Africa :: Mozambique

Introduction ::Mozambique

    Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between Frelimo and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (Renamo) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. President GUEBUZA was reelected to a second term in October 2009. However, the elections were flawed by voter fraud, questionable disqualification of candidates, and Frelimo use of government resources during the campaign. As a result, Freedom House removed Mozambique from its list of electoral democracies.

Geography ::Mozambique

People and Society ::Mozambique

    noun: Mozambican(s)
    adjective: Mozambican
    African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
    Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 4% (1997 census)
    Catholic 28.4%, Protestant 27.7% (Zionist Christian 15.5%, Evangelical Pentecostal 10.9%, Anglican 1.3%), Muslim 17.9%, other 7.2%, none 18.7% (1997 census)
    24,096,669 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    0-14 years: 45.5% (male 5,515,341/female 5,457,336)
    15-24 years: 21.1% (male 2,469,221/female 2,610,720)
    25-54 years: 27% (male 3,035,069/female 3,461,519)
    55-64 years: 3.5% (male 396,186/female 442,237)
    65 years and over: 2.9% (male 325,955/female 383,085) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 94.8 %
    youth dependency ratio: 88.4 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 %
    potential support ratio: 15.6 (2013)
    total: 16.8 years
    male: 16.2 years
    female: 17.5 years (2013 est.)
    2.44% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    39.08 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    12.57 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    -2.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    urban population: 31.2% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 3.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    MAPUTO (capital) 1.589 million; Matola 761,000 (2009)
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    18.8 (2003 est.)
    490 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    total: 74.63 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 13
    male: 76.78 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 72.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 52.29 years
    country comparison to the world: 213
    male: 51.54 years
    female: 53.06 years (2013 est.)
    5.34 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    11.6% (2011)
    5.2% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
    0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 77% of population
    rural: 29% of population
    total: 47% of population
    urban: 23% of population
    rural: 71% of population
    total: 53% of population (2010 est.)
    urban: 38% of population
    rural: 5% of population
    total: 18% of population
    urban: 62% of population
    rural: 95% of population
    total: 82% of population (2010 est.)
    11.5% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    1.4 million (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    74,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    4.9% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    18.3% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    5% of GDP (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 56.1%
    male: 70.8%
    female: 42.8% (2010 est.)
    total: 10 years
    male: 10 years
    female: 9 years (2011)
    total number: 1,369,080
    percentage: 22 % (2008 est.)

Government ::Mozambique

    conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
    conventional short form: Mozambique
    local long form: Republica de Mocambique
    local short form: Mocambique
    former: Portuguese East Africa
    name: Maputo
    geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
    25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
    Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
    30 November 1990
    mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, Islamic law, and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Armando Emilio GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
    head of government: Prime Minister Alberto Clementino VAQUINA (since 8 October 2012)
    cabinet: Cabinet
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for three terms); election last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Armando GUEBUZA reelected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 76.3%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 14.9%, Daviz SIMANGO 8.8%
    unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
    election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 74.7%, RENAMO 17.7%, MDM 3.9%, other 3.7%; seats by party - FRELIMO 191, RENAMO 51, MDM 8
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges)
    note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by Mozambique president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and with ratification by the legislature; other judges elected by the legislature; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the legislature, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms
    subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
    Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]
    Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]
    Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
    Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]
    chief of mission: Ambassador Amelia Matos SUMBANA
    chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
    FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
    chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas M. GRIFFITHS
    embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
    mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
    telephone: [258] (21) 492797
    FAX: [258] (21) 490114
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism
    name: "Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)

    lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
    note: adopted 2002

Economy ::Mozambique

    At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remained dependent upon foreign assistance for 40% of its 2012 annual budget and over half the population remained below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force and smallholder agricultural productivity and productivity growth is weak. A substantial trade imbalance persists although aluminum production from the Mozal smelter has significantly boosted export earnings in recent years. In 2012, The Mozambican government took over Portugal's last remaining share in the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity Company (HCB), a signficant contributor to the Southern African Power Pool. The government has plans to expand the Cahora Bassa Dam and build additional dams to increase its electricity exports and fulfill the needs of its burgeoning domestic industries. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. In July 2007, the US government's Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a $506.9 million Compact with Mozambique. Compact projects will end in September 2013 and are focusing on improving sanitation, roads, agriculture, and the business regulation environment in an effort to spur economic growth in the four northern provinces of the country. Citizens rioted in September 2010, after fuel, water, electricity, and bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to lessen the negative impact on people, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures. Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade up to 2012, one of Africa's strongest performances. Mozambique's ability to attract large investment projects in natural resources is expected to fuel continued high growth in coming years. Revenues from these vast resources, including natural gas, coal, titanium and hydroelectric capacity, could overtake donor assistance within five years.
    $26.69 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    $24.83 billion (2011 est.)
    $23.13 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $14.6 billion (2012 est.)
    7.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    7.3% (2011 est.)
    7.1% (2010 est.)
    $1,200 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    $1,100 (2011 est.)
    $1,100 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    0% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    5.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
    4.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 77.3%
    government consumption: 13.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.8%
    investment in inventories: 0.9%
    exports of goods and services: 27%
    imports of goods and services: -43.8%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 29.5%
    industry: 23.9%
    services: 46.5% (2012 est.)
    cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
    aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
    12% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    10.1 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    agriculture: 81%
    industry: 6%
    services: 13% (1997 est.)
    17% (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    21% (1997 est.)
    52% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.9%
    highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
    45.6 (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    47.3 (2002)
    revenues: $4.315 billion
    expenditures: $4.904 billion (2012 est.)
    29.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    -4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    34.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    34.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
    calendar year
    2.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    10.4% (2011 est.)
    9.5% (17 January 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    3.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
    16.81% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    19.1% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $4.335 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    $3.574 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $5.268 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    $4.095 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $3.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    $3.392 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    -$2.432 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    -$1.615 billion (2011 est.)
    $3.469 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    $3.118 billion (2011 est.)
    aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
    South Africa 30.9%, Belgium 12.8%, China 9%, Italy 7.8%, Spain 6.2%, India 5.6% (2012)
    $6.167 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    $5.368 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
    South Africa 30.7%, China 12.2%, India 11.4%, US 5.1%, Portugal 4.8%, Australia 4.4% (2012)
    $2.77 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    $2.469 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $4.562 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    $4.097 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    meticais (MZM) per US dollar -
    28.383 (2012 est.)
    29.075 (2011 est.)
    33.96 (2010 est.)
    26.28 (2009)
    24.125 (2008)

Energy ::Mozambique

Communications ::Mozambique

    88,100 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    7.855 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    general assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges
    domestic: stagnation in the fixed-line network contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the South African and Swaziland borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala; extremely low fixed-line teledensity; despite significant growth in mobile-cellular services, teledensity remains low at about 35 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2011)
    1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    89,737 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    613,600 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 113

Transportation ::Mozambique

    98 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    total: 21
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 77
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 29
    under 914 m:
    38 (2013)
    gas 972 km; refined products 278 km (2013)
    total: 4,787 km
    country comparison to the world: 38
    narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
    total: 30,331 km
    country comparison to the world: 96
    paved: 6,303 km
    unpaved: 24,028 km (2000)
    460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    total: 2
    country comparison to the world: 143
    by type: cargo 2
    foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2010)
    Beira, Maputo, Nacala

Military ::Mozambique

Transnational Issues ::Mozambique

    South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
    southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability make the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center