South Asia :: Pakistan

Introduction ::Pakistan

    The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking small steps to put relations back on track. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control domestic insurgents, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. In January 2012, Pakistan assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.

Geography ::Pakistan

    Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
    30 00 N, 70 00 E
    total: 796,095 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 36
    land: 770,875 sq km
    water: 25,220 sq km
    slightly less than twice the size of California
    total: 6,774 km
    border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
    1,046 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
    flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
    land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
    arable land: 26.02%
    permanent crops: 1.05%
    other: 72.93% (2011)
    199,900 sq km (2008)
    246.8 cu km (2011)
    total: 183.5 cu km/yr (5%/1%/94%)
    per capita: 1,038 cu m/yr (2008)
    frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
    water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

People and Society ::Pakistan

    noun: Pakistani(s)
    adjective: Pakistani
    Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%
    Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
    Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.)
    193,238,868 (July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    0-14 years: 34% (male 33,774,720/female 31,967,787)
    15-24 years: 21.6% (male 21,560,699/female 20,223,691)
    25-54 years: 35.1% (male 35,272,193/female 32,587,417)
    55-64 years: 5% (male 4,767,260/female 4,832,047)
    65 years and over: 4.3% (male 3,877,418/female 4,375,636) (2013 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 61.8 %
    youth dependency ratio: 54.7 %
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.1 %
    potential support ratio: 14.1 (2013)
    total: 22.2 years
    male: 22.2 years
    female: 22.3 years (2013 est.)
    1.52% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    23.76 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    6.69 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    -1.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    urban population: 36.2% of total population (2011)
    rate of urbanization: 2.68% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Karachi 13.125 million; Lahore 7.132 million; Faisalabad 2.849 million; Rawalpindi 2.026 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 832,000 (2009)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
    22.7 (2007 est.)
    260 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    total: 59.35 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 25
    male: 62.56 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 55.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total population: 66.71 years
    country comparison to the world: 167
    male: 64.84 years
    female: 68.66 years (2013 est.)
    2.96 children born/woman (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    27% (2007/08)
    2.2% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    0.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    urban: 96% of population
    rural: 89% of population
    total: 92% of population
    urban: 4% of population
    rural: 11% of population
    total: 8% of population (2010 est.)
    urban: 72% of population
    rural: 34% of population
    total: 48% of population
    urban: 28% of population
    rural: 66% of population
    total: 52% of population (2010 est.)
    0.1% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    98,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    5,800 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
    animal contact disease: rabies
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    5.5% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    30.9% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    2.4% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 54.9%
    male: 68.6%
    female: 40.3% (2009 est.)
    total: 8 years
    male: 8 years
    female: 7 years (2011)
    total: 7.7%
    country comparison to the world: 121
    male: 7%
    female: 10.5% (2008)

Government ::Pakistan

    conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
    conventional short form: Pakistan
    local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
    local short form: Pakistan
    former: West Pakistan
    federal republic
    name: Islamabad
    geographic coordinates: 33 41 N, 73 03 E
    time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab, Sindh
    note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
    14 August 1947 (from British India)
    Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
    12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored 15 December 2007; last amended 28 February 2012
    common law system with Islamic law influence
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal; note - there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
    chief of state: President Mamnoon HUSSAIN (since 9 September 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF (since 5 June 2013)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
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    elections: president elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister selected by the National Assembly
    election results: Mamnoon HUSSAIN elected president; Mamnoon HUSSAIN 432 votes, Wajihuddin AHMED 77 votes
    bicameral parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; members serve five-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 2 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2015); National Assembly - last held on 11 May 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 41, PML-N 14, ANP 12, JUI-F 7, MQM 7, PML-Q 5, BNP-A 4, NPP 1, PML-F 1, independents 12; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party as of June 2013) - PML-N 126, PPPP 31, PTI 28, MQM 18, JUI-F 10, PML-F 5, other 22, independents 25, unfilled seats 7; 60 seats reserved for women, 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by an 8-member Majlis-e-Shoora (parliamentary) Committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission (a 9-member body of several judges and other judicial professionals), and appointed by the president of Pakistan; justices can serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues such as taxation, banking, customs, etc.
    Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]
    Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A
    Balochistan National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]
    Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M
    Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Syed Munawar HASAN]
    Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP
    Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]
    Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazl-ur REHMAN]
    Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]
    Jamiat-i Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Abul Khair ZUBAIR]
    Millat-e-Jafferia [Allama Sajid NAQVI]
    Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]
    National Peoples Party or NPP
    Pakhtun-khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]
    Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]
    Pakistan Muslim League-Quaid-i Azam or PML-Q [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]
    Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]
    Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]
    Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDARI, co-chairman]
    Pakistan Peoples Party-S [Aftab Ahmad SHERPAO]
    Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]
    Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]
    note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
    other: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
    ADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador (acting) Asad KHAN
    chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
    FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (CA)
    consulate(s): Chicago, Houston
    chief of mission: Ambassador Richard OLSON
    embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
    mailing address: 8100 Islamabad Pl., Washington, DC 20521-8100
    telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000
    FAX: [92] (51) 227-6427
    consulate(s) general: Karachi
    consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar
    green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
    star and crescent
    name: "Qaumi Tarana" (National Anthem)

    lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA
    note: adopted 1954; the anthem is also known as "Pak sarzamin shad bad" (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)

Economy ::Pakistan

    Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of Pakistan's export earnings, and Pakistan's failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Official unemployment is under 6%, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high. Over the past few years, low growth and high inflation, led by a spurt in food prices, have increased the amount of poverty - the UN Human Development Report estimated poverty in 2011 at almost 50% of the population. Inflation has worsened the situation, climbing from 7.7% in 2007 to almost 12% for 2011, before declining to 10% in 2012. As a result of political and economic instability, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis. Although the economy has stabilized since the crisis, it has failed to recover. Foreign investment has not returned, due to investor concerns related to governance, energy, security, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas workers, averaging about $1 billion a month since March 2011, remain a bright spot for Pakistan. However, after a small current account surplus in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan's current account turned to deficit in fiscal year 2012, spurred by higher prices for imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. Pakistan remains stuck in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3% per year from 2008 to 2012. Pakistan must address long standing issues related to government revenues and energy production in order to spur the amount of economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, more than half of which is under 22. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare, adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, and reducing dependence on foreign donors.
    $523.9 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    $505.3 billion (2011 est.)
    $490.4 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $231.9 billion (2012 est.)
    3.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    3% (2011 est.)
    3.1% (2010 est.)
    $2,900 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    $2,900 (2011 est.)
    $2,900 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    11.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    11.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
    14.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 87.3%
    government consumption: 8.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 10.9%
    investment in inventories: 1.6%
    exports of goods and services: 12.5%
    imports of goods and services: -20.6%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 20.1%
    industry: 25.5%
    services: 54.4% (2012 est.)
    cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
    textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
    3.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    59.21 million
    country comparison to the world: 10
    note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 45.1%
    industry: 20.7%
    services: 34.2% (2010 est.)
    6.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    5.6% (2011 est.)
    note: substantial underemployment exists
    22.3% (FY05/06 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.9%
    highest 10%: 39.3% (FY05/06)
    30.6 (FY07/08)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    41 (FY98/99)
    revenues: $27.48 billion
    expenditures: $42.15 billion (2012 est.)
    11.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    -6.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    50.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    49.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
    1 July - 30 June
    9.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    11.9% (2011 est.)
    12% (31 January 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    14% (31 December 2010 est.)
    12.41% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    14.12% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $62.29 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    $56.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $76.16 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    $71.36 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    $94.65 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    $86.76 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $32.76 billion (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    $38.17 billion (31 December 2010)
    $33.24 billion (31 December 2009)
    -$4.632 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    $268 million (2011 est.)
    $24.63 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    $26.31 billion (2011 est.)
    textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
    US 13.3%, China 10.9%, UAE 8.6%, Afghanistan 8.5% (2012)
    $39.81 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    $38.85 billion (2011 est.)
    petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
    China 19.8%, Saudi Arabia 12%, UAE 11.9%, Kuwait 6.2% (2012)
    $13.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    $18.09 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $56.19 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    $60.18 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $22.72 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $21.88 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $1.495 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    $1.432 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar -
    93.3952 (2012 est.)
    86.3434 (2011 est.)
    85.194 (2010 est.)
    81.71 (2009)
    70.64 (2008)

Energy ::Pakistan

Communications ::Pakistan

    5.867 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    125 million (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile-cellular networks; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks;
    domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, exceeding 110 million by the end of 2011, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; more than 90 percent of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage and more than half of all Pakistanis have access to a cell phone; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; fixed line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting fixed-line service to rural areas
    international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2011)
    media is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 5 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted; to date 69 foreign satellite channels are operational; the state-owned radio network operates more than 40 stations; nearly 100 commercially licensed privately owned radio stations provide programming mostly limited to music and talk shows (2007)
    365,813 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    20.431 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 20

Transportation ::Pakistan

    151 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    total: 108
    over 3,047 m: 15
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
    914 to 1,523 m: 20
    under 914 m: 10 (2013)
    total: 43
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 9
    under 914 m:
    24 (2013)
    23 (2013)
    gas 12,646 km; oil 2,576 km; refined products 1,087 km (2013)
    total: 7,791 km
    country comparison to the world: 27
    broad gauge: 7,479 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 312 km 1.000-m gauge (2007)
    total: 260,760 km
    country comparison to the world: 20
    paved: 180,910 km (includes 711 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 79,850 km (2007)
    total: 11
    country comparison to the world: 110
    by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3
    registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 5, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 1, Panama 3, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1) (2010)
    Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim

Military ::Pakistan

Transnational Issues ::Pakistan

    various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps
    refugees (country of origin): 2.9 million (1.9 million registered, 1 million undocumented ) (Afghanistan) (2013)
    IDPs: 758,000 (primarily includes IDPs who remain displaced by conflict in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province that peaked in 2009) (2013)
    significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests