%
    government consumption: 18.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
    investment in inventories: 7%
    exports of goods and services: 52.9%
    imports of goods and services: -75.1%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 11.4%
    industry: 25.8%
    services: 62.8% (2012 est.)
    grapes, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs
    food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals
    -2.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    936,000 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    agriculture: 16.7%
    industry: 26%
    services: 57.3% (September 2012)
    31.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    31.4% (2011 est.)
    30.4% (2011)
    lowest 10%: 2.2%
    highest 10%: 34.5% (2009 est.)
    43.2 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    39 (2003)
    revenues: $2.883 billion
    expenditures: $3.254 billion (2012 est.)
    29.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    -3.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    33.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    27.8% of GDP (2011 est.)
    note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds
    calendar year
    3.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    3.9% (2011 est.)
    3.75% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    4% (31 December 2011 est.)
    note: series discontinued in January 2010; the discount rate has been replaced by a referent rate for calculating the penalty rate
    8.48% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    8.87% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.413 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    $1.29 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $5.709 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    $5.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $4.821 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    $4.418 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.423 billion (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    $2.495 billion (31 December 2011)
    $2.647 billion (31 December 2010)
    -$323 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    -$273.5 million (2011 est.)
    $4.064 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    $4.429 billion (2011 est.)
    food, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron, steel; automotive parts
    Germany 25.5%, Italy 6.1%, Bulgaria 5.2%, Greece 4.5% (2012)
    $6.229 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    $6.759 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
    Greece 17.7%, Germany 11.5%, UK 9.3%, Bulgaria 8.7%, Italy 5%, Turkey 4.8% (2012)
    $2.891 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $2.677 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $6.807 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $6.271 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $4.284 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    $4.229 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $564 million (31 December 2009 est.)
    Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar -
    47.89 (2012 est.)
    44.231 (2011 est.)
    46.485 (2010 est.)
    44.1 (2009)
    41.414 (2008)

Energy ::Macedonia

Communications ::Macedonia

    422,100 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    2.213 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership about 130 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 389 (2012)
    public TV broadcaster operates 3 national channels and a satellite network; 5 privately owned TV channels broadcast nationally using terrestrial transmitters and about 15 broadcast on national level via satellite; roughly 75 local commercial TV stations; large number of cable operators offering domestic and international programming; public radio broadcaster operates over multiple stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationally; about 70 local commercial radio stations (2012)
    62,826 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    1.057 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 97

Transportation ::Macedonia

Military ::Macedonia

Transnational Issues ::Macedonia

    Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
    stateless persons: 905 (2012)
    major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement