Africa :: Nigeria

Introduction ::Nigeria

    British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.

Geography ::Nigeria

People and Society ::Nigeria

    noun: Nigerian(s)
    adjective: Nigerian
    Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
    English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
    Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
    174,507,539 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    0-14 years: 43.8% (male 39,127,615/female 37,334,281)
    15-24 years: 19.3% (male 17,201,067/female 16,451,357)
    25-54 years: 30.1% (male 25,842,967/female 26,699,432)
    55-64 years: 3.8% (male 3,016,896/female 3,603,048)
    65 years and over: 3% (male 2,390,154/female 2,840,722) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 89 %
    youth dependency ratio: 83.8 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %
    potential support ratio: 19.3 (2013)
    total: 17.9 years
    male: 17.4 years
    female: 18.4 years (2013 est.)
    2.54% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    38.78 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    13.2 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    -0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    urban population: 49.6% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 3.75% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Lagos 10.203 million; Kano 3.304 million; Ibadan 2.762 million; ABUJA (capital) 1.857 million; Kaduna 1.519 million (2009)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    20.9 (2008 est.)
    630 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    total: 72.97 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 15
    male: 77.98 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 67.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 52.46 years
    country comparison to the world: 211
    male: 49.35 years
    female: 55.77 years (2013 est.)
    5.31 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    14.1% (2011)
    5.1% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    0.4 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
    0.53 beds/1,000 population (2004)
    improved:
    urban: 74% of population
    rural: 43% of population
    total: 58% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 26% of population
    rural: 57% of population
    total: 42% of population (2010 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 35% of population
    rural: 27% of population
    total: 31% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 65% of population
    rural: 73% of population
    total: 69% of population (2010 est.)
    3.6% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    3.3 million (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    220,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
    water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly endemic areas for Lassa fever
    animal contact disease: rabies
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    6.5% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    26.7% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    NA
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 61.3%
    male: 72.1%
    female: 50.4% (2010 est.)
    total: 9 years
    male: 10 years
    female: 8 years (2005)
    total number: 11,396,823
    percentage: 29 % (2007 est.)

Government ::Nigeria

    conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
    conventional short form: Nigeria
    federal republic
    name: Abuja
    geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
    1 October 1960 (from the UK)
    Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
    adopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999
    mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Goodluck JONATHAN (since 5 May 2010, acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi SAMBO (since 19 May 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; JONATHAN assumed the presidency on 5 May 2010 following the death of President YAR'ADUA; JONATHAN was declared Acting President on 9 February 2010 by the National Assembly during the extended illness of the former president
    head of government: President Goodluck JONATHAN (since 5 May 2010, acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi SAMBO (since 19 May 2010)
    cabinet: Federal Executive Council
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)
    election results: Goodluck JONATHAN elected president; percent of vote - Goodluck JONATHAN 58.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI 32.0%, Nuhu RIBADU 5.4%, Ibrahim SHEKARAU 2.4%, other 1.3%
    bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 9 and 26 April 2011 (next to be held in 2015); House of Representatives - last held on 9 and 26 April 2011 (next to be held in 2015)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDP 73, ACN 17, ANPP 7, CPC 6, LP 4, other 2; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDP 205, ACN 69, CPC 36, ANPP 28, LP 9, APGA 6, ACC 5, other 2; note - due to logistical problems elections in a number of constituencies were held on 26 April 2011
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
    Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
    Action Congress of Nigeria or ACN [Adebisi Bamidele AKANDE]
    All Nigeria Peoples Party or ANPP [Ogbonnaya C. ONU]
    All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]
    Congress for Progressive Change or CPC [Tony MOMOH]
    Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Jeremiah USENI]
    Labor Party [Umar MUSTAPHA]
    Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Bamanga TUKUR]
    Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
    Campaign for Democracy or CD
    Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
    Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
    Constitutional Right Project or CRP
    Human Right Africa
    National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
    National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
    Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
    Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
    Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
    the press
    Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Adebowale Ibidapo ADEFUYE
    chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Terence P. MCCULLEY
    embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
    mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
    telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
    FAX: [234] (9) 461-4171
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity
    eagle
    name: "Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"

    lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
    note: adopted 1978; the lyrics are a mixture of five of the top entries in a national contest

Economy ::Nigeria

    Oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, but in 2008 began pursuing economic reforms. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 95% of foreign exchange earnings and about 80% of budgetary revenues. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a debt-relief deal that eliminated $18 billion of debt in exchange for $12 billion in payments - a total package worth $30 billion of Nigeria's total $37 billion external debt. Since 2008 the government has begun to show the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as modernizing the banking system, removing subsidies, and resolving regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. GDP rose strongly in 2007-12 because of growth in non-oil sectors and robust global crude oil prices. President JONATHAN has established an economic team that includes experienced and reputable members and has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify economic growth, and improve fiscal management. Lack of infrastructure and slow implementation of reforms are key impediments to growth. The government is working toward developing stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power. Nigeria's financial sector was hurt by the global financial and economic crises, but the Central Bank governor has taken measures to restructure and strengthen the sector to include imposing mandatory higher minimum capital requirements.
    $455.5 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    $428.4 billion (2011 est.)
    $399 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $268.7 billion (2012 est.)
    6.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    7.4% (2011 est.)
    8% (2010 est.)
    $2,800 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    $2,700 (2011 est.)
    $2,600 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    24.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    19.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
    20.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 53.2%
    government consumption: 14.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 44.2%
    imports of goods and services: -30.7%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 30.9%
    industry: 43%
    services: 26% (2012 est.)
    cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
    crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
    1.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    53.83 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    agriculture: 70%
    industry: 10%
    services: 20% (1999 est.)
    23.9% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    4.9% (2011 est.)
    70% (2010 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.8%
    highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
    43.7 (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    50.6 (1997)
    revenues: $22.35 billion
    expenditures: $27.87 billion (2012 est.)
    8.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    -2.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    16.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    17.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
    calendar year
    12.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    10.8% (2011 est.)
    4.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    6% (31 December 2009 est.)
    16.79% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    16.02% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    $38.87 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $80.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    $74.08 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $93.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    $89.37 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $39.27 billion (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $50.88 billion (31 December 2010)
    $33.32 billion (31 December 2009)
    $6.158 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    $8.686 billion (2011 est.)
    $92.16 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    $92.5 billion (2011 est.)
    petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
    US 16.8%, India 12.1%, Netherlands 8.6%, Spain 7.8%, Brazil 7.6%, UK 5.1%, Germany 4.9%, Japan 4.1%, France 4.1% (2012)
    $54.6 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    $61.65 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
    China 18.2%, US 10%, India 5.5% (2012)
    $46.41 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    $35.21 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $13.12 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    $13.11 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $84.43 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    $78.24 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $11.24 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    $10.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    nairas (NGN) per US dollar -
    156.81 (2012 est.)
    154.74 (2011 est.)
    150.3 (2010 est.)
    148.9 (2009)
    117.8 (2008)

Energy ::Nigeria

Communications ::Nigeria

    719,400 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    95.167 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem
    domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth but subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base approaching 60 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2010)
    nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available (2007)
    .ng
    1,234 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    43.989 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 9

Transportation ::Nigeria

    54 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    total: 40
    over 3,047 m: 10
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    total: 14
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 9
    under 914 m:
    3 (2013)
    5 (2013)
    condensate 124 km; gas 4,045 km; liquid petroleum gas 164 km; oil 4,441 km; refined products 3,940 km (2013)
    total: 3,505 km
    country comparison to the world: 49
    narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
    total: 193,200 km
    country comparison to the world: 26
    paved: 28,980 km
    unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)
    8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    total: 89
    country comparison to the world: 54
    by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 28, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 56, specialized tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 3 (India 1, UK 2)
    registered in other countries: 33 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Comoros 1, Italy 1, Liberia 4, North Korea 1, Panama 6, Seychelles 1, unknown 6) (2010)
    Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Niger Delta and Gulf of Guinea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; in 2012, 27 commercial vessels were boarded or attacked compared with 10 attacks in 2011; crews were robbed and stores or cargoes stolen; Nigerian pirates have extended the range of their attacks to as far away as Cote d'Ivoire

Military ::Nigeria

Transnational Issues ::Nigeria

    Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
    refugees (country of origin): 5,299 (Liberia) (2011)
    IDPs: undetermined (communal violence between Christians and Muslims, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; competition for resources; displacement is mostly short-term) (2012)
    a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF