Europe :: Romania

Introduction ::Romania

    The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography ::Romania

    Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
    46 00 N, 25 00 E
    total: 238,391 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 83
    land: 229,891 sq km
    water: 8,500 sq km
    slightly smaller than Oregon
    total: 2,508 km
    border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
    225 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
    central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
    lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
    highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
    petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
    arable land: 37.73%
    permanent crops: 1.86%
    other: 60.41% (2011)
    6,153 sq km (2007)
    211.9 cu km (2011)
    total: 6.88 cu km/yr (22%/61%/17%)
    per capita: 320.8 cu m/yr (2009)
    earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
    soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

People and Society ::Romania

Government ::Romania

    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Romania
    local long form: none
    local short form: Romania
    name: Bucharest
    geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
    9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
    Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
    8 December 1991; revised 29 October 2003
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004); note - President BASESCU has twice been temporarily suspended since assuming his post: first from 20 April-23 May 2007, second from 6 July-27 August 2012; he survived a national recall referendum on both occasions
    head of government: Prime Minister Victor-Viorel PONTA (since 7 May 2012)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 November 2009 with runoff on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in November-December 2014); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
    election results: Traian BASESCU reelected president; percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 50.3%, Mircea GEOANA 49.7%
    bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (176 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (412 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 60.1%, ARD 16.7%, PP-DD 14.6%, UDMR 5.3%, other 3.3%; seats by alliance/party - USL 122, ARD 24, PP-DD 21, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 58.6%, ARD 16.5%, PP-DD 14%, UDMR 5.2%, ethnic minorities 2.6%, other 3.1%; seats by alliance/party - USL 273, ARD 56, PP-DD 47, UDMR 18, ethnic minorities 18
    highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 11 judges); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, an 11-member body mostly of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 3-year renewable terms; Supreme Constitutional Court members appointed - 6 by Parliament and 3 by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
    Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
    Civic Force or FC [Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU]
    Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR)
    Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Vasile BLAGA] (formerly Democratic Party)
    Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
    National Liberal Party or PNL [Crin ANTONESCU]
    National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA]
    People's Party - Dan Diaconescu or PP-DD [Dan DIACONESCU]
    Right Romania Alliance or ARD [Vasile BLAGA, Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU, and Aurelian PAVELESCU] (a center-right electoral alliance that includes PDL, FC, PNT-CD)
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor-Viorel PONTA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)
    Social Liberal Union or USL [Victor PONTA and Crin ANTONESCU] (an alliance of the PSD, PNL, UNPR, and PC)
    other: various human rights and professional associations
    chief of mission: Ambassador Adrian Cosmin VIERITA
    chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Duane BUTCHER
    embassy: Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118
    mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
    telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
    FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
    note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
    golden eagle
    name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)

    lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
    note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution

Economy ::Romania

    Romania, which joined the European Union on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Domestic consumption and investment fueled strong GDP growth, but led to large current account imbalances. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania''s widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment. Inflation rose in 2007-08, driven by strong consumer demand, high wage growth, rising energy costs, a nation-wide drought, and a relaxation of fiscal discipline. As a result of the increase in fiscal and current account deficits and the global financial crisis, Romania signed on to a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders. Worsening international financial markets, as well as a series of drastic austerity measures implemented to meet Romania''s obligations under the IMF-led bail-out agreement contributed to a GDP contraction of 6.6% in 2009, followed by a 1.1% GDP contraction in 2010. The economy returned to positive growth in 2011 due to strong exports, a better than expected harvest, and weak domestic demand. In 2012, however, growth slowed to less than 1%, partially due to slackening export demand and an extended drought that resulted in an exceptionally poor harvest. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary stand-by agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability. The Romanian authorities announced that they do not intend to draw funds under the agreement.
    $277.9 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $277 billion (2011 est.)
    $271.1 billion (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    $169.4 billion (2012 est.)
    0.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    2.2% (2011 est.)
    -1.1% (2010 est.)
    $13,000 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    $13,000 (2011 est.)
    $12,600 (2010 est.)
    note: data are in 2012 US dollars
    23.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    22.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
    21.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
    household consumption: 71.5%
    government consumption: 6.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 26.7%
    investment in inventories: 0.3%
    exports of goods and services: 40%
    imports of goods and services: -45.2%
    (2012 est.)
    agriculture: 7.5%
    industry: 33%
    services: 59.5% (2011 est.)
    wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
    electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
    -0.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    9.252 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    agriculture: 31.6%
    industry: 21.1%
    services: 47.3% (2010)
    5.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    7.5% (2011 est.)
    22.2% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.7%
    highest 10%: 19.8% (2011 est.)
    33.2 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    30 (2003)
    revenues: $55.69 billion
    expenditures: $59.95 billion (2012 est.)
    32.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    -2.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    37.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    32.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
    note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
    calendar year
    3.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    5.8% (2011 est.)
    5.25% (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    5.75% (31 December 2011)
    11.33% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    12.12% (31 December 2011 est.)
    $26.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    $25.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $63.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    $63.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $82.69 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    $82.73 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $29.56 billion (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    $21.2 billion (31 December 2011)
    $32.38 billion (31 December 2010)
    -$7.488 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    -$7.747 billion (2011 est.)
    $58.11 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    $62.68 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles and footwear, chemicals, agricultural products, minerals and fuels
    Germany 18.9%, Italy 12.3%, France 7.1%, Turkey 5.5%, Hungary 5.5% (2012)
    $67.54 billion (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    $73.12 billion (2011 est.)
    machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels and minerals, metals, textile and products, agricultural products
    Germany 17.5%, Italy 11%, Hungary 9.1%, France 5.7%, Russia 4.4%, Poland 4.3%, Austria 4.2%, Kazakhstan 4.1% (2012)
    $46.67 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    $48.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $132.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    $129.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $75.46 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    $73.97 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.727 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    $2.61 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    lei (RON) per US dollar -
    3.4682 (2012 est.)
    3.0486 (2011 est.)
    3.1779 (2010 est.)
    3.0493 (2009)
    2.5 (2008)

Energy ::Romania

Communications ::Romania

    4.68 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    23.4 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
    domestic: more than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2011)
    a mixture of public and private TV stations; the public broadcaster operates multiple stations; roughly 100 private national, regional, and local stations; more than 75% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems that provide access to Romanian, European, and international stations; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations; more than 100 private radio stations (2008)
    2.667 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    7.787 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 37

Transportation ::Romania

    45 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    total: 26
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 19
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m:
    14 (2013)
    2 (2013)
    gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)
    total: 10,785 km
    country comparison to the world: 21
    broad gauge: 135 km 1.524-m gauge
    standard gauge: 10,645 km 1.435-m gauge (4,002 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 5 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)
    total: 82,386 km (does not include urban roads)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    paved: 71,154 km (includes 371 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 11,232 km (2009)
    1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    total: 5
    country comparison to the world: 127
    by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
    foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1)
    registered in other countries: 31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)
    Braila, Constanta, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Midia, Tulcea

Military ::Romania

Transnational Issues ::Romania

    the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
    stateless persons: 248 (2012)
    major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos