South America :: Peru

Introduction ::Peru

    Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous Quechuan ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president, defeating Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi, the daughter of Alberto FUJIMORI. Since his election, HUMALA has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations.

Geography ::Peru

    Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
    10 00 S, 76 00 W
    total: 1,285,216 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 20
    land: 1,279,996 sq km
    water: 5,220 sq km
    slightly smaller than Alaska
    total: 7,461 km
    border countries: Bolivia 1,075 km, Brazil 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Colombia 1,800 km, Ecuador 1,420 km
    2,414 km
    territorial sea: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm
    varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
    western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
    copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
    arable land: 2.84%
    permanent crops: 0.66%
    other: 96.5% (2011)
    11,960 sq km (2003)
    1,913 cu km (2011)
    total: 19.34 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)
    per capita: 727.6 cu m/yr (2005)
    earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
    volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane
    deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

People and Society ::Peru

    noun: Peruvian(s)
    adjective: Peruvian
    Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
    Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other 0.2% (2007 Census)
    Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified or none 2.9% (2007 Census)
    Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.
    Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.
    29,849,303 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    0-14 years: 27.6% (male 4,197,698/female 4,053,852)
    15-24 years: 19.4% (male 2,894,420/female 2,891,714)
    25-54 years: 39.2% (male 5,633,249/female 6,056,017)
    55-64 years: 7.1% (male 1,039,975/female 1,086,428)
    65 years and over: 6.7% (male 947,349/female 1,048,601) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 54.2 %
    youth dependency ratio: 44.4 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 9.9 %
    potential support ratio: 10.1 (2013)
    total: 26.7 years
    male: 26 years
    female: 27.4 years (2013 est.)
    1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    18.85 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    5.97 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    -2.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    urban population: 77% of total population (2010)
    rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    LIMA (capital) 8.769 million; Arequipa 778,000 (2009)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
    67 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    total: 20.85 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 89
    male: 23.1 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 18.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 72.98 years
    country comparison to the world: 128
    male: 71.01 years
    female: 75.05 years (2013 est.)
    2.25 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    68.9% (2011)
    5.1% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    0.92 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    1.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    urban: 91% of population
    rural: 65% of population
    total: 85% of population
    urban: 9% of population
    rural: 35% of population
    total: 15% of population (2010 est.)
    urban: 81% of population
    rural: 37% of population
    total: 71% of population
    urban: 19% of population
    rural: 63% of population
    total: 29% of population (2010 est.)
    0.4% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    75,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    5,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever) (2013)
    15.7% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    4.5% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    2.6% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 89.6%
    male: 94.9%
    female: 84.6% (2007 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2010)
    total number: 2,545,855
    percentage: 34 %
    note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
    total: 16.2% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 81

Government ::Peru

    conventional long form: Republic of Peru
    conventional short form: Peru
    local long form: Republica del Peru
    local short form: Peru
    constitutional republic
    name: Lima
    geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
    time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
    note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the the Callao region
    28 July 1821 (from Spain)
    Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
    29 December 1993
    civil law system
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
    chief of state: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant)
    note: Prime Minister Juan Federico JIMENEZ Mayor (since 23 July 2012) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive reelection); presidential and congressional elections last held on 10 April 2011 with runoff election held on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
    election results: Ollanta HUMALA Tasso elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 51.5%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 48.5%
    unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 10 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
    election results: percent of vote by party - Gana Peru 25.3%, Fuerza 2011 23%, PP 14.8%, Alliance for Great Change 14.4%, National Solidarity 10.2%, Peruvian Aprista Party 6.4%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Gana Peru 47, Fuerza 2011 37, PP 21, Alliance for Great Change 12, National Solidarity 9, Peruvian Aprista Party 4; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
    judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years; justices appointed for life or until age 70
    subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; two types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
    Alliance for Great Change (Alianza por el Gran Cambio) (a coalition of the Alliance for Progress, Humanist Party, National Restoration Party, and Popular Christian Party) [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI]
    Fuerza 2011 [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
    Gana Peru (a coalition of Lima Para Todos, Peruvian Communist Party, Peruvian Nationalist Party, and Peruvian Socialist Party) [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]
    National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN (a coalition of Cambio 90, Siempre Unidos, Todos por el Peru, and Union for Peru or UPP) [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]
    Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]
    Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
    General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]
    Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Harold Winston FORSYTH Mejia
    chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
    FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador Rose M. LIKINS
    embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
    mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
    telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
    FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
    three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace
    vicuna (a camelid related to the llama)
    name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)

    lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
    note: adopted 1822; the song won a national contest for an anthem

Economy ::Peru

    Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, the dense forest of the Amazon, with tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. The Peruvian economy has been growing by an average of 6.4% per year since 2002 with a stable/slightly appreciating exchange rate and low inflation, which in 2013 is expected to be below the upper limit of the Central Bank target range of 1 to 3%. Growth has been in the 6-9% range for the last three years, due partly to a leap in private investment, especially in the extractive sector, which accounts for more than 60% of Peru's total exports. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by 23 percentage points since 2002, but inequality persists and continues to pose a challenge for the new Ollanta HUMALA administration, which has championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Peru's free trade policy has continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, and four other countries; concluded negotiations with Venezuela, Costa Rica, and Guatemala; and begun trade talks with two other Central American countries and the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico called the Pacific Alliance that rivals Mercosur in combined population, GDP, and trade. The US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force 1 February 2009, opening the way to greater trade and investment between the two economies. Although Peru has continued to attract foreign investment, political activism and protests are hampering development of some projects related to natural resource extraction.
    $332 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    $312.4 billion (2011 est.)
    $292.2 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $199 billion (2012 est.)
    6.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    6.9% (2011 est.)
    8.8% (2010 est.)
    $10,900 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $10,400 (2011 est.)
    $9,900 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    23.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    23.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
    22.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 61.7%
    government consumption: 10.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 26.6%
    investment in inventories: 0.2%
    exports of goods and services: 25.5%
    imports of goods and services: -24.5%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 6.4%
    industry: 36.3%
    services: 57.3% (2012 est.)
    asparagus, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish
    mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture
    6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    16.2 million
    country comparison to the world: 39
    note: individuals older than 14 years of age (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 0.7%
    industry: 23.8%
    services: 75.5% (2005)
    6.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    7.7% (2011 est.)
    note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment
    27.8% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.4%
    highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)
    46 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    51 (2005)
    revenues: $62.19 billion
    expenditures: $57.9 billion (2012 est.)
    31.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    2.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    16.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    19.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
    calendar year
    3.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    3.4% (2011 est.)
    note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average
    5.05% (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    5.05% (31 December 2011)
    19.23% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    18.69% (31 December 2011 est.)
    note: domestic currency lending rate, 90 day maturity
    $32.66 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    $25.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $73.97 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    $64.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $37.15 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $33.37 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $153.4 billion (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    $121.6 billion (31 December 2011)
    $160.9 billion (31 December 2010)
    -$7.136 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    -$3.341 billion (2011 est.)
    $45.64 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    $46.27 billion (2011 est.)
    copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys
    China 19.7%, US 15.5%, Canada 9.4%, Japan 6.5%, Spain 5.2%, Chile 4.8% (2012)
    $41.11 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    $36.97 billion (2011 est.)
    petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, color TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
    US 24.4%, China 13.9%, Brazil 6.3%, Argentina 5.4%, Chile 4.7%, Ecuador 4.5%, Colombia 4.2% (2012)
    $64.17 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    $48.93 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $52.59 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    $43.52 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    note: public debt component of total: $20.6 billion (31 December 2009)
    $63.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    $51.21 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $3.041 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $3.099 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -
    2.6376 (2012 est.)
    2.7541 (2011 est.)
    2.8251 (2010 est.)
    3.0115 (2009)
    2.91 (2008)

Energy ::Peru

Communications ::Peru

    3.688 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    32.461 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    general assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 12 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
    10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state-owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)
    234,102 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    9.158 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 31

Transportation ::Peru

    191 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    total: 59
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
    914 to 1,523 m: 12
    under 914 m: 5 (2013)
    total: 132
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
    914 to 1,523 m: 30
    under 914 m:
    82 (2013)
    5 (2013)
    extra heavy crude 786 km; gas 1,526 km; liquid petroleum gas 679 km; oil 1,033 km; refined products 15 km (2013)
    total: 1,907 km
    country comparison to the world: 74
    standard gauge: 1,772 km 1.435-m gauge
    narrow gauge: 135 km 0.914-m gauge (2012)
    total: 140,672 km (of which 18,698 km are paved)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (of which 14,748 km are paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved) (2012)
    8,808 km (there are 8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    total: 22
    country comparison to the world: 92
    by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 13
    foreign-owned: 8 (Chile 6, Ecuador 1, Spain 1)
    registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 9) (2010)
    Callao, Iquitos, Matarani, Paita, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
    oil terminals: Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal

Military ::Peru

Transnational Issues ::Peru

    Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
    IDPs: 150,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2011)
    until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 40,000 hectares in 2009, a slight decrease over 2008; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 225 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2009; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption