Africa :: Mali

Introduction ::Mali

    The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias started a rebellion in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the three northern regions of the country and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food insecurity in host communities. A military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president.

Geography ::Mali

    interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
    17 00 N, 4 00 W
    total: 1,240,192 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 24
    land: 1,220,190 sq km
    water: 20,002 sq km
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    total: 7,243 km
    border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
    mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
    lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
    highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
    gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
    note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
    arable land: 5.53%
    permanent crops: 0.1%
    other: 94.37% (2011)
    2,358 sq km (2003)
    100 cu km (2011)
    total: 6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)
    per capita: 545.4 cu m/yr (2000)
    hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
    deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan

People and Society ::Mali

Government ::Mali

    conventional long form: Republic of Mali
    conventional short form: Mali
    local long form: Republique de Mali
    local short form: Mali
    former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
    name: Bamako
    geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu)
    22 September 1960 (from France)
    Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
    adopted 12 January 1992
    civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Oumar Tatum LY (since 5 September 2013)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); the election scheduled for 29 April 2012 and delayed following the March 2012 coup took place 28 July 2013 and a runoff election was held on 11 August 2013; prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE 22.4%
    unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 1 and 22 July 2007 (July 2012 scheduled election delayed after the military coup)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms
    subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office)
    African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]
    Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]
    Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
    Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region)
    Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]
    Convergence for the development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni GUINDO]
    Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE)
    National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]
    Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE]
    Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]
    Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]
    Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU]
    Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]
    Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Basir GOLOGO]
    Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]
    Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
    other: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT
    chief of mission: Ambassador Al Maamoun Baba Lamine KEITA
    chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Beth LEONARD
    embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
    mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
    telephone: [223] 2070-2300
    FAX: [223] 2070-2479
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
    name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
    lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO
    note: adopted 1962; the anthem is also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)

Economy ::Mali

Energy ::Mali

Communications ::Mali

    104,700 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    10.822 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas
    domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to about 70 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2010)
    national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    437 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    249,800 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 135

Transportation ::Mali

    25 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    total: 8
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 17
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 9
    under 914 m:
    5 (2013)
    2 (2013)
    total: 593 km
    country comparison to the world: 109
    narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
    total: 18,912 km
    country comparison to the world: 114
    paved: 3,597 km
    unpaved: 15,315 km (2004)
    1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 44

Military ::Mali

Transnational Issues ::Mali

    demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso
    refugees (country of origin): 12,436 (Mauritania) (2012)
    IDPs: 301,027 (Tuareg rebellion since 2012) (2013)
    current situation: Mali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in gold mines, as well as subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are found in conditions of forced labor in agricultural settings, gold mines, and the informal commercial sector, as well as forced begging both within Mali and neighboring countries; Malians and other Africans who travel through Mali to Mauritania, Algeria, or Libya in hopes of reaching Europe are particularly at risk of becoming victims of human trafficking; men and boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to the longstanding practice of debt bondage in the salt mines of Taoudenni in northern Mali; some members of Mali's black Tamachek community are subjected to traditional slavery-related practices, and this involuntary servitude reportedly has extended to their children; reports indicate that non-governmental armed groups operating in northern Mali recruited children as combatants, cooks, porters, guards, spies, and sex slaves
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Mali does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; although the government enacted a comprehensive anti-trafficking law in 2012, it did not demonstrate evidence of overall increasing efforts to address human trafficking over the previous year; the government has failed to prosecute or convict any trafficking offenders, has not provided any direct services to victims, and has not made any tangible prevention efforts; the government continues to cite a lack of personnel and resources as reasons for its inability to adequately identify and rescue child victims of forced labor in the mining industry (2013)